第三章 状语从句 第一节 基本知识与基本概念 【什么是状语从句?】 状语一般指的是在句子中起着副词作用的成分。 顾名思义, 状语从句就是在句子中像副 词那样修饰主句的从句。在实际使用中,状语从句一般可以分为:时间、地点、条件、原因、 结果、目的、让步、比较、方式状语从句等。 【状语从句的基本出题思路】 状语从句主要考查的是考生准确地判断主句和从句之间关系的能力。 即考生应该能准确地 定位该从句是何种状语从句,进而准确地选择适当的选项。 如: I always take some money with me I got fined on the road. A. so that B. in case C. before D. where 答案:B。 解析:这是一个典型的状语从句的考题。四个选项中,A 表示的是目的, “为了” 是条件, ;B “以防” 是时间, ;C “在…之前” ;D 是地点。题干的意思是“我带 一点钱,以防在路上挨罚。 ”所以答案应该是 B。 从这个典型题上可以看出,状语从句题目的关键在于两个坎,其一是翻译,即能够准确地翻 译题干的能力;其二是记忆,即准确地记住每一个连接词的意义和功能。二者缺一不可。可 以看作是解决状语从句题目的金钥匙。 【高考在状语从句上考查得重点】 从2000年到2006年, 全国各地的高考单项选择题中, 状语从句一直是一个很 稳定的考点,复现率几乎是100%。从题目的数量上看,时间状语从句等几个是绝对“主 力” 。请看下表: 时间状语从句 让步状语从句 条件状语从句 原因状语从句 地点状语从句 目的状语从句 比较状语从句 结果状语从句 23 17 12 7 6 4 1 1
我们基本上可以看出,考查比较多的状语从句多是引导词特别丰富多彩的从句。因此, 我们学习的重点也应该放在这些引导词多变的从句上。对一些重点地引导词给予特别的注 意。 【时间状语从句的引导词】 after, before, once, since, till, until, when, whenever, while, as soon as, immediately, directly, instantly, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant, the day, the year, every time, each time, by the time, next time, last time, the first time, no sooner…than, hardly… when, scarcely… when, barely…when. 【让步状语从句的引导词】 though, although, as, even if, even though, granting (that), granted (that), admitting (that), for all that, in spite of the fact that, despite the fact that, regardless of the fact that, while, wh-ever, no matter wh-, whether…or 【条件状语从句的引导词】 if, unless, only if, provide/ providing/ provided(that) “假如”, in case(that)= in the event that“如果”,so long as = as long as, on condition that = on the understanding that“条件
是”,suppose = supposing“如果”, once 等。 【原因状语从句的引导词】 because, since, as, now (that), in that, seeing (that), considering (that), on the ground that, by reason that, for the reason that, for fear that, on account of the fact that, in view of the fact that, because of the fact that, due to the fact that, owing to the fact that, not that…but that 【地点状语从句的引导词】 where, wherever, anywhere, everywhere 【目的状语从句的引导词】 so that, in order that, lest, for fear that, in case 【比较状语从句的引导词】 as…as, (not) so …as, more…than, the more…,the more… 【结果状语从句的引导词】 so…that, that such (a/an)…that, so that, that, with the result that such that, to such an extent that, to such a degree that, as far as, so/as far as 【方式状语从句的引导词】 as, as if, as though, the way (that/ in which), how 第二节 考点分类解析 【考点一:when, while, as 的区别问题】 三者都有“当…时候”之意。但 when 后面既可以跟瞬间性动词,也可以跟延续性动词; while 和 as 后面都只能跟延续性动词, while 侧重于两种情况的对比而 as 则强调的是两个 且 动作同步进行。如: I was reading a book when my father came in. I was reading a book while my wife was preparing dinner. Tom sang a popular song as he went home. 【考点二:名词作连词用引导时间状语从句的问题】 the moment, the minute, the second, the instant, the day, the year, every time, each time, by the time, next time, last time, the first time 等名词经常可以作连词用引导时间状语从句。如: I gave her the money I owed her the moment I met her. He was reading some book every time I saw him. Your uncle will have left for New York by the time you arrive. Jack was pretty fat the last time we saw each other. 【考点三:副词作连词用引导时间状语从句的问题】 immediately, directly, instantly 等副词经常被用作连词来引导时间状语从句, 意思与 “as soon as”相似。如: The girl rushed into the room immediately she heard the shout. Mike drove home to watch the live game instantly he finished his work. 【考点四:hardly…when…与 no sooner… than…的区别问题】 这两个结构的意思相同,都有“as soon as”的意思。不过,需要注意的有两个细节:一、 当 hardly 和 no sooner 放在句首时,后面应该跟上过去完成时的倒装结构。二、后面的 when 和 than 不能互换。这一点需要死记硬背。 另外,hardly…when…还有几个变体,scarcely… when, barely…when,意思何用法完全一 致。如: We had hardly begun when we were told to stop. (不倒装结构)
Hardly had we begun when we were told to stop. (倒装结构) No sooner had we begun than we were told to stop. 【考点五:与 since 有关的考点问题】 since 在引导时间状语从句时,一般指的是“从过去的某一点时间以来”的概念。所以, 从句常用一般过去时,主句常用一般时态或完成时态。如: I have never seen him again since he left here. You hometown has changed a lot since you last saw it. It is years since I enjoyed myself so much. It is five years since he drove a plane. 如果是表示到过去某一时间前的情况,则主句用过去时,从句用过去完成时。如: It was quite a long time since they had got to know each other. It was only a few months since he wife passed away. 还有一个非常令同学们挠头的问题,就是 since 引导的时间状语从句中不用瞬间性动词, 而用延续性动词,这时候的翻译就是问题了。如: How long is it since you smoked? 你不抽烟多长时间了? It is quite a few years since he was married. 他离婚已有好几年了。 It is almost ten years since I studied in that university. 我从那所大学毕业已经快有 10 年了。 It is twenty years since I was a soldier, so I don’t know how to use a gun now. 我退役都 20 年了,所以都不会用枪了。 【考点六:before 作连词用的问题】 before 作介词的用法大家一般都没有什么问题.它在作连词时表示时间上 “在…之前”。 经 常翻译成 “…才…”或 “…就…”.有时候也有可能翻译成 “不愿”,相当于 rather than”。 如: The thief rushed off the bus before the policeman caught him. 警察还没来得及抓住他,小偷就窜下了汽车。 The girl waited for more than 3 hours before the man turned up. 姑娘等了3个多小时小伙子才露面。 It will be more than a decade before everything returns to normal. 要再过十几年一切才能恢复正常。 Let me tell you the news before I forget. 趁我还没忘记,告诉你点消息。 I would shoot myself before I apologize to him. 我宁死也不向他道歉。 【考点七:与 until 相关的考点问题】 一、not…until 结构: He didn’t appear until the concert ended. Mary didn’t get married until she was in her thirties. 二、not… until 结构的倒装句: Not until the concert ended did he appear. Not until she was in her thirties did Mary get married. 三、not … until 结构的倒装句的强调句型: It was not until the concert ended that he appeared. It was not until she was in her thirties that Mary got married.
