高考各种知识点总结
have sth to do 还是 have sth to be done
“Do you have anything , Professor Smith?” “No, thanks.” A. to type B. typing C. to be typed D. being typed
根据 I have something to type. I have a letter to write. He has some clothes to wash. 等相关 句式类推,许多同学毫不犹豫地选择了 A 答案,但是错了,最佳答案应是 C。确实,在“have+宾语+不 定式”结构中,用作定语的不定式通常用主动式表示被动含义,如 I have a letter to write 之类的,按 理说其中的 a letter 与其后的不定式之类的,按理说其中的 to write 具有被动关系,即“信”应该是“被 写”,但这里却习惯上用主动式表示这个被动意义。不过同学们还要注意一点,就是这类句型的主语与其后 的不定式具有主动关系,如 I have a letter to write. 中的 to write 就是由该句主语 I 来完成的。而 上面一题的情形则稍有不同,即其中的 to type 这一动作不是由句子主语 to type you (在此指 Professor Smith)来完成的,而是由说话者“我”来完成的,句意为“史密斯教授,你有什么文件要我打字 吗?”请再看一例: I’m going to Beijing next week. Do you have anything to be taken to your son? 我下个星期要 去北京,你有什么东西要带给你儿子的吗?
句中的 to be taken 用了被动式而没用主动式,原因就是“带”这个动作不是句子主语 you 去完成的,而 是由说话者“我”来完成的。 比较下面的句子: Are you going to Beijing? Do you have anything to take to your son? 你要去北京吗?你有什么东西要带给你儿子吗?
I’m going to Beijing next week. I have a lot of things to take with me. 下个星期我要去北京, 我随身要带很多东西去。
what he could to do 考题的应对策略
The soldiers tried their best and did what they could against the flood.
A. fight
B. to fight
C. fighting
D. fought
有的同学一看到空格前的情态动词 could 就断定此处应填动词原形 fight, 即断定选 A 答案。 其实选错了, 正确答案应是 BA。这是一个省略句,即在 could 后省略了动词 do,若把句子补完整应为 The soldiers
tried their best and did what they could do to fight against the flood (士兵们竭尽全力抗洪)。即 句中的不定式短语 (to fight against the flood) 用作目的状语的,而不是与情态动词(could)一起构成 谓语。请再看类似例句:
(
  1) He did what he could to help us. 他尽力帮助我们。(
  2) He saved what he could to buy a car. 他尽量节约每一分钱以便买车。(
  3) He ran as fast as he could to catch the early bus. 他拼命地跑 以便赶上早班车。 至此,有的同学可能又会想当然地认为,今后只要遇到类似结构的题选带 to 不定式就万事大吉了,但也不 一定,例外还是有的,还得具体问题具体分析。请看下例:
(
  4) He ran as fast as he could to catch the early bus. A. to hope B. hope C. hoping D. hoped
若根据以上“经验”认为此题要选 A 答案, 那就又错了。 此题应选 C, 其中的现在分词短语 hoping to catch the early bus 用作伴随状语。
(
  5) He spent every minute he could spoken English. A. practise B. to practise C. practising D. practised
【分析】此题应选 C,它与以上各题的情形均有所不同,虽然与上面的第(
  4)题的答案一样,均为动词的 ?ing 形式,但也不完全一样:第(
  4) ?ing 的 hoping 为现在分词,在句中用作伴随状语;而此题的 practising 是动名词,之所以用它与前面动词 spent 的搭配有关,即 spend … (in) doing sth。
(
  6) Mr Smith made up his mind to devote all he could his oral English before going abroad. A. improveA.B. to improve C. improving D. to improving
【分析】此题答案选 D,注意两点:一是 devote … to … 是固定搭配,意为“把……贡献给……”;二是其 中的 to 是介词,不是不定式符号,后接动词时要用动名词
very impossible 还是 quite impossible
请看下面一道题: he said at the meeting the other day was impossible.
