书面表达基础讲与练
Part A 写作基本理论 1 对英语句子的认识 意义:英语的句式与中文的不同。我们在学习英语的时候要注意到这一点。有的同学在学习中对此没 有足够的认识,常常受中文的干扰。在写作中表现出不能写出正确的句子。 I. 什么是句子? 长的是句子,短的是词。× √ 无论字数多少,只要有主语和谓语(动词) ,而且能表达完整的意义的一句话就是一个句子。 I am tired. Pressing one’s palm together and resting one’s head on the back of one’s hand while closing the eyes as if sleeping means “I am tired.”(双手合拢,闭上眼,把头靠在手背上像睡觉的样子,意思是说“我累了。”) 这两个句子都具备了主语和谓语。都是完整的句子。要记住:在英语中,一个句子必须且只能有一个 谓语。
  1. 省略主语的句子 Come in, please. (You) Open the door. Sit down. Stand up. What a day! (What a terrible day it is!)
  2. 一个句子不能同时有两个谓语。 典型错误:
  1) The old man likes take a walk in the village after supper. ?
  2) I enjoy talk with him over a cup of coffee. ?
  3) The boy ran to his mother cry. ?
  4) After write the notice, he put it up on the wall. ?
  3. 不要把从句的谓语当成句子的谓语, 或把主句的谓语当成从句的谓语。如果是一个复合句,主句和从 句都应该分别有自己的主语和谓语。
第 1 页 共 78 页
典型错误:
  1)
  1) Those who eat too much will easily ill. ?
  2) When he walking in the park, he felt a little tired. ?
  3)When I at school, I studied very hard. ? II. Practice: 判断以下是否是句子。
  1. Birds can fly
  2. The birds in the cage which I bought yesterday
  3. Wait for me at the station
  4. If you know how to play with words to make people laugh
  5. A way of saying “I’m sorry”
  6. Patting the stomach before a meal
  7. The bread my mother makes is much better than what you can buy at the store.
  8. To make friends in the school which was not far from my new home
  9. If you want to know what it feels like to fall through the air, take off in a rocket, fly a helicopter or fight alien creatures in outer space III. 常见的句子结构 由于英语动词种类的不同,构成了不同的句子类型。和中文不同的是,英语的动词分为及物动词和不 及物动词。表达同一个意思时,有的是及物动词,有的就是不及物动词。如:表示“听” 这个意义时,listen 是不及物动词;hear 是及物动词。表示 “看” 这个意义时,look 是不及物动词,see, watch 和 notice 就是 及物动词。表示 “到达”,arrive 是不及物动词,reach 是及物动词。不及物动词是不能接宾语的。只能加上 一个介词,才能接宾语。如:listen to, look at, arrive in 等等。
  1. 主语 + 不及物动词 e.g. He came in. The airplane from Hong Kong arrived at four p.m. On his arrival he went straight to the counter. To catch up with others, you’d better work harder. How did the accident occur? In July, the ship set out for the Pacific. Australia has changed a lot in the past forty years.
第 2 页 共 78 页
They lived by hunting animals, birds and fish.
  2. 主语 + 系动词 + 表语 常见的系动词有:be, seem, appear, become, go, get, grow, turn, look, sound, feel, taste, smell e.g. She is very happy. (×She very happy.) I am a student. He became nervous when thinking of stealing. It is impossible to find a shop that is open after 5 p.m. in this area. We are proud of our friends. To become a top gymnast, it is important to start when very young. It’s much cheaper to camp than to stay in a hotel. It is useless trying to argue with him. I got caught in the traffic. Just then, the traffic light turned red. He seemed to have misunderstood you.
  3. 主语 + 及物动词 + 宾语 e.g. We learn English at school. He wondered whether Bill had managed to escape. I didn’t mean to be so rude. Most people here earn their living by farming. We will send these goods to the flooded area. You must keep your word. I took some photos of some beautiful actress. I hope that one day I shall be able to repay you. 被动:English is learnt at school. These goods will be sent to the flooded area.
  4. 主语 + 及物动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语 有些动词需要接两个宾语。间接宾语一般由人担任,直接宾语一般由物担任。 give, offer, teach, tell, read, ask, bring, pass, lend, return, write, throw, allow, send,cost make, buy, do, get, save, cook, sing, find 等。 e.g. My brother gave me a book.
第 3 页 共 78 页
Who sent you the computer? My mother would read me a story before I went to bed. I won’t tell you anything about it. Can you sing us an English song? Pass me the newspaper, please. 这样的句子变为被动时可根据需要,将任何一个宾语作为句子的主语。 e.g. I was given a book. A book was given to me.
  5. 主语 + 及物动词 + 宾语 + 宾补 e.g. Unfortunately they find it difficult to repay this money. The growth in population made New York the largest city in the USA. Do you think it possible to finish it in one day? We are making our country more and more beautiful. 【模拟试题】 模拟试题】 改错练习:
  1. Please speak louder so that everybody can listen you.
  2. Great changes have been taken place in my hometown.
  3. Listen! Someone knocking at the door.
  4. He told me don’t call him before 9 o’clock.
  5. Does your parents allow you make your own decision?
  6. Although it is only August, but the weather is getting worse daily.
  7. Because the professor had fallen ill, so he was not able to be present at the conference.
  8. In Japan, a person sees the “OK” gesture may think it means money.
  9. When I past his room, I heard him singing an English song. Part B 写作必备素材 叙事类 外出活动、欣赏美景 日记 日记) 外出活动、欣赏美景(日记 We decided to go out for a picnic. I had a pleasant outing with some of my classmates today. Early in the morning, we set off for the farm for a visit. When we reached the farm, we were given a warm welcome. They showed us around the farm(We were shown around the farm) , where we saw many kinds of plants.
第 4 页 共 78 页
We caught sight of a stream with green grass and beautiful flowers on both sides. We were completely amazed at the wonder and the greatness of nature.(我们完全被大自然的奇妙和伟大折 服了) We jumped and shouted like innocent (天真的) children. Once on the top of the hill/The moment we got to the top of the hill, we were deeply struck/attracted by the beautiful scenery. How we enjoyed the beautiful views from the top ! After being divided into groups, we set to work at once. Some of us were getting water, some (were) cutting the meat and vegetables, and others (were) sitting on the grass enjoying music. Birds were singing sweetly in the trees and butterflies were dancing gracefully in the garden/fields. When lunch time came, we sat on the grassland, eating and drinking happily. The meal was so delicious that we enjoyed it very much. We sang and danced together to the music. Three hours had passed before we knew it. The time passed quickly before we knew it. It was time for us to go back when the sun started to go down. I spent the whole afternoon with our cousins, enjoying the fine scenery and fresh air in the country. At about four o’clock in the afternoon, we said goodbye to them At four o’clock in the afternoon we had to return. They came out to see us until we disappeared in the distance. On the way back, we were laughing and talking all the time. What a wonderful weekend we had! We enjoyed ourselves very much. Through these out-of class activities we can learn a lot of things that can’t be learned in class. Although we were tired, we felt very happy. I think it’s our duty to cover our country with green. ②.书面表达中的复杂高级句
  1. We can pay a visit to the museum, study computer and painting and many other things.
  2. We can watch news programs on TV, read books or newspapers in the evening.
  3. I used to attend classes at school and deal with our homework in the day time.
  4. I used to have to work even at weekends doing endless homework and attending classes.
第 5 页 共 78 页

