高考英语名词性从句用法大全
名词性从句
名词性从句相当于名词,可分别作主句的主语、表语、宾语和同位语。因此,名 词性从句厅分为主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句和同位从句。
(一)引导名词性从句的连接词

  1、连接代词:who, whose, whom, what, which。有词义,在从句中担任成分,如 主语、表语、宾语、或定语等。

  2、连接副词:when, where, why, how。有词义,在从句中担任成分,作状语。

  3、连接词:that, whether, if, as if。that 无词义,在从句中不担任成分,有时 可省略;if (whether), as if 虽有词义,但在从句中不担任成分。
注意:连接代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,因而从句中谓语不用疑问式。 连接代词与连接副词在从句充当句子成分,连接词 whether 和 if(是否),as if(好象)在 从句中不充当句子成分,只起连接作用。根据句义,如果连接代词与连接副词,whether、i f 和 as if 都用不上时,才用 that 作连接词(that 本身无任何含义)。
(二)主语从句

  1、主语从句在复合句作主语。
e.g. Who will go is not important.

  2、用 it 作形式主语,主语从句放在句末。
e.g. It doesn’t matter so much whether you will come or not.

  3、that 引导主语从句时,不能省略。
e.g. That he suddenly fell ill last week made us surprised.
(三)表语从句

  1、表语从句在复合句中作表语,位于系动词之后。
e.g. The question was who could go there.

  2、引导表语从句的连接词 that 有时可省去。
e.g. My idea is (that) we can get more comrades to help in the work.
(四)宾语从句

  1、宾语从句在复合句中作宾语。引导宾语从句的连词 that 一般可省略。
e.g. I hope (that) everything is all right.

  2、介词之后的宾语从句,不可用 which 或 if 连接,要分别用 what 或 whether。
e.g. I’m interested in whether you’ve finished the work..
I’m interested in what you’ve said.

  3、whether 与 if 都可以引导宾语从句,常可互换。但下面情况不能互换。
①宾语从句是否定句时,只用 if,不用 whether。
e.g. I wonder if it doesn’t rain.
②用 if 会引起误解,就要用 whether。
e.g. Please let me know whether you want to go.(此句如果把 whether 改成 if,容易 当成条件句理解)
③宾语从句中的 whether 与 or not 直接连用,就不能换成 if;不直接连用,可换。
e.g. I don’t know whether or not the report is true.
I don’t know whether/ if the report is true or not.
④介词后的宾语从句要用 whether 引导。whether 可与不定式连用。whether 也可引导 主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句,还可引导让步状语从句,以上均不能换成 if。但引导条 件从句时,只能用 if,而不能用 whether。
e.g. It depends on whether we have enough time.
They don’t know whether to go there.
Please come to see me if you have time.
(五)同位语从句
同位语从句在句中作某一名词的同位语,一般位于该名词(如:news, fact, idea, sugg estion, promise 等)之后,说明该名词的具体内容。
e.g. I have no idea when he will be back.
The fact that he had not said anything surprised everybody.
英语名词性从句详解
主语从句、表语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句在复合句中起名词的作用,这四种从句 合称名词性从句。 它们在主句中充当主语、 表语、 宾语或同位语, 都不能用逗号与主句分开。 (注:句中划线部分为从句)
■主语从句

  1、定义:先找到句子的谓语,主句的谓语前面的从句,叫做主语从句。
Why he left wasn't important.(wasn't 是主句的谓语动词,why he left 做主语从句)
That she became an artist may have been due to her father's influence.(may have b een due 是主句的谓语动词,that she became an artist 做主语从句)

  2、借助形式主语 it,主语从句放在后面
①由 that 引导的主语从句可以放在主语的位置,这时 that 不可以省略。例如:That pri ces will go up is certain.
that 主语从句放在句首的情况不是很常见,绝大部分主语从句都借助形式主语 it,主语 从句放在后面。
It is strange that he knows nothing about it.
It is a pity that he can't swim.
It happened that he wasn't in that day.
It is said that there has been an earthquake in India.
在口语中,用 it 做形式主语时,主语从句的 that 可以省略。
②wh-疑问词引导的主语从句, 可以放在句首(第一组), 也可以借助形式主语 it(第二组)。
第一组:When he'll be back depends much on the weather.
How it was done was a mystery.
Whether we'll succeed remains to be seen.
第二组:It is uncertain whether the game will be held.
It's a puzzle how life began.
It doesn't matter much where we live.
Is it known where he went?
■宾语从句

  1、定义:及物动词(第一组)和介词(第二组)的后面可以接从句做宾语,叫做宾语从句。
第一组 I guess(that) we'll leave soon.
He asked when we would be in London.
She informed me (that) she was to send for it the next day.(that 可以省略)
I'll tell you what I read in today's paper.
第二组
I'll find out whether she's interested in going.
Can you give us a description of what has happened.
She was shocked by what she had seen.

