高考英语一轮重点复习 高考英语一轮重点复习 英语
一、重点单词
Module 5
Unit5

  1. damage (
  1)n.损失; 损害, 损坏 do/cause damage to 损害,破坏 (
  2)vt.损害,损坏; 使受损失 The earthquake damaged several buildings.地震使一些建筑受到了破坏。 a badly damaged car 严重损坏的汽车 拓展:damage, destroy, ruin damage, destroy 和 ruin 这三个单词均表示“破坏”、“损坏”的意思,但各自的含义和用法 不同。 ①damage 指部分“损坏”、“损害”、“破坏”或指使用价值有所降低。它可以用作动词,也可 以用作名词,用作名词时常与 to something 连用。例如:Hundreds of houses in the area were damaged by the storm. 暴风雨毁坏了这个地区数以百计的房屋。 The accident did a lot of damage to his car. 这次车祸使他的车受到很大的损坏。 ②destroy 只能用作动词,指彻底破坏,以致不可能修复,常作“破坏”、“毁灭”解,也可 以指希望、计划等打破。例如: The earthquake destroyed almost the whole town. 地震几乎毁灭 了整个城镇。His hope of being a writer was destroyed. 他想成为一个作家的希望破灭了。 ③ruin 则表示破坏严重,以致不能修复,但这种破坏不像 destroy 那样毁灭某物,而是强调致 使该物的使用价值发生了问题。用作动词时,它作“使毁灭”、“使崩溃”、“弄糟”解;用作名词 时,它表示“毁灭”、“瓦解”、“废墟”等抽象概念。ruin 也有借喻的用法。例如:The fire ruined the castle. 那场大火使城堡夷为废墟。The house has fallen into ruin. 房子倒塌了。The company is facing ruin. 这家公司面临破产
  2. present (
  1)vt.赠予; 颁予, 呈递 present flowers to sb.(present sb. with flowers)献花给某人 present reasons 提出理由 present a new aspect 呈现出一派新气象 present a new play 上演一出新戏 Allow me to present Mr Black to you.请允许我向您介绍布莱克先生。 (
  2)adj.现在的, 出席的, 存在的 at the present time 目前, 现在 the present price 现价 the present participle 现在分词 be present at a ceremony 出席仪式 (
  3)n.礼物, 现在, 目前 at present 现在, 目前 二、重点短语
  1. first aid (
  1)n.(对伤患者的)急救 give first aid to sb.= carry out first aid on sb.对某人实施急救
拓展:aid n.帮助, 援助, 帮助者,有帮助的事物 cut off aid 中止援助 teaching aids 教具 a hearing aid 助听器 medical aid 医疗救护 with the aid of 借助于= with the help of come to sb.’s aid 帮助某人 in aid of 为了帮助 we collect money in aid of the education in the poverty-stricken area. 我们筹集资金以援助贫 困地区的教育。 (
  2)vt.资助, 援助, 帮助 I aided him in his enterprise. They aided in solving the problem.
  2. a number of adj.“许多的, 若干”后接可数名词 区别:the number of / a number of: 都跟可数名词复数。前者作主语,谓语用单数;后者作主语,谓语用复数。 The number of the trees is two thousand. (用单数谓语. 另注意 trees 前有限定词) A number of trees have been cut down. (用复数谓语. 另注意 trees 前无限定词) 拓展: 后接可数或不可数名词的短语:
  1)lots of(a lot of)后接可数或不可数名词。例如: My parents spend a lot of their spare time on English study. Mike had collected lots of Chinese stamps when he studied in China.
  2)plenty of 后接可数或不可数名词。例如: We have plenty of books to read. There is plenty of water in apple. (注:plenty of 一般只用于肯定句,在疑问句中常改用 enough;在否定句中常改用 many 或 much。另外, plenty of 短语作主语时,谓语动词的数由它后面的名词的数而定。 )
  3)most of 后接可数或不可数名词。例如: Most of his money is spent on books. Most of the students in our class are fond of sports.
  4)a large quantity of 后接可数或不可数名词。例如: A large quantity of books have been translated into foreign languages. There is a large quantity of coal in the coal-mine. 后只接可数名词的短语
  1)a group of 后接可数名词的复数。例如: A group of wounded soldiers were saved by Dr Bethune.
  2)a(great/large/good)number of 后接可数名词的复数。例如: There are a number of professors in our college. A great(large/good) number of new machines have been sent to the country side.
  3)a great many 后接可数名词的复数。例如: There are a great many books in our school library.
  4)scores of 后接可数名词的复数。例如: Scores of dustmen took part in the strike.
后只接不可数名词的短语
  1)a great(good deal of)后接不可数名词。例如: A great deal of information can be stored in computers.
  2)a large amount of 后接不可数名词。例如: They are going to spend a large amount of time on the research work.