【考点八:for 用作连词的问题】 because, since, as, for 均可以引导时间状语从句。但有其细微的区别。 Because 表示直接原因,回答 why 提出的问题;一般放在主句之后,也可单独存在。 如: We didn’t come on time because our car broke down on the way. They stayed at home because the weather was not suitable for a picnic. Since 则侧重于主句,从句表示显然的或已知的理由,经常翻译成“既然” 。如: Since everyone is here, let get started. Since you have known everything, I will shut up. As 一般可以被看作是 because 的非正式语气用词。用法和 because 差不多。如: As it was late, I have to go. For 多表示附加或推断的理由,引导的分句前常有逗号,且通常不放在句首。如: It must be very late, for the street is empty. It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet. He must have passed the test, for he is all smiles today. The day breaks, for the birds are singing. 【考点九:when 引导条件状语从句的问题】 when 在引导从句时,一般都表示时间。但也有一些考题考查它表示条件的一面,这时, 它的意思是: “既然;考虑到” ,差不多等于 since, considering that。如: How can they learn anything when they spend all their spare time watching television? Why do you want a new car when you have such an expensive one? 【考点十:结果状语从句用 so…that 还是用 such…that 的问题】 在二者修饰可数名词单数时,大家一般都没有问题,因为,这时我们有不定冠词 a 作为 提示,如: This is such a beautiful watch that we all love it. This is so beautiful a watch that we all love it. 但是, 当他们修饰的可数名词复数或不可数名词时, 就没有这个 a 来作参照物了。 这时, 一律用 such。如: It was such good weather that we decided to camp in the mountains. They are such perfect books that many people are rushing to buy them. 当然,还有例外,那就是当名词前的限定词是 many, much, few, little(少)时,用 so。如: He had so many friends here that it was impossible to invite everyone. It is pretty shocking to see that in such a rich country there should be so many beggars. There was so much pressure on his mind that he suffered insomnia(失眠症). 【考点十一:as 引导让步状语从句的问题】 as 引导让步状语从句时,句子顺序比较特殊:词+as(though)+主语+谓语,.。这个 .. “词” ,可以是非常丰富的:名词、形容词、动词、副词等。值得一提的是,如果是可数名 词单数放在前面,一般不用不定冠词。如: Girl as she is, she is very aggressive. =Although she is a girl, …. Young as he is, he has made many major discoveries. = Although he is young, …. Hard as you may try, you can never beat him. = Although you may try hard, …. Try as you may, you can never beat him. = Although you may try, …. 注意:这个句型中的 as 都可以换成 though,但不是 although。 【考点十二:while 引导让步状语从句的问题】
while 在引导不同的从句时有着不同的意思和功能。 在正式的书面文体中,while 经常被 用来代替 although 引导让步状语从句。如: While I admit that there are problems, I don’t agree that they can’t be solved. While teaching seems easy to do, it is fairly difficult to be a qualified teacher.
第三节 巩固练习 (一)【夯实基础】 、
  1. Was his father very strict with him when he was at school? (2003 春/北京) Yes. He had never praised him he became one of the top students in his grade. A. after B. unless C. until D. when
  2. Someone called me up in the middle of the night, but they hung up I could answer the phone. (2000 NMET) A. as B. since C. until D. before
  3. Did you remember to give Mary the money you owed her? (2001 春/北京) Yes, I gave it to her I saw her. A. while B. the moment C. suddenly D. once
  4. The man will have to wait all day the doctor works faster. (2001 春/北京) A. if B. unless C. whether D. that
  5. I thought her nice and honest I met her. (1998 上海) A. first time B. for the first time C. the first time D. by the first time
  6. John shut everybody out of the kitchen he could prepare his grand surprise.(2002 ) A. which B. when C. so that D. as if
  7. What was the party like? Wonderful. It’s years I enjoyed myself so much.(19
  93) A. after B. when C. before D. since
  8. John plays football , if not better than, David. A. as well B. as well as C. so well D. so well as
  9. Mother was worried because little Alice was ill, especially Father was away in France. A. as B. that C. during D. if
  10. If we work with a strong will, we can overcome any difficulty, great it is. A. what B. how C. however D. whatever
  11. I’m going to the post office. you’re there, can you get me some stamps? (19
  99) A. As B. While C. Because D. If
  12. My uncle until he was fo
 

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