高考英语语法
句子成分;简单句、 句子成分;简单句、 并列句和复合句
简单句的五种基本句型

  1、主语+系动词 表语:e.g. He is a student. 、主语 系动词 表语: 系动词+表语
  2、主语 不及物动词:e.g. We work. 不及物动词: 、主语+不及物动词
  3、主语+及物动词 宾语:e.g. 、主语 及物动词+宾语: 及物动词 宾语 Henry bought a dictionary.
  4、主语 及物动词 双宾语(间接宾语 直接 及物动词+双宾语 、主语+及物动词 双宾语(间接宾语+直接 宾语): ):e.g. My father bought me a car. 宾语):
  5、主语 及物动词 复合宾语(宾语 宾补): 及物动词+复合宾语 宾补): 、主语+及物动词 复合宾语(宾语+宾补 e.g. Tom made the baby laugh. 注:其他各种句子都可由这一种基本句型扩展、 其他各种句子都可由这一种基本句型扩展、 变化或省略而构成。 变化或省略而构成。
一、句子成分
(一)句子成分的定义: 句子成分的定义:
构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。句子 构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。 成分有主要成分和次要成分; 成分有主要成分和次要成分;主要成分有 主语和谓语;次要成分有表语、宾语、 主语和谓语;次要成分有表语、宾语、定 状语、补足语和同位语。 语、状语、补足语和同位语。
(二)主语: 二 主语 主语:
主语 是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首。 是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首。 但在there be结构、疑问句(当主语不疑 结构、 但在 结构 疑问句( 问词时)和倒装句中,主语位于谓语、 问词时)和倒装句中,主语位于谓语、助 动词或情态动词后面。主语可由名词、 动词或情态动词后面。主语可由名词、代 数词、不定式、动名词、 词、数词、不定式、动名词、名词化的形 容词和主语从句等表示。例如: 容词和主语从句等表示。例如:
During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular.(名词) (名词) We often speak English in class. 代词) (代词) One-third of the students in this class are girls.(数词) (数词)

To swim in the river is a great pleasure. 不定式) (不定式) Smoking does harm to the health. 动名词) (动名词) The rich should help the poor. 名词化的形容词) (名词化的形容词)
When we are going to have an English test has not been decided.(主语从句) (主语从句) It is necessary to master a foreign language. 作形式主语, (it作形式主语,真正的主语为后面的不定 作形式主语 式)
(三)谓语
谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。 谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。 动词在句中作谓语,一般放在主语之后。 动词在句中作谓语,一般放在主语之后。谓语的 构成如下: 构成如下:
  1、简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成。 、简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成。 如:He practices running every morning.
  2、复合谓语:( )由情态动词或其他助动 :(
  1) 、复合谓语:( 词加动词原形构成。 词加动词原形构成。如:You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. (
  2)由系动词加表语构成。如:We are )由系动词加表语构成。 students.
(四)表语
表语用以说明主语的身份、特征和状态, 表语用以说明主语的身份、特征和状态, 它一般位于系动词( 它一般位于系动词(如be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem等)之后。表语一 等 之后。 般由名词、代词、形容词、分词、数词、 般由名词、代词、形容词、分词、数词、 不定式、动名词、介词短语、 不定式、动名词、介词短语、副词及表语 从句表示。例如: 从句表示。例如:
Our teacher of English is an American. 名词) (名词) Is it yours?(代词) (代词) The weather has turned cold.(形容词) (形容词) The speech is exciting.(分词) (分词) Three times seven is twenty one?(数词) (数词)
His job is to teach English.(不定式) (不定式) His hobby(爱好)is playing football. (爱好) (动名词) 动名词) 动名词 The machine must be out of order. 介词短语) (介词短语) Time is up. The class is over.(副词) (副词) The truth is that he has never been abroad. 表语从句) (表语从句)
(五)宾语
宾语表示动作的对象或承爱者,一般位于及物动 宾语表示动作的对象或承爱者, 词和介词后面。例如: 词和介词后面。例如: They went to see an exhibition(展览) (展览) yesterday.(名词) yesterday.(名词) The heavy rain prevented me from coming to school on time.(代词) (代词) How many dictionaries do you have? I have five.(数词) (数词)
They helped the old with their housework yesterday.(名词化形容词) (名词化形容词) He pretended not to see me.(不定式短 ( 语) I enjoy listening to popular music. 动名词短语) (动名词短语) I think(that)he is fit for his office. ( 宾语从句) (宾语从句)