  2、借助形式宾语 it,that 引导的宾语从句放在后面。I've heard it said that you have won a scholarship.
分析:it 在句中做形式宾语,said 做宾语补足语,that you have won a scholarship 是 真正的宾语。She has seen to it that all the children are well taken care of.
分析: 在句中做形式宾语, it that all the children are well taken care of 是真正的宾语。
■表语从句

  1、定义:系动词的后面可以接句子做表语,叫做表语从句。
The fact is that she never liked him.
That is not what I meant.
The question is who is responsible for what has happened.
She is no longer what she used to be.

  2、注意:
①The reason Hollywood was a good place for making movies was that the sun shin es there every day.
分析:the reason 做主语时,表语从句用 that 引导。
②引导表语从句的 that 一般不省略。
■同位语从句

  1、定义:有些名词的后面可以跟 that 引导的从句,说明这个名词的内容,这样的从句 叫做同位语从句。所以,只有可以有内容的名词才可以接同位语从句,例如:fact,messag e,idea,possibility,conclusion,thought,news,order,report,rumor 等等。
that 在从句中不做成分,但是不能省略。
He had the feeling that he would not see her again.I've come to the conclusion that it won't be wise to do so.

  2、有时为了保持句子的平衡,同位语从句有时和前面的名词分开。
The rumor spread that a new school would be built here.
that 引导的同位语从句修饰 the rumor,但是主句 The rumor spread 太短,如果把后面 的同位语从句放在 the rumor 后面,主语太长,给人头重脚轻的感觉。

  3、在少数情况下,名词性从句的其他关联词也可以引导同位语从句。但 if 不可以引导 同位语从句。
You have no idea how worried I was.
I have no idea why she left.
There is some doubt whether John will come on time.
在学习名词性从句时注意下面四点:
一、名词性从句要用陈述语序,也就是说:①名词性从句的关联词做主语的话,关联 词后面接谓语动词; ②名词性从句的关联词不做主语的话, 关联词后面接从句的主语和谓语。
①I don't know who broke the window.(宾语从句中关联词 who 做主语,broke 是谓 语动词)
②The little boy told his mother where he found the coin.(宾语从句中关联词 where 不 做主语,where 后面接主谓部分 he found)
二、感叹句做名词性从句时语序不做变化
Don't you know how excited I was then?
三、时态的呼应
某些从句(特别是宾语从句)中的动词时态,常受主句谓语时态的制约。
①如果主句谓语动词为现在时或将来时,从句中的谓语可以不受影响。例如:
Has he told you when he received the gift?
Will you tell me how you two are getting along?
②如果主语谓语动词为过去时,从句谓语一般要跟着改为相关的过去时。
I didn't know where they lived.He thought he was working for the people.asked hi m how long he had been waiting.
③但是,当宾语从句表示永恒真理时谓语可以不变:This proved that the earth is rou nd.
四、当 and 连接两个 that 引导的宾语从句时,and 后面的 that 不可以省略
She promised (that) she would come and see him sometimes and that she would nev er forget him.句中的第一个 that 可以省略, 为了清楚地表示出第二个 that 引导的是宾语从句, 第二个 that 不省略。
练习:判断划线部分属哪种名词性从句

  1.It is certain that she will do well in her exam.

  2.The foreigner expressed his hope that he was going to visit the Great Wall again.

  3.She walked up to where he stood.

  4.We consider it necessary that he should improve his pronunciation.

  5.This is where our problem lies.

  6.What they need is a good textbook

  7.I don't know who broke the window.

  8.She will give whoever needs help a warm welcome.

  9.I have no idea whether he has finished his homework.

  10.It looks as if it is going to rain.
答案:
  1、主语从句
  2、同位语从句
  3、宾语从句
  4、宾语从句
  5、表语从句
  6、主语 从句
  7、宾语从句
  8、宾语从句
  9、同位语从句
  10、表语从句
 

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