高考英语陷阱题总结归纳??被动语态 高考英语陷阱题总结归纳??被动语态 ??
◆典型陷阱题分析◆
  1. “Do you like the material?” “Yes, it very soft.” A. is feeling B. felt C. feels D. is felt 【陷阱】 此题容易误选 D, 想当然地根据“这布料摸起来很柔软”这一句意, 认为“布 料”应是“被摸”,所以 feel 选用被动语态。 【分析】其实,此题正确答案为 C,因为 feel 在此为连系动词,而连系动词均为不 及物动词,不能用于被动语态,尽管有时其汉语意思有被动意味。请看以下类似例子 (答案均为 D): (
  1) Her forehead hot. I’m afraid she is ill. A. is feeling B. felt C. is felt D. feels (
  2) The new school has been completed. It very beautiful. A. is looked B. looked C. has looked D. looks (
  3) The dish nice, but the milk sour. A. is smelt, is smelt B. is smelt, smells C. smells, is smelt D. smells, smells (
  4) The story of his life interesting. A. is sounded B. is sounding C. has sounded D. sounds
  2. He was angry your work. He said that he at all. A. at, didn’t satisfy B. to, didn’t satisfy C. at, wasn’t satisfied D. to, wasn’t satisfied 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能被误选。 【分析】最佳答案为 C. be angry at (about) sth 意为“对某事生气”,许多同 学常按汉语意思将其中的介词 at (about) 换成 to,这是错误的。另外,许多同学 将汉语的“不满意”直译为 not satisfy,这是是不对的,因为,satisfy 在现代英 语中只用作及物动词,其意不是“满意”而是“使(人)满意”,所以其后不能没有 宾语,除非本身是被动语态(或是系表结构)。 ◆ 精编陷阱题训练◆
  1. The president a cool reception when he visited London. A. gave B. was given C. had given D. had been given
  2. A red sky in the morning to be a sign of bad weather. A. says B. is saying C. has said D. is said 3 If you go there alone after dark you might get . A. attacked and robbed B. attacking and robbing
B. to attack and rob D. to be attacked and robbed
  4. What I wanted to know was when and where the meeting . A. was holding B. had held C. was to hold D. was to be held
  5. New medicines and instruments every day to extend life. A. develop B. are being developed C. are developing D. have developed
  6. I’ll come after the meeting if time . A. permits B. is permitting C. is permitted D. has permitted
  7. The students £50 a year to cover the cost of books and stationery. A. give B. are given C. have given D. to give
  8. With the development of science, more new technology to the fields of IT. A. has introduced B. is being introduced C. is introduced D. was introduced
  9.“How about the dishes, Dear?” “The beef didn’t taste very good. It too long.” A. cooked B. had been cooked C. was cooked D. had cooked
  10. He kept a little notebook, in which the names and addresses of his friends. A. wrote B. was writing C. was written D. were written
  11. “Look! Everything here is under construction.” “What is the small building that for?” A. is being building B. has been built C. is built D. is being built
  12. Hundreds of jobs if the factory closes. A. lose B. will be lost C. are lost D. will lose
  13. A red sky in the morning to be a sign of bad weather. A. says B. is saying C. has said D. is said
  14. New medicines and instruments every day to extend life. A. develop B. are being developed C. are developing D. have developed 【答案与解析】
  1. 选 B.一方面语意要求要被动语态,另一方面从句时态暗示主句应用一般过去时。
  2. 选 D.此句也可说成 It is said that a red sky in the morning is a sign of bad weather.
  3. 选 A,“get + 过去分词”表被动。
  4. 选 D,从逻辑上说,“会议”应是被开,故用被动式。
  5. 选 B.从语境上看,develop 不仅要用被动语态,而且要用进行时态。
  6. 选 A,该用法中的 permit 为不及物动词,不用被动语态。其中 if time permits 也可 换成 time permitting.
  7. 选 B.谓语为 give sb sth 结构的被动语态形式。

  8. 选 B.技术应该是“被”引进,故用被动语态;根据语境句子应用现在进行时。
  9. 选 B.从句意上看,“牛肉”应该是“被”煮,故句子要用被动语态;从时间上看,由于句 中有 didn’t taste very good, 所以“煮得太久”应该在这一过去时间之前, 故用过去完成时。
  10. 选 D.in which were written the names and addresses…为倒装句式,其正常表达为 the names and addresses of his friends were written in the notebook.