宾语种类:
直接宾语), (
  1)双宾语(间接宾语 直接宾语), )双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语 例如: 例如:Lend me your dictionary, please. 宾补), (
  2)复合宾语(宾语 宾补), )复合宾语(宾语+宾补 例如: 例如:They elected him their monitor.
(六)宾语补足语
英语中有些及物动词,除有一个直接宾语 英语中有些及物动词, 以外,还要有一个宾语补语, 以外,还要有一个宾语补语,才能使句子 的意义完整。 的意义完整。带有宾语补足语的一般句型 某些及物动词( 宾语+宾 为:某些及物动词(如make等+宾语 宾 等 宾语 )。宾补可由名词 形容词、副词、 宾补可由名词、 补)。宾补可由名词、形容词、副词、不 定式、分词、介词短语和从句充当。例如: 定式、分词、介词短语和从句充当。例如:
His father named him Dongming. 名词) (名词) They painted their boat white. 形容词) (形容词) Let the fresh air in.(副词) (副词) You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you.(不定式短语) (不定式短语)
We saw her entering the room. 现在分词) (现在分词) We found everything in the lab in good order.(介词短语) (介词短语) We will soon make our city what your city is now.(从句) (从句)
(七)定语
修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语。定 修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语。 语可由以下等成分表示: 语可由以下等成分表示: Guilin is a beautiful city.(形容词) (形容词) China is a developing country; America is a developed country.(分词) (分词) There are thirty women teachers is our school.(名词) (名词) His rapid progress in English made us surprised.(代词) (代词)
Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom.(不定式短语) (不定式短语) The teaching plan for next term has been worked out.(动名词) (动名词) He is reading an article about how to learn English.(介词短语) (介词短语)
(八)状语
修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说明动作 修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子, 或状态特征的句子成分,叫做状语。 或状态特征的句子成分,叫做状语。可由以下形 式表示 Light travels most quickly. (副词及副词性词组) 副词及副词性词组) He has lived in the city for ten years. (介词短语) 介词短语) He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination. (不定式短语) 不定式短语)
He is in the room making a model plane. 分词短语) (分词短语) Wait a minute.(名词) (名词) Once you begin, you must continue. 状语从句) (状语从句)
状语种类如下: 状语种类如下:
How about meeting again at six? 时间状语) (时间状语) Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain.(原因状语) (原因状语) I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.(条件状语) (条件状语) Mr Smith lives on the third floor.(地点状语) (地点状语) She put the eggs into the basket with great care.(方式状语) (方式状语)
She came in with a dictionary in her hand. 伴随状语) (伴随状语) In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder.(目的状语) (目的状语) He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately.(结果状语) (结果状语) She works very hard though she is old. 让步状语) (让步状语) I am taller than he is.(比较状语) (比较状语)
练习一
一、指出下列句子划线部分是什么句子成分:
  1. The students got on the school bus.
  2. He handed me the newspaper.
  3. I shall answer your question after class.
  4. What a beautiful Chinese painting!
  5. They went hunting together early in the morning.

  6. His job is to train swimmers.
  7. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing.
  8. There is going to be an American film tonight.
  9. He is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow.
  10. His wish is to become a scientist.
  11. He managed to finish the work in time.
  12. Tom came to ask me for advice.
  13. He found it important to master English.

  14. Do you have anything else to say?
  15. To be honest,your pronunciation is not so good.
  16. Would you please tell me your address?
  17. He sat there, reading a newspaper.
  18. It is our duty to keep our classroom clean and tidy.
  19. He noticed a man enter the room.
  20. The apples tasted sweet.
二、用符号划出下列短文各句中的主语(? )、谓语(=)、宾语(~):
I hope you are very well. I'm fine, but tired. Right now it is the summer vacation and I'm helping my Dad on the farm. August is the hottest month here. It is the time of year for the rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark. Sometimes we go on working after dark by the lights of our tractors. We grow rice in the south of the States, but in the north where it is colder they grow wheat. We have a lot of machines on the farm.
Although the farm is large, my Dad has only two men working for him. But he employs more men for the harvest. My brother takes care of the vegetable garden. It doesn't often rain in the summer here. As a result, we have to water the vegetable garden. Every evening we pump water from a well. It then runs along channels to different parts of the garden.
三、用符号划出下列短文各句中的定语(? )、状语(=)、补语(~):
Most Saturday evenings there is a party, even at harvest time. These parties often make us very happy. We cook meat on an open fire outside. It's great! Americans eat a lot of meat ? too much in my opinion. Some of my friends drink beer. I don't, because I have to drive home after the party. In your letter you asked about the time in different areas of the States. There are five different time areas in the States. In my state we are fourteen hours behind Beijing time. How many different time areas do you have in China? Well, I must stop and get some sleep. Please give my best regards to your parents.
四、选择填空:
( )
  1. will leave for Beijing. A. Now there the man B. The man here now C. The man who is here now D. The man is here now ( )
  2. The weather . A. wet and cold B. is wet and cold C. not wet and cold D. were wet and cold ( )
  3. The apple tasted . A. sweets B. sweetly C. nicely D. sweet
( )
  4. He got up yesterday morning. A. lately B. late C. latest D. latter ( )
  5. The actor at the age of
  70. A. dead B. died C. dyed D. deaded ( )
  6. were all very tired, but none of would stop to take a rest. A. We, us B. Us, we C. We, our D. We, we
( )
  7. He found the street much . A. crowd B. crowding C. crowded D. crowdedly ( )
  8.I think necessary to learn English well. A. its B. it C. that D. that is ( )
  9. The dog mad. A. looks B. is looked C. is being looked D. was looked ( )
  10.I will never forget the day I joined the army. A. that B. when C. in which D. where
二、简单句、并列句和复合句 简单句、
(一)句子种类两种分类法
  1、按句子的用途可分四种: 按句子的用途可分四种:
  1)陈述句(肯定、否定):He is six years old; She didn’t hear of you before.
  2)疑问句(一般、特殊、选择、反意):Do they like skating? How old is he? Is he six or seven years old? Mary can swim, can’t she?
  3)祈使句:Be careful, boys; Don’t talk in class
  4)感叹句:How clever the boy is!