  5. I was walking along Park Road towards the east when an elderly man came out of the park on the other side of the street.
  6. The next moment the car hit the man while he was crossing the road.
  7. On the other side, where the playground used to be now stands another new building?our library.
  8. At noon we had a picnic lunch in the sunshine.
  9. After a short rest, we had great fun singing and dancing, telling jokes or stories.
  10. Then the head of the farm showed us around the farm.
  11. The other day my brother and I went to the cinema by bicycle.
  12. My brother was riding with me sitting on the seat behind.
  13. Hope you don’t have to wait as long as we did.
  14. I studied in Guangming Primary School from 1984 to 19
  90.
  15. The main subjects I studied at school included Chinese, maths, English, physics, chemistry and computer.
  16. Last year I won first prize in the school computer competition.
  17. After you enter the park by the main gate, walk straight on till you come to a stream. Cross the stream and turn right. After walking for a while you’ll come to a hill. Walk round to the other side of the hill. Then you’ll see a lake.
  18. I have an announcement to make.
  19. The students union is going to hold a party on Saturday evening, August 15, to welcome our friends from the United States.
  20. Remember to wrap up the small gift, sign your name and write a few words of good wishes.
  21. There will be music, dancing, singing, games and exchange of gift.
  22. One day my parents went to work in the fields taking my little sister and Ah Fu along.
  23. She was trying to pick a flower when she fell into the river.
  24. They saw Ah Fu swimming towards the bank carrying my little sister.
  25. At eight he became a member of the diving team in Guangdong Province.
  26. He studied hard at school and trained hard for five years before he came to the national team.
  27. It was pretty hard on the children of the village who had to go to school in other villages which were all far away.
  28. The teachers had finished middle school education before they returned to teach here.
  29. The pupils are divided into five different classes, in which six subjects are taught.
第 6 页 共 78 页