  11. 选 D.因为 building 应该是“被建”,故用被动语态;再根据前文的 look, under construction 等信息词可知,此处应用现在进行时态。
  12. 选 B.jobs 与 lose 应为被动关系,故用被动语态;再根据条件状语从句中的一般现在 时可知主句以用一般将来时为宜。
  13. 选 D.因为主语 a red sky 与谓语动词 say 之间为被动关系,故用被动语态。
  14. 选 B.因为“新的药物和器械”与“开发”之间为被动关系,故用被动语态。 动词用法与辨析 ◆ 典型陷阱题分析◆
  1. If you want to sell your product you must it. A. advertise B. advertise for C. advertise on D. advertise to 【陷阱】容易误选 B,认为 advertise 的意思是“做广告”,advertise for 的意思“为…… 做广告”。 【分析】事实上,正确答案为 A.advertise 可用作及物和不及物动词:用作及物动词时, 其意为“为……做广告”、 “登广告宣传”; 用作不及物动词时, 其意为“做广告”、 “登广告”, 此时通常后接介词 for,表示“做广告征求”。比较: advertise for sth (sb) 登广告征求或寻找某物或某人 (此时 advertise 不及物) advertise sth 为……登广告,登广告宣传……(此时 advertise 是及物动词,其后要直接 跟被宣传的东西作宾语) People advertise things that they wish to sell. 人们为要卖的东西登广告。 The manager wants to advertise for a new secretary. 经理想登广告招聘一位新秘书。 再比较以下用例: advertise jobs 登广告招人 advertise for jobs 登广告求职
  2. No matter how much you’ve learned and how high a standard of education you have had, you must the people heart and soul. A. serve B. serve for C. serve to D. serve on 【陷阱】容易误选 B,即字对字地翻译汉语的“全心全意为人民服务”,将其中的“为”译 为 for. 【分析】答案选 A,serve 意为“为……服务”,可直接用作及物动词,其后不能按汉语 意思误加介词 for.请看以下类似例子: (
  1) I you yesterday, but you weren’t in. A. rang B. rang to C. rang with D. rang to 答案选 A,ring 可以用作及物动词,表示“给……打电话”,故其后不用介词。 (
  2) Neither of her parents wanted her to her cousin. A. marry B. marry to C. marry with D. marry for
答案选 A,marry 可用作及物或不及物动词,用作及物动词时它的意思“与……结婚”, 而不仅仅是“结婚”,也就是说,后接宾语时,无需用介词 to, with 等。 (
  3) How can I you, Mr. Green? A. contact B. contact with C. contact to D. contact for 答案选 A,contact 为及物动词,表示“与……联系”,其后不接介词。
  3. According to the rules, students must not their books during examinations. A. read B. watch C. notice D. look at 【陷阱】 容易误选 A.因为按照英语一般习惯: 看书看报用动词 read, 看电视用动词 watch, 看电影用动词 see,看比赛用动词 watch,看黑板用动词 look at,等等。 【分析】一般说来,汉语的“看书”至少有两层意思,一是指阅读性地看书,即看书=读 书,此时通常用动词 read;另一种看书则不是指阅读性地看书,而只是大概地翻一翻或 看一看,比如看看书的封面、定价、内容提要等,或者回答问题时看看书的某些章节或 字句以及考试时偷看书本等等,此时通常都不宜用动词 read,而应根据情况选用其他动 词(如 look at) 。又如: Let me have a look at the book. 让我看看或翻翻这本书。 Please answer my questions without looking at your books. 请不看书回答我的问题。 ◆
  4. “I love traveling. I hope to go with you this time.” “But does your mother you to go?” A. let B. agree C. allow D. promise 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。 【分析】最佳答案为 C.不能选 A 是因为 let 后用作宾语补足语的不定式不能带 to;不 能选 B 是因为动词 agree 习惯上不用于 agree sb to do sth 这一句式;不能选 D 是因为 在 promise sb to do sth 这一句式中, do sth 的逻辑主语是 promise 的主语而不其是宾 to 语,比如 He promised me to go 的意思是“他答应我,他去”,而不是“他答应我让我去”。 之所以能选 C,是因为 allow sb to do sth(允许某人做某事)与上文语境刚好吻合。