  2、按句子的结构可分三种: 按句子的结构可分三种:
  1)简单句:只有一个主语(或并列主语) 和一个谓语(或并列谓语)
 

相关内容

高考英语句子成分??简单句、并列句和复合句

   高考英语语法 句子成分;简单句、 句子成分;简单句、 并列句和复合句 简单句的五种基本句型 1、主语+系动词 表语:e.g. He is a student. 、主语 系动词 表语: 系动词+表语 2、主语 不及物动词:e.g. We work. 不及物动词: 、主语+不及物动词 3、主语+及物动词 宾语:e.g. 、主语 及物动词+宾语: 及物动词 宾语 Henry bought a dictionary. 4、主语 及物动词 双宾语(间接宾语 直接 及物动词+双宾语 、主语+及物动 ...

高考英语语法专题复习-简单句、并列句和复合句

   嘉兴英语教学网 www.jxenglish.com 收集整理 欢迎使用 语法复习一:句子成分;简单句, 语法复习一:句子成分;简单句,并列句和复合句 一,句子成分 句子成分的定义: (一)句子成分的定义:构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分.句子成分有主要成分和次要成 分;主要成分有主语和谓语;次要成分有表语,宾语,定语,状语,补足语和同位语. 主语: (二)主语:主语是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首.但在 there be 结构,疑问句(当 主语不疑问词时)和倒装句中,主语位于谓语,助动词或 ...

高三英语:介词、连词与简单句、并列句、复合句练习(含答案及详解)

   高三英语:介词、连词与简单句、并列句、复合句练习(含答案及详解) 高三英语:介词、连词与简单句、并列句、复合句练习(含答案及详解) 发布人:圣才学习网 发布日期:2010-08-21 09:55 共 【能力技巧拓展】 1.Smoking does great harm to our health. A.At no time A.out of A.from A.on 5. A.On 6. world. A.On B.By C.At D.Of and I don’t 7.I wonder if ...

英语:简单句和并列句

   简单句和并列句 I. 句子的分类(按结构) 句子的分类(按结构) 按结构可分为: 按结构可分为: 1. 简单句 (Simple Sentences) ) 2. 并列句 (Compound Sentences) ) 3. 复合句 (Complex Sentences) ) 1. 简单句 说明:由一个主语(或并列主语) 说明:由一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语 (或并列谓语)构成的句子。 或并列谓语)构成的句子。 例句:1. She goes to work every day. 例句: 2. ...

高考英语单选语法题解析课件-复合句和并列句

   专题二 单项填空(复合句和并列句) 单项填空(复合句和并列句) 复合句和并列句 引导的从句。 疑难档案 1. 先行词为all时,其后要用that引导的定语从句,不可用what When her father came back, she told him all that had happened.  句中that had happened为定语从句修饰all,而what只能引导名 词性从句,不能引导定语从句,所以上面的句子不可说成“she told him all what had h ...

英语句子成分及从句简单讲解

   初中英语基本语法 句子的成分: 句子的成分: 主语 谓语 宾语 表语 宾补(宾语补足语) 状语 主语:一般在句子的开头 例如:He is a teacher. 主语 谓语:即是句子的动词 谓语 例如:What are you doing now? 例如:He likes eating apples. 例如:He is a teacher. 定语 同位语 宾语:动词后的名词或非谓语短语 宾语 表语:系动词后的名词或短语 表语 同位语:放在名词后,与前面的名词具有同等地位,叫同位语. 同位语 例 ...