A. That, very
B. That, quite
C. What, very
D. What, quite
【分析】此题应选 D,但容易误选 C,第一空填 what,用作动词 said 的宾语,这是对的;但第二空按
汉语意思填 very,表示“很不可能”,这是不对的。按照英语习惯,修饰那些表示极限”(limit)意义的形容 词(如:impossible, empty, full, certain, sure, right, wrong, enough, alone 等) ,不宜用 very, 而用 quite。 quite 有两个主要意思: 注: 一是表示程度, 意为“相当”、 “还算”“用法与 fairly, very, rather 一样,只是程度或语气不同),此时主要修饰那些可以显示出程度的形容词或副词;二是表示极限(limit), 意为“完全地”、“全然地”等,此时主要修饰那些没有程度差异的形容词或副词。
现在进行时表示将来意义
现在进行时主要表示现在或目前正在进行的动作:
We're having a meeting. 我们在开会。 My head is aching. 我头很疼。 Where is she teaching? 她在哪儿教书? She's spending the summer at the seaside. 她在海边度暑假。
另外,现在进行时还可表示将来,主要用于表示按计划或安排要发生的动作。如:
I'm leaving tomorrow. 我明天走。 They're getting married next month. 他们下个月结婚。 Are you meeting Bill this evening? 你今晚将和比尔见面吗?
能这样用的动词不多,常用的有:arrive, come, do, get, go, have, leave, meet, play, return, see, spend, start, stay, wear, work 等。
顺便说一句,我们除可用现在进行时表将来外,还可用一般现在时表将来,两者的区别是:用现在进行时 表示将来,其计划性较强,并往往暗示一种意图;而一般现在时表示将来,则其客观性较强,即通常被视 为客观事实,多指按时刻表或规定要发生的情况。
比较:I'm not going out this evening. 今晚我不准备出去。 What time does the train leave? 火车什么时候开?
如果主语是 train, concert, programme 等表示事物的名词,动词通常一般现在时表将来,而不用进行 时。如: What time does the train leave? 火车什么时候开? The program begins at
  4. 这个节目四点开始。
谈谈“动词 宾语 不定式”结构 谈谈 动词+宾语 不定式 结构 动词 宾语+不定式
“动词+宾语+不定式”是英语中一个十分有用的结构,不仅是考试中的重要考点,而且在口语中也用得非常 广泛。可用于该结构的常用动词有 advise, allow, ask, bear, beg, cause, command, encourage, expect, forbid, force, get, hate, help, intend, invite, leave, like, mean, need, oblige, order, permit, persuade, prefer, request, remind, teach, tell, trouble, want, warn, wish 等。
如:I hate women to smoke. 我不喜欢女人抽烟
The doctor advised me to take a complete rest. 医生建议我完全休息。
He didn’t allow the students to go there. 他没让学生们去那儿。
The cold weather caused the plants to die. 天气寒冷冻死了植物。
He ordered the work to be started at once. 他命令马上开始工作。
We expected him to arrive yesterday. 我们原认为他昨天会到的。
We invited him to take part in the celebration. 我们邀请他一起参加庆祝会。
The doctor warned him not to smoke. 医生告诫他不要抽烟。
My parents encouraged me to study abroad. 父母鼓励我出国留学。
They forced her to sign [into signing] the paper. 他们强迫她在文件上签字。
He persuaded his wife to change her mind. 他说服他妻子改变了主意。
值得注意的是,汉语中许多“……某人做某事”的情形不能想当然地用此结构来翻译,下面是一些典型的例 子: ◆汉语可说“害怕某人做某事”, 但英语不说 fear sb to do sth。 如: 我害怕他会发现我们。 误: fear I him to find us. 正:I fear that he will find us.
◆汉语可说“原谅某人做某事”,但英语不说 excuse [forgive] sb to do sth。如:请原谅我没有早点给 你回信。误:Excuse me not to answer your letter earlier.误:Excuse me not to have answered your letter earlier.正:Excuse me for not answering your letter earlier.正:Excuse me for not having answered your letter earlier.正: Excuse my not answering your letter earlier.正: Excuse my not having answered your letter earlier.
◆汉语可说“拒绝某人做某事”,但英语不说 refuse sb to do sth。如:他拒绝我使用他的自行车。误: He refused me to use his bike.正:He refused to let me use his bike. 正: He didn’t allow me to use his bike.
