强调结构和情景交际
一、强调结构基本概念
(一)强调句的定义
  强调是有效地进行思想交流的重要手段之一。人们在交际过程中,为了使自己的思想能为听者或读者恰当的理解,必须突出重要的内容,这就需要运用强调的手段。
(二)强调的构成
  在现代英语中,人们可以通过语音手段、词汇手段、语法手段来进行强调。

  1.语音手段
  在口语中,人们可以根据交流的需要,通过语句重音来对不同的词语进行强调。例如 He speaks English well 这句话,可以通过语句重音来分别对不同的词进行强调:
  A:We need a good student to host the evening party.
  B:Well, he speaks English well. (侧重“他”)
  A:He’s been living in Canada for years.
  B:He speaks English well but his writing is not very good.(侧重“说”)
  A:He speaks fluent French.
  B:He speaks English well, too. (侧重“英语”)
  A:Do you think he is fit for the job?
  B:Certainly. He speaks English well. (侧重“好”)

  2.词汇手段
  人们常用一些形容词、副词、否定词等词汇手段来较强语气。例如:
  This is a most interesting TV play.
  这是一部非常有趣的电视剧。
  Grace is tall, but Catherine is still taller.
  格雷斯个子很高,但是凯瑟林个子更高。
  War and peace is the best novel that l have ever read.
  《战争与和平》是我曾经读过的最好小说。
  The last thing that a lazy student wishes is examination.
  懒学生最不愿意的事情就是考试。
  At that very moment the policemen came.
  就在那时警察到了。
  I can’t even remember the name of that old friend of mine.
  我甚至连那位老朋友的名字都不记得了。
  Where in the world did you go just now ?
  你刚才究竟去哪儿了?
  What on earth are you doing?
  你究竟在干什么?
  She’s not in the least angry with me.
  她一点也不生我的气。
  The president himself will chare the meeting.
  总统将亲自主持这个会议。(反身代词作主语同位语表示强调)

  3.语法手段

  1)用It is/was…that/who…句型表示强调。
  被强调的部分(通常是句子的主语、状语、宾语或宾语补足语)放在is/was的后面,如被强调的是人,则后面可用who,whom等代替。例如:
  He met an old friend in the park yesterday.
  他昨天在公园碰见一个老朋友。
  上述句子可以通过强调句型对除谓语以外的不同成分进行强调。如:
  It was he who/that met an old friend in the park yesterday. (强调主语)
  It was an old friend that/who he met in the park yesterday. (强调宾语)
  It was in the park that he met an old friend yesterday. (强调地点状语)
  It was yesterday that he met an old friend in he park. (强调时间状语)
注意:
  ①It is/was…that… 强调句型的强调部分必须是对 that / who 之后句子的某一成分表示强调,如果把“It is (was)...that”去掉,该句应该意思完整,不缺任何句子成分。区分下例两句:
  It was 7 o’clock when he came back.
  他回来时7点钟了。(it指时间)
  It was at 7 o’clock that he came back.
  他是7点钟回来的。(强调句,强调at 7 o’clock)
  ②It is/was…that…强调句型的被强调部分如果是原因状语从句,只能由because引导,不能由since、as或why引导。例如:
  It was because the water had risen that they could not cross the river.
  正是由于水涨了,他们没有渡过河去。(不用because或since)
  ③注意“not ... until”强调句型的变化。比较下列三个句子:
  She didn’t remember her appointment with the doctor until she had arrived home.
  It was not until she had arrived home that she remembered her appointment with the doctor.
  Not until she had arrived home did she remember her appointment with the doctor.
  ④It is/was…that…强调句型中,that作宾语时可以省略,例如:
  It was a new dictionary (that) Father bought for me.
  父亲给我买的是一本新字典。
  Was it her (that) you were talking about?
  你刚才是和她在谈话吗?
  ⑤如果强调的是特殊疑问句,要用“特殊疑问词+is/was + it + that +…”结构,表示“究竟是谁……,到底在哪里……”等等。例如:
  Who was it that you want to see? 你究竟想见谁?
  Where was it that you saw the teacher? 你到底在哪里看见老师的?
  Why is it that you want to change your mind? 你究竟为什么要改变主意?
  (
  2)用助动词do, does或did来强调谓语动词。例如:
  Do come early.
  一定早点来。
  He did send you a letter last week.
  他上周确实给你寄过一封信。
  We’re pleased that she does intend to come.
  她的确打算来,我们非常高兴。
  (
  3)用主语从句+BE+被强调部分,主语从句常用what引导。例如:
  John wants a ball. 约翰想要一个球。
  →What John wants is a ball. 约翰想要的是一个球。
  Mary gives piano lessons every day. 玛丽每天教钢琴。
  →What Mary does every day is (to) give piano lessons.
  玛丽每天干的工作是教钢琴。
  (
  4)用修辞疑问句,表示强调。
  疑问句转用作加强语气的陈述句时,即可称为修辞性疑问句。需要注意的是:肯定的修辞疑问句其意义相当于强调的否定陈述句;而否定的修辞疑问句其意义则相当于强调的肯定陈述句。如:
  Can anyone doubt the truth of his statement?
  谁能怀疑他陈述的真实性? (= Surely no one can / would doubt it.)
  Who doesn’t know the sun rises in the east?
  谁不知道太阳从东方升起?(=Everyone knows…)
  (
  5)人们还可以通过改变句子结构或颠倒正常语气的手段来进行强调。例如:
  Never will China be the first to use nuclear weapons.
  中国决不会第一个使用核武器。
  Only in this way can we catch up with and surpass the world’s advanced level of science and technology.
  只有这样,我们才能赶上并超过世界先进科技水平。
  Happy are those who are content.
  知足常乐。
二、强调结构典型例题解析

  1.It Mike and Mary who helped the old man several days ago.
A.was           B.are
C.were           D.had been
答案:A
解析:
  本题为it is/ was+强调部分+that/who+….结构。句中要强调的是Mike and Mary 。尽管是两个人,但是我们仍要遵循强调句的基本结构。

  2.It was not until 1920 regular radio broadcasts began.
A.which          B.when
C.that           D.since
答案:C
解析:
  本题同样为it is/ was+强调部分+that/who+….结构。强调的是时间状语not until 19
  20,原句子为Regular radio broadcasts didn’t begin until 19
  20.