  30. Education is free for all children in the village.
  31. 60% of the students are against the idea of entrance fees.
  32. They believe a public park should be free of charge.
  33. Charging entrance fees will no doubt keep some people away.
  34. 40% of the students think that fees should be charged because you need money to pay gardeners and workers, and to buy plants and young trees.
  35. They suggest fees should be charged low. Part C 写作基本功训练 (词组部分) 词组部分)
  1. 给某人让座
  2. 跳到地上/桌上
  3. 下了一整天雨
  4. 听到呼救声 歉
  7. 给某人提建议
  8. 得到好的治疗
  9. 接受某人的建议
  10. 加入球队/俱乐部/小组/委员会/公司
  11. 向某 人解释…
  12. 治愈某人的病
  13. 匆忙赶往医院/学校/邮局/派出所/火车站/汽车站/飞机场
  14. 提出付 100 元钱
  15. 收 100 元钱
  16. 付 100 元钱
  17. 打车
  18. 浑身湿透了
  19. 下载文件
  5. 把…带到安全地带
  6. 向 某 人 道

  20. 外出钓鱼/爬山/郊游/游泳/划船/野营
  21. 转身离开
  22. 陷入沉思
  23. 返回取某物
  24. 走过去看一看发生了什么
  25. 与某人同住一间房间/同打一把伞/同玩一件玩具/同一志趣
  26. 对某人大声喊叫
  27. 使劲移开那块大石头
  28. 背着一个沉重的包
  29. 去吃饭/开会/晚会/观光/聚会

  30. 背负沉重的课业负担
  31. 约某人
  32. 顺道拜访某人
  33. 看家
  34. 跑过去搀扶盲人/老人
  35. 等候某人吃 饭/开会/回家
  36. 下车
  37. 站在门口
  38. 坐在窗前
  39. 靠在墙上/树上
  40. 逆风而行
  41. 下大雨/大雪
  42. 刮大风
  43. 起雾
  44. 熟睡
  45. 举手
  46. 步行回家/开车回家/乘车回家/骑车回家
  47. 突然停止
  48. 把某人救到河岸上
  49. 结束
  50. 为某人喝彩 汉译英部分) 写作基本功训练 (汉译英部分)
  1.休息片刻后,我们就开始唱歌、跳舞、讲故事、说笑话,玩得可开心了。
  2.在一家商店旁,有位妇女正在买冰激凌,这时有个小伙子从她身后抢了她的手提包就跑。
  3.我校历年毕业的学生中有不少人成了教授、工程师、记者以及其他领域的专家。
  4.不论我今年是否能考上大学,我都要努力学习。
  5.他告诉我看电影不但是一种休息,而且有助于增加知识,并获得更多的科技信息。
  6.他们建议应收门票,但票价不宜太高。
  7.我认为人口的增长应当得到控制,从而使我们未来的家园更加美好。
  8.谨致以良好的祝愿,并代我问候你全家人好。
  9.我相信你们定会度过又一个难忘的旅游日。
  10.村里的孩子们在本村上小学都是免费的。
第 7 页 共 78 页

  11.近年来我们的城市新建了不少的工厂,住房和街道。
  12.很高兴收到你的来信,我将写信告诉你我校的情况。 1
 

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