◆汉语可说“惩罚某人做某事”,但英语不说 punish sb to do sth。如:老师罚他扫地。误:The teacher punished him to sweep the floor.正:The teacher punished him by requiring him to sweep the floor.
◆汉语可说““建议某人做某事”, 但英语不说 suggest sb to do sth。 他妻子建议他戒烟。 His wife 如: 误: suggested him to give up smoking.正:His wife suggested that he (should) give up smoking. 正:His wife suggested his [him] giving up smoking. 正:His wife advised him to give up smoking.
◆汉语可说“同意某人做某事”, 但英语不说 agree sb to do sth。 他们同意我做这事。 They agreed 如: 误: me to do it.正:They agreed to let me do it.正:They agreed to my doing it.
◆汉语可说“通知某人做某事”,但英语不说 inform sb to do sth。如:我已通知他们马上离开。误:I've informed them to leave at once. them that they must leave at once. 正:I've told them to leave at once.正:正:I've informed
◆汉语可说“欢迎某人做某事”, 但英语不说 welcome sb to do sth。 欢迎你们来我们学校。 Welcome 误: you to come to our school.正:Welcome to our school.让我们欢迎史密斯先生讲话。New Roman'"><误:Let’s welcome Mr Smith to speak.正:Let’s welcome Mr Smith and ask him to speak.
◆汉语可说“坚持某人做某事”, 但英语不说 insist sb to do sth。 他坚持要我留在那儿。 He insisted 如: 误: me to stay there. 误:He insisted on me to stay there. 正:He insisted on my staying there. 正:He insisted that I (should) stay there.
◆汉语可说“希望某人做某事”,但英语不说 hope sb to do sth。如:他希望他所有的学生都能考上大学。 误:He hopes all of his students to pass the college entrance examinations.正:He hopes for all of his students to pass the college entrance examinations.New Roman'; mso-ascii-font-family: ' 正:He wishes all of his students to pass the college entrance examinations.正: hopes that all of his students can pass the college entrance examinations. He
◆汉语可说“安排某人做某事”,但英语不说 arrange sb to do sth。如:我已安排他去参加会议。误:I've arranged him to attend the meeting.正:I've arranged for him to attend the meeting.正:I've arranged that he (should) attend the meeting.◆汉语可说“要求某人做某事”,但英语不说 demand sb to do sth。如:他要求我把一切都告诉他。误:He demanded me to tell him everything.正: He demanded of me to tell him everything.正:He demanded that I should tell him everything. ◆汉语可说“感谢某人做某事”,但英语不说 thank sb to do sth。如:感谢你的邀请。误:Thank you to invite me.正:Thank you for inviting me.注:I'll thank you to do sth 可表示“求你做某事”、“你…… 好不好”(用作反语)。如:I'll thank you to be quiet while I'm speaking. 我讲话时请你安静点好不好。 ◆汉语可说“祝贺某人做某事”,但英语不说 congratulate sb to do sth。如:他写信祝贺她当选为劳模。 误:He wrote to congratulate her to be chosen as a modern worker.正:He wrote to congratulate her on being chosen as a modern worker.
seem to be 后 to be 的省略问题
在英语所有的连系动词中, 除了 be 这个最常见的外, seem 应该算是最常见的连系动词之一。 而对于 seem 的用法,许多同学有个误解,就是以为 seem 后接表语时,表语前可随意地加上 to be,也可随意地去掉 to be。其实,seem 后 to be 的省略和保留有不少讲究和值得注意的地方,本文归纳以下五种情况,供同 学们参考。
一、后接形容词时一、后接形容词时当 seem 后接形容词作表语时,如果谈的是客观事实,即看上去肯定 是真实的东西,通常用 seem to be;如果谈的是主观印象,则通常只用 seem。但由于这种区别在没有 上下文的情况下并不总是很清楚,所以在许多情况下两个结构均可以用。如:He seems (to be) ill. 他 似乎生病了。He seems (to be) quite happy. 他似乎很高兴。 He seems (to be) quite rich 他似 乎相当富有。She seems (to be) very sleepy today. 今天她看上去很困倦。但在有些情况下,由于其 语境比较特殊,可能用其中一个结构比另一个结构
 

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