英语句子成分

   英语 句子成分 组成句子的各个部分叫句子成分。英语句子成分有主语,谓语,表语,宾语,宾语补足语,定语,状语等。 顺序一般是主语,谓语,宾语,宾语补足语,而表语,定语,状语的位置要根据情况而定。 1、主语 主语表示句子主要说明的人或事物,一般由名词,代词,数词,不定式等充当。 Helikeswatch'ingTV.他喜欢看电视。 2、谓语 谓语说明主语的动作,状态或特征。 1),简单谓语 由动词(或短语动词)构成。 可以有不同的时态,语态和语气。 Westud'yforthepeo'ple.我 ...

英语句子成分

   英语语法 英语句子成分 清丰县瓦屋头镇一中赵君华老师制作 英语句子与汉语句子一样,都是由单词按照一定的规则所组成的.不同的词类在句中 所起的作用是不同的.因此,只有搞清不同词类在句中可充当哪些成分,才能正确分 析,理解句子的含义,并能准确地遣词造句,逐渐达到流利地说出地道的英语. 请同学们认真阅读下面的问答,我相信它一定会对同学们起到抛砖引玉的作用. 【问】什么是句子成分?英语句子包含哪些成分? 【答】组成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分.它包括:主语,谓语,宾语,定语, 状语,表语 ...

英语句子成分

   组成句子的各个部分叫句子成分。英语句子成分有主语,谓语,表语,宾语,宾语补足 语,定语,状语等。 顺序一般是主语,谓语,宾语,宾语补足语,而表语,定语,状语的位置要根据情况而 定。 1、主语 主语表示句子主要说明的人或事物,一般由名词,代词,数词,不定式等充当。 Helikeswatch'ingTV.他喜欢看电视。 2、谓语 谓语说明主语的动作,状态或特征。 一般可分为两类: 1),简单谓语 由动词(或短语动词)构成。 可以有不同的时态,语态和语气。 Westud'yforthepeo'pl ...

英语句子成分!

   英语句子成分 英语句子成分只是英语语法中的一小部分,而且平时的考试也不会考,试卷上不会考你什 么是宾语什么是状语这个单词是作什么成分但是它是学英语的基础或者说是你学习其他语 法的工具(比如学定语从句 非谓语动词等等),学会它最直接的作用是对阅读英语句子有帮助, 有很多同学单词都懂,但是看不懂英文句子,不知道哪些单词和哪些单词是组合在一起的,句 子成分就是帮你来分析单词和单词的关系,然后就能比较容易的看懂句子. 学会英语句子成分至少在以下两个方面对你有所帮助: 其一:能听懂老师的讲课.在初三以 ...

热门内容

2011届高考英语第一轮语法复习检测试题11

   第 11 章 代词 一.概念: 概念: 代词是代替名词的词, 按其意义、特征及其在句中的作用分为:人称代词、物主代词、指示代词、反身代词、 相互代词、疑问代词、不定代词和关系代词等。 二.相关知识点精讲 1.人称代词 1.人称代词 1)人称代词的人称、数和格,如下表所示。 2)人称代词有主格和宾格之分。通常主格作主语,宾格作宾语。如: I like table tennis. (作主语) Do you know him?(作宾语) 3)人称代词还可作表语。作表语时用宾格。如: Whos is ...

2010英语专业四级考试答案

   2010 英语专业四级考试答案 2010 The UK has a well-respected higher education system and some of the top universities and research institutions in the world. But to those who are new to it all, it can be overwhelming and sometimes confusing. October is usually ...

英语听力时间与数字类

   时间与数字类 常见提问方式: When did … match start? How long did it take the man/woman to…? At what time did the conversation take place? How many…? How often…? How much …? At what time did…? 常考词汇,短语及表达方式总结: 一:时刻与日期的读法: 9:15 nine fifteen a quarter past nine(英) ...

高中英语语法过关辅导课件-名词性从句

   (十)名词性从句 一、主语从句 主语从句在复合句中作主句的主语, 主语从句在复合句中作主句的主语,引导主语从句的词有 that,whether,who,what,which,whoever,whatever, , , , , , , , whichever,when,where,why,how等。 , , , , 等 That she was chosen made us very happy. What caused the accident is a complete mystery. ...

震撼推荐100句最常用英语口语

   100 句最常用英语口语 i see. 我明白了。 2. i quit! 我不干了! 3. let go! 放手! 4. me too. 我也是。 5. my god! 天哪! 6. no way! 不行! 7. come on. 来吧(赶快) 8. hold on. 等一等。 9. i agree。 我同意。 10. not bad. 还不错。 11. not yet. 还没。 12. see you. 再见。 13. shut up! 闭嘴! 14. so long. 再见。 15. w ...