  5. If they to make heart-felt apologies soon we will have to bring an action against them. A. disagreed B. refused C. agreed D. hoped 【陷阱】 容易误选 A, 根据 agree to do sth (同意做某事) 想当然地类推出 disagree to do , sth(不同意或不愿意做某事) 。 【分析】事实上,语言有很多问题是不能类推的,如上面这一例,英语可说 agree to do sth,但习惯上却不说 disagree to do sth.类似地,英语中可说 like doing [to do] sth, 但在现代英语中习惯上说 dislike doing sth,却不说 dislike to do sth.其实上面一题的最佳 答案是 B,refuse to do sth 意为“拒绝做某事”或“不愿做某事”。
  6. They own two cars, not to a motorbike. A. speak B. say C. talk D. mention 【陷阱】很容易根据“他们拥有两辆小汽车,更不用说一辆摩托车了”这一中文语境而选 择 B. 【分析】其实最佳答案为 D.因为 not to say 和 not to mention 均为习语,但其含义区别
甚大: not to mention=更不用说,此外还有 not to say=虽不能说,即使不能说 It is warm, not to say hot. 天气虽说不上热,但也够暖了。 He was impolite, not to say rude. 他即使不是粗鲁,至少也是没有礼貌。 There’re ten of us ready to help, not to mention the children. 我们有 10 个人愿意帮忙, 还不 算小孩。 They have three dogs to look after, not to mention the cat and the bird. 他们有三只狗要照 顾,更别提那只猫和鸟了。 ◆
  7. “Do your parents agree to your doing that?” “Yes, of course. In fact, they always me to try something new.” A. hope B. suggest C. support D. encourage 【陷阱】几个干扰项均有可能误选。因为若仅从汉语意思来看,四个选项均可填入空格 处。 【分析】其实此题的正解答案是 D.因为在以上四个选项中,只有 encourage 可后接不定 式的复合结构作宾语,即可用于 encourage sb to do sth,而其余三者均不可后接不定式 的复合结构作宾语, 即英语中习惯上不说 hope sb to do sth, suggest sb to do sth, support sb to do sth.顺便说一句,以下英汉语表达也有类似差别,请注意: 汉语说“希望某人做某事”,但英语不说 hope sb to do sth. 汉语说“同意某人做某事”,但英语不说 agree sb to do sth. 汉语说“不同意某人做某事”,但英语不说 disagree sb to do sth. 汉语说“害怕某人做某事”,但英语不说 fear sb to do sth. 汉语说“拒绝某人做某事”,但英语不说 refuse sb to do sth. 汉语说“惩罚某人做某事”,但英语不说 punish sb to do sth. 汉语说“建议某人做某事”,但英语不说 suggest sb to do sth. 汉语说“建议某人做某事”,但英语不说 propose sb to do sth. 汉语说“赞成某人做某事”,但英语不说 approve sb to do sth. 汉语说“安排某人做某事”,但英语不说 arrange sb to do sth. 汉语说“要求某人做某事”,但英语不说 demand sb to do sth. 汉语说“感谢某人做某事”,但英语不说 thank sb to do sth. 汉语说“指导某人做某事”,但英语不说 guide sb to do sth. 汉语说“祝贺某人做某事”,但英语不说 congratulate sb to do sth. 汉语说“阻止某人做某事”,但英语不说 prevent sb to do sth. 汉语说“通知某人做某事”,但英语不说 inform sb to do sth. 汉语说“欢迎某人做某事”,但英语不说 welcome sb to do sth. 汉语说“陪伴某人做某事”,但英语不说 accompany sb to do sth. 要表示以上汉语意思,英语需改用其他说法。如: advise sb to do sth 建议某人做某事 wish sb to do sth / hope for sb to do sth 希望某人做某事 arrnage for sb to do sth 安排某人做某事 demand of sb to do sth 要求某人做某事 thank sb for doing sth 感谢某人做了某事 congratulate sb on doing sth 祝贺某人做了某事
prevent sb from doing sth 阻止某人做某事 等等。
  8. Nowadays eve
 

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