  3.She said she would go and she go.
A.didn’t         B.did
C.really          D.would
答案:B
解析:
  本句意思为:她说她会走,她确实走了。这里把did提前,表示“确实干了某事”。

  4.It was the training he had as a young man made him such a good engineer.
A.what; that        B.that; what
C.that; which        D.which; that
答案:D
解析:
  which he had as a young man是定语从句,修饰前面的training, 先行词training在从句中做宾语,所以这一空既可以用which又可以用that,还可以什么都不填。但是第二空中的that为强调句中的that,是不能用what或which等词来代替的。所以答案只能为D。

  5.?Were all three people in the car injured in the accident?
   ?No, only the two passengers who got hurt.
  A.there were       B.it were
  C.there was        D.it was
答案:D
解析:本题为强调句结构,意思为:只有两个乘客受伤。
情景交际
  综观近几年的高考英语试题,交际用语的考查一直是考查的热点和重点。以下我们结合历年高考试题,将交际用语的常见考点作一归纳分析:
一、祝愿及相关客套用语
例题
  1.?I’m taking my driving test tomorrow.
   ?! (NMET20
  02)
   A.Cheers           B.Good luck
   C.Come on           D.Congratulations
解析:
  一方说明天要参加驾驶测试,根据英语语言习惯,另一方应该祝对方好运,故答案为B。
例题
  2.?I had a really good weekend at my uncle’s.
    ?. (NMET19
  99)
   A.Oh, that’s very nice of you
   B.Congratulations
   C.It’s a pleasure
   D.Oh, I’m glad to hear that
解析:
  本题从四个选项的表意功能来看:A表示“你真是太好了”;B表示祝贺(如:祝贺对方取得成功);C是回答Thank you.的用语;只有Oh, I’m glad to hear that.是最符合语境的客套语,故答案为D。
二、“打电话”中的惯用语
例题
  3.?Hello. May I speak to Zhao Hua?
   ?Yes, . (MET19
  92)
   A.my name’s Zhao Hua
   B.Zhao Hua’s me
   C.this is Zhao Hua speaking
   D.I’m Zhao Hua
解析:接电话时,常说This is sb. speaking, 而不说I’m ...,故答案为C。
例题
  4.?Good morning, Grand Hotel.
   ?Hello, I’d like to book a room for the nights of the 18th and 19th.
   ? (NMET20
  01)
   A.What can I do for you?
   B.Just a minute, please.
   C.What’s the matter?
   D.At your service.
解析:服务员接到电话后,需要查一下登记情况,故正确答案为B(请稍等)。
三、表示感谢、邀请和应答感谢的用语
例题
  5.?Thank you ever so much for the book you sent me.
    ?. (上海19
  97)
   A.No thanks
   B.I’m glad you like it
   C.Please don’t say so
   D.No, it’s not so good
解析:
  本题所提供的情景是一方收到对方送的书之后表示感谢,四个选项中只有I’m glad you like it.符合西方人的习惯,故答案为B。
例题
  6.?I enjoyed the food very much.
    ?I’m glad you like it. Please drop in any time you like.
    ? (上海2001春)
    A.Is it all right?     B.I’m afraid I won’t be free.
    C.Yes, I will.       D.That’s great.
解析:
  对对方“常来坐坐”的邀请,应用Yes, I will.或Certainly, I will.回答,故答案为C。
四、饭店用语
例题
  7.?Waiter!
    ?
    ?I can’t eat this. It’s too salty. (NMET20
  00)
    A.Yes, sir?         B.What?
    C.All right?         D.Pardon?
解析:
  本题提供了一个大家常经历的场景?在饭店叫服务员。Yes?是饭店服务员对客人呼唤的应答语,意为“什么事?” 故答案为A。
例题
  8.?Can I look at the menu for a few more minutes before I decide?
    ?Of course. , sir. (NMET2004 II)
    A.Make yourself at home
    B.Enjoy yourself
    C.It doesn’t matter
    D.Take your time
解析:take your time意为“不着急,慢慢来”,符合语境,故答案为D。
五、将词义辨析、语法等知识的考查融入交际用语中
例题
  9.?Do you want tea or coffee?
    ?. I really don’t mind. (北京2000春)
    A.Both    B.None    C.Either    D.Neither
解析:
  本题考查特定语境中词义的辨析。根据I really don’t mind.可知后者不介意喝茶还是喝咖啡,故答案为C。
例题
  10.?Why haven’t you bought any butter?
    ?I to, but I forgot about it. (北京2001春)
    A.liked    B.wished    C.meant   D.expected
解析:
  本题既考查语言运用能力,又考查词义的辨析。根据语境可知此处表示“我本来打算去……,但……”故答案为C。
例题
  11.?Has Sam finished his homework today?
    ?I have no idea. He it this morning. (
 

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