英语句子有长在短,有简有繁,从现象看,似乎千 英语句子有长在短,有简有繁,从现象看, 变万化,难以捉摸,但从实质看,可以发现其内在联系, 变万化,难以捉摸,但从实质看,可以发现其内在联系, 找出其共同规律。 找出其共同规律。英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种 基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌握这五种基 基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。 本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。 本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。 英语五种基本句型列式如下: 英语五种基本句型列式如下: 基本句型一: 基本句型一: S +V (主+谓) 基本句型二: 基本句型二: S +V +P (主+系+表) 基本句型三: 基本句型三: S +V +O (主+谓+宾) 基本句型四: +O( O(主 间宾+直宾) 基本句型四: S +V +IO +O(主+谓+间宾+直宾) 基本句型五: C(主 宾补) 基本句型五: S +V +O +C(主+谓+宾+宾补)
基本句型

S +V(主+谓) V(主
此句型的句子有一个共同特 点,即句子的谓语动词都能表达 完整的意思。 完整的意思。 这类动词叫做不及物动词, 这类动词叫做不及物动词, 后面可以跟副词、介词短语、 后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状 语从句等。 语从句等。

不及物动词) V (不及物动词)

  1. Time
  2. The moon
  3. The man
  4. We all
  5. Everybody
  6. I
  7. They
  8. He
  9.He
  10.They
flies. rose. cooked. eat, and drink. laughed? woke. talked for half an hour. walked yesterday is playing have gone
基本句型 二
S +V +P(主+系+表) P(主
此句型的句子有一个共同的特点: 此句型的句子有一个共同的特点:句子谓语 动词都不能表达一个完整的意思, 动词都不能表达一个完整的意思,必须加上一个 表明主语身份或状态的表语构成复合谓语, 表明主语身份或状态的表语构成复合谓语,才能 表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做连系动词。 表达完整的意思。这类动词叫做连系动词。系动 词分两类: 词分两类:be, look, feel,smell,taste,sound 等属一类,表示情况; 等属一类,表示情况;get, grow, become, turn,go等属另一类 表示变化。 等属另一类, turn,go等属另一类,表示变化。be 本身没有什 么意义,只起连系主语和表的作用。 么意义,只起连系主语和表的作用。其它系动词 仍保持其部分词义另:stay,prove,remain,stand 仍保持其部分词义另:stay,prove,remain,stand

V(是系动词) V(是系动词) 是系动词
表语) P(表语 表语

  1. This
  2. The dinner
  3. He
  4. Everything
  5. He
  6. The book
  7. The weather
  8. His face
is smells(闻) 闻 fell looks is is became turned
an English dictionary. good. happy. different. tall and strong. interesting. warmer. red.
基本句型 三
S +V +O(主+谓+宾) O(主
此句型句子的共同特点是: 此句型句子的共同特点是:谓 语动词都具有实义, 语动词都具有实义,都是主语产生 的动作,但不能表达完整的意思, 的动作,但不能表达完整的意思, 必须跟有一个宾语, 必须跟有一个宾语,即动作的承受 才能使意思完整。 者,才能使意思完整。这类动词叫 做及物动词。 做及物动词。

  1. Who
  2. She
  3. He
  8. He
  5. They
  6. Danny
  7. I
  4. He
V(实义动词) V(实义动词) 实义动词 knows laugh at understands made ate likes want said
宾语) O(宾语 宾语 the answer? her. English. cakes. some apples. donuts. to have a cup of tea. "Good morning."
基本句型 四
S +V +IO +O(主+谓+间宾+直宾) +O( O(主 间宾+直宾)
此句型的句子有一个共同特点: 此句型的句子有一个共同特点:谓语 动词必须跟有两个宾语才能表达完整的意 这两个宾语一个是动作的直接承受者, 思。这两个宾语一个是动作的直接承受者, 另一个是动作的间接承受者。 另一个是动作的间接承受者。 通常这一间接承受者用一个介词来连 接,当动作的间接承受者在动作的直接承 受者之前时,这一介词往往被省略。 受者之前时,这一介词往往被省略。

