高中英语语法解析定语从句 定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,有时也可以修饰部分 或整个句子。 被修饰的名词,词组或代词即先行词。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关 系代词或关系副词)引出。 关系代词有:who, whom, whose, that, which, as。 关系副词有:when, where, why, how。 关系代词和关系副词放在先行词和定语从句之间, 起连接作用, 同时又可做定语从句的 一个成分。当关系代词做宾语时可以省略。 定语从句中的谓语动词必须在人称上和数量上和先行词保持一致。 定语从句分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。 1 、关系代词引导的定语从句
  1) who, whom, that 这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下: Is he the man who/that wants to see you?(who/that 在从句中作主语) He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday.(whom/that 在从句中作宾语)
  2) whose 用来指人或物, (只用作定语,若指物,它还可以同 of which 互换) ,例如: Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green.
  3) which, that 它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词, 在从句中可作主语、 宾语等, 例如: A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. (which / that 在句 中作宾语) The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. (which / that 在句中作 宾语) 关系代词 that 和 which 都可以指物,that 和 Who 都可以指人,其用法区别: 不用 that 的情况: a) 在引导非限定性定语从句时 (错)The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here. b) 介词后不能用 We depend on the land from which we get our food. c) 多用 who 的情况 ①关系代词在从句中做主语 A friend who helps you in time of need is a real friend. ②先行词为 those, people 时 Those who were either fools or unfit for their offices could not see the cloth. ③先行词为 all, anyone, ones, one 指人时 One who doesn't work hard will never succeed in his work. ④在 There be 句型中 There is a stranger who wants to see you. ⑤在被分隔的定语从句中 A new teacher will come tomorrow who will teach you German. ⑥在有两个定语从句的句子中, 其一用 who, 其二用 that,但若先行词后接两个以上的并列定 语从句时,后一个必须重复前一个关系代词。
The student who was praised at the meeting is the monitor that is very modest and studies very hard. There is a teacher who is always ready to help others and who enjoys what he does.
  2) 只能用 that 作为定语从句的关系代词的情况 a)在不定代词,如:anything, nothing, everything, all, much, few, any, little 等作先行词时,只 用 that,不用 which。 All that is needed is a supply of oil. Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. b)先行词有 the only, the very, the just 修饰时,只用 that。 He is the very man that helped the girl out of the water. c)先行词为序数词(the last)、数词、形容词最高级时,只用 that。 The first English book that I read was "The Prince and the Pauper" by Mark Twin. d)先行词既有人,又有物时。 He talked about the teachers and schools that he visited. e)当主句是以 who 或 which 开始的特殊疑问句时,用 that 以避免重复。 Who is the person that is standing at the gate. f)关系代词在从句中做表语 He is not the man that he used to be. 2 、关系副词引导的定语从句 关系副词可代替的先行词是时间、地点、方式或理由的名词,在从句中作状语。 关系副词 when, where, why, how 的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构, 因此常常和"介词+ which" 结构交替使用,例如: There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? I'm surprised the way how (by which) he works out the problem. 注意: ①在非限制性定语从句中,"介词+ which"结构不能代替关系副词。 如:They set up a state for their own , where they would be free to keep Negroes as slaves. ②含有介词短语的动词一般不能拆开,介词仍放在动词后面。 Is this the book which (that) she was looking for?
  3、名词/数词/代词 /形容词最高级 + 介词 + 关系代词引导定语从句 She has written a book , the name of which I have forgotten. There are fifty-five students in our class , all of whom are working hard. There are five continents in the world , the largest of which is Asia.
  4、as, which 引导非限定性定语从句的差别 由 as, which 引导的非限定性定语从句, 和 which 可代整个主句, as 相当于 and this 或 and that。 As 一般放在句首,which 在句中。
As we know, smoking is harmful to one's health. The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us. as 可引导非限制性从句,常带有“正如”的意思。 As is know, smoking is harmful to one's health. 用法区别: (
  1) as 引导的定语从句可置于句首,而 which 不可。 As we all know, he never smokes. (
  2) as 代表前面的整个主句并在从句中作主语时,从句中的谓语必须是系动词;若为行为动 词,则从句中的关系代词只能用 which。 (
  3)非限定性定语从句中出现 expect, think, suppose 等表示猜测、想象、预料等时。 She succeeded in her doing the research work , as we expected. (
  4)As 的用法 the same… as; such…as 中的 as 是一种固定结构, 和……一样……。 I should like to use the same tool as is used here. We should have such a dictionary as he is using. 定语从句语法专项练习习题精选 用适当的关系词填空:
  1. I still remember the night I first came to the house.
  2. I'll never forget the day we met each other last week.
  3. Mr Black is going to Beijing in October, is the best season there.
  4. I will never forget the days I spent with your family.
  5. I'll never forget the last day we spent together.
  6. This is the school I used to study.
  7. Do you still remember the place we visited last week?
  8. Do you still remember the place we visited the painting exhibition?
  9. Have you ever been to Hangzhou,is famous for the West Lake?
  10. Have you ever bee to Hangzhou, lies the West Lake?
  11. Tom will go to Shanghai,live his two brothers.
  12. I live in Beijing,is the capital of China.
  13. There was a time there were slaves in the USA.
  14. It is the third time you have made the same mistake.
  15. It was in the street I met John yesterday.
  16. It was about 600 years agothe first clock with a face and an hour hand was made.
  17. The moment I saw you, I recognized(认出)you.
  18. This is the very novel aboutwe've talked so much.
  19. This is the wayhe did it.
  20. Who is the student was late for school today?
  21. Who knows him wants to make friends with him?
  22. What else was there in my brotheryou didn't like?
  23. He lives in the roomwindow faces to the south.

  24. He lives in the room, the windowfaces to the south.
  25. This is Mr. John forson I brought a book yesterday.
  26. This is Mr. John forI bought a book yesterday.
  27. This is the hourthe place is always full of women and children.
  28. And there is one point I'd like your advice.
  29. Winter is the time of yearthe days are short and nights are long.
  30. I hope you will find this valley a beautiful placeyou may spend your weekend. KEYS:
  1. when
  2. when
  3. which
  4. that/which
  5. that
  6. where
  7. that/which
  8. where
  9. which
  10. where
  11. where
  12. which
  13. when
  14. that
  15. that
  16. that
  17. (that)
  18. which
  19. (that/in which)
  20.that
  21.that 22 that
  23.whose
  24. of which
  25. whose
  26. whom
  27. when
  28. that
  29. that
  30. where
 

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