  1. She
  2. She
  3. He
  8. He
  5. I
  6. I
  7. I
  4. He
V(及 V(及 物) passed cooked brought bought showed gave told showed
o(多 o(多 指人) 指人) him her husband you her him him me
O(多指物) O(多指物) 多指物 a new dress. a delicious meal. a dictionary. nothing. my pictures. a hand. how to run the machine. that the bus was late.
基本句型 五
S +V +O +C(主+谓+宾+宾补) C(主 宾补)
此句型的句子的共同特点是: 此句型的句子的共同特点是: 动词虽然是及物动词, 动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟 一个宾语还不能表达完整的意思, 一个宾语还不能表达完整的意思, 必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾 才能使意思完整。 语,才能使意思完整。

  1. We
  2. They
  3. They
  4. They
  5. What
  6. We
  7. He
  8. I
V(及物) V(及物) 及物 O(宾语) O(宾语) 宾语 keep painted call found makes saw asked saw the table the door supper the house him him me them
C(宾补) C(宾补) 宾补 clean. green. dinner. dirty. sad? out. to come back soon. getting on the bus.
(二)

  1.They work hard. 主 + 谓
  2.The flower is dead. 主+系+表
  3.Plants need water. 主+谓+宾
  4.He gives me some seeds. 主 + 谓 + 直宾 + 简宾
  5.We should keep the plants in the shade. 主 + 谓 + 宾 + 宾补
  6.Many animals live in trees. 主 + 谓
除了基本句型的成分不变外, 除了基本句型的成分不变外,通常是在这些成分的前 面或后面增加一些修饰语而加以扩大。 面或后面增加一些修饰语而加以扩大。这些修饰语可以是 单词(主要是形容词、副词和数词), ),也可以是各种类型 单词(主要是形容词、副词和数词),也可以是各种类型 的短语(主要是介词短语、不定式短语和分词短语)。 )。下 的短语(主要是介词短语、不定式短语和分词短语)。下 面以基本句型五( 面以基本句型五(v+o+o.c)为例: )为例: We found the hall full. 我们发现礼堂坐满了。 我们发现礼堂坐满了。 We found the great hall full of students and teachers. 我们发现大礼堂坐满了学生和教师。 我们发现大礼堂坐满了学生和教师。 We found the great hall full of students and teachers listening to an important report. 我们发现大礼堂坐满了学生和教师,在听一个重要报告。 我们发现大礼堂坐满了学生和教师,在听一个重要报告。 We found the great hall full of students and teachers listening to an important report made by a comrade from the People's Daily on current affairs in East Europe. 我们发现大礼堂坐满了学生和教师, 我们发现大礼堂坐满了学生和教师,在听人民日报的 一位同志作有关东欧局势的重要报告。 一位同志作有关东欧局势的重要报告。
不同的动词使用的句型也不尽一样,因此在学习动词时, 不同的动词使用的句型也不尽一样,因此在学习动词时,应掌握 动词的类型。 为例: 动词的类型。以 get 为例:
(S V P) He's getting angry. He got through the window. (S V O) You'll get a surprise. (S V O) He got his shoes and socks wet. (S V O C) He got himself into trouble. (S V O C) He got her a splendid present. (S V 0 O)
在句子中词类和词的位置也影响句子的句型和意思 在句子中词类和词的位置也影响句子的句型和意思: 词类和词的位置也影响句子的句型和意思
I found the book easily.
我很容易地找到了这本书。 我很容易地找到了这本书。S V O M) )
I found the book easy.
我觉得这本书很容易。 ) 我觉得这本书很容易。 (S V O C) I have to do something. 我得做点事。 我得做点事。 I have something to do. 我有点事做。 我有点事做。
A Lebanese who had left the country for Syria during the conflict between Israel and Hizbollah, returns with her family following the ceasefire, at the LebanonSyria border in Magdel Anjar August 14, 20
  06.
S + V
A 53-point win over South Korea wrapped up a perfect Asian exhibition tour for a star-studded U.S. team on its way to the world championships. S +V+O
Ministry: Thai bird flu did not originate in China
According to the current information held by the Chinese authorities, a verdict arrived at by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the bird flu research and test centre of Thailand was arbitrary and based on the fact that the virus found in Thailand and Laos was similar to recent finds in southern China, the ministry's statement said.
A policeman removes a check point notice from the road to the village where bird flu patient were found in s+v+p Zhongwei County, northwest Ningxia Autonomous Region, August 12, 20
  06. [Xinhua]
Members of Hong Kong singing group, Gillian Chung (L) and Charlene Choi hold a banner which reads “Dignity” during a news conference entitled “Privacy and dignity: Hong Kong people‘s business” in Hong Kong August 28, 20
  06. Semi-nude(半裸 photos of Chung taken 半裸) 半裸
with a hidden camera have sparked an uproar(骚动 among fans and women's right 骚动) 骚动 S+ V+O groups.
First put forward by the French mathematician Pierre de Format in the seventeenth century, the theorem had baffled and beaten the finest mathematical minds, including a French woman scientist who made a major advance in working out the problem, and who had to dress like a man in order to be able to study at the Ecolab polytechnique. (NMET20
  03.C篇) 篇 这个定理, 这个定理,先是由十七世纪法国数学家皮尔法特提 曾使一批杰出的数学大师为难, 出,曾使一批杰出的数学大师为难,包括一位法国女科学 她在解决这个难题方面取得了重大的进展, 家,她在解决这个难题方面取得了重大的进展,她曾女扮 男装为了能够在伊科尔理工学院学习。 男装为了能够在伊科尔理工学院学习。 简析:夹杂过去分词短语,现在分词短语, 简析:夹杂过去分词短语,现在分词短语,动名词及 两个定语从句。 两个定语从句。
Josephine Tesauro, left, active and healthy at 92, is part of a study trying to determine why some people age better than others, even when they are closely related.
Even though there may be a tendency in some rare families to live extraordinarily long, the genetic influence that emerged from the studies of twins was significantly less than much of the public and many scientists think it is. S+V+P
Washington says world powers are poised to begin discussing punitive measures next week against Iran if, as expected, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports Teheran has ignored the UN demand to stop enriching uranium by August
  31.
英语句式考查

  1.Whom would you rather the car? ?My father. A. have fix B. have to fix C. had fix D. have to be fixed
  2.Was it 8 o’clock you heard someone at the door? A.when;knocking B.when;knock C.that;knocking D.that;knock
  3.Was it in the room Mr. John livedthe exhibition was held? A.that;that B.where;where C.that;where D.where;that
  4.?Is you want to say? ?Yes, that’s all I know. A.all what;yet B.which all;unless C.that all;× D.all that;so ×

  5.Was it not until 1920 regular radio broadcasts began? A.while B.which C.that D.since
  6.the house Mr Zhang has been broken into? A.When was it that B.When has C.Has D.Had
  7.Did she was chosen make her very happy? A.what B.that C.which D.it
  8.Was it at the air battle on June 8,1994, was led by captain Johnson, Peter lost his life? A.when;that B.that;who C.which;that D.which;when

  9.Would you tell me you want your tea, with sugar or milk? Sugar, please. A.whether B.when C.what D.how
  10.At last the soldiers reached the locals called the Golden Triangle. A.what B.which C.as D.one
  11. “We’ll make public schools can be.”said the president in the speech. A.what they B.what it C.that they D.all it
  12.The art center is used to be a factory, millions of tractors were made. A.what, where B.where, where C.what, which D.where, which

  13.The thought of going home to his family was all __kept him happy while he was working abroad . A.that B.what C.those D.which
  14. I am ashamed, sir, that I wasted the many hours I should have studied in class. A. while B. as C. once D. when
  15. Teachers should create an environment children are taught how to solve problems of learning by themselves. A.why B.where C.which D.whose
 

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