  3. make a difference 有影响, 很重要 It shows that a knowledge of first aid can make a real difference.这表明急救知识的确能发挥 重要作用。 Everyone can make a difference as long as he tries to.只要努力,人人都可以有所作为。 拓展: It makes no difference whether…是否……没有什么差别 = It doesn’t matter whether …. 如:It makes no difference whether you are for or against the arrangement.你反对还是赞成这 安排都没有关系。 (没用)
  4. stick to 粘住, 坚持 Take clothing off the burned area unless it is stuck to the burn.除非衣服粘贴在烧伤面上, 否则 都要把它脱掉。 Cover the burned area with a bandage that will not stick to the skin.用干而清洁又不粘皮肤的 绷带把烧伤面包起来。 拓展:stick to, insist on, keep on stick to a decision/ plan/ theory 坚持决定/计划/理论(不改变) insist on doing sth.坚持要做某事 Stick to what you think is right, no matter what others say. He insisted on going home, though it was very late. For many years he kept on studying English and using it until he could used it freely. 三、重点句型
  1. Do not rub, as this may break any blisters and the wound may get infected.不要擦拭, 因为这样 做会擦破水泡,伤口会感染 小结 as 的用法: (一)as 作副词,表示程度,意为“同样地”。在“as. . . as. . . ”,“not as. . . as. . . ”结构中的第一 个 as 是副词,作“和/与……(不)一样”解。e.g.: Jack is as tall as his father. He doesn’t speak English as/so fluently as you. (二)as 作介词。 作“如,像”解。e.g.: They got united as one man. 作“充当,作为”解。e.g.: As a writer,he was famous. (三)as 作连词,常用来连接主句和状语从句。
  1. 引导时间状语从句,作“当……的时候”解,有“随着……”之意,与 while 意义相近,强调 两个动作同时发生;或某事一发生,另一事立即发生。e.g.: He shouted aloud as her ran along. 他一边往前跑,一边高声地呼喊。 I was startled as he opened the door. 他一开门,吓了我一跳。
as 作连词,相当于 when。e.g.: As a little boy (When he was a little boy)he began to learn to play piano. 他小时候就开始学 弹钢琴。
  2. 引导原因状语从句,作“因为,由于”解,与 because 的用法相近。e.g.: I must stop writing now,as I have rather a lot of work to do. 我必须停笔了,因为我还有许 多工作要做。 引导方式状语从句或比较状语从句,作“正如,(如)像”解。e.g.: As in your country, grow wheat in the north and rice in the south. 正如(像)你们国家一样, we 我们在北方种小麦,在南方种水稻。(方式状语从句) When at Rome,do as Romans do. 入乡随俗。(方式状语从句)
  3. 引导让步状语从句,作“虽然,尽管”解。这时从句常用倒装语序,即把从句中的表语、 状语或动词原形放在 as 之前。e.g.: Strange as it may seem,it is true. 尽管这事看上去很奇怪,但却是真的 Try as he might,Tom could not get out of the difficulties. 不管怎样努力,汤姆还是摆脱不 了困境。 (四)as 作关系代词。
  1. 引导限制性定语从句, 用在“such…as”, “the same…as”, “as…as”等结构中, 常译作“像…… 一样的人(或物)”,“凡是……的人(或物)”。 e.g.: He wished to be such a man as Lei Feng was. 他曾希望做一个像雷锋那样的人。 My hometown is no longer the same as it was. 我的家乡再也不像过去一样了。
  2. 引导非限制性定语从句,用来指代它前面的整个句子(即先行句),意思是“这一点”。这个 分句可以位于句首、句中或句末。e.g.: As is well known,oceans cover more than
  70% of the earth. 我们知道,海洋占地球面积的 百分之七十以上。 (五)含 as 的固定词组的用法
  1. as soon as 作“一……就”解,引导时间状语从句。e.g.: As soon as I get to Beijing,I’ll write to you. 我一到北京,就给你写信。
  2. as/so long as 作“只要”解,e.g.: As/So long as you study hard,you’ll make progress. 只要你努力,你就会取得进步。
  3. as if/though 常用来引导方式状语从句,作“好像,仿佛”解。如果从句中讲的是非真实情 况,则用虚拟语气。e.g.: She loves the child as if/though he were her own. 她爱这个孩子如同爱自己的孩子。 As if/though 也可用来引导表语从句,常用在“It appears/looks/seems…+as if/though” 句型结构中。e.g.: It appears as if/though it is going to clear up. 看起来天要晴了。 It seems as if/though he knew nothing about it.他好像对此事一无所知。
  4. as to 作“关于,至于”解。e.g.: There is no doubt as to his honesty. 他的诚实是无可置疑的。
  5. as much/many as 作“多达……”,“达到……之多”解。e.g.: He can earn as much as 5000 dollars a month. 他每月能挣 5000 美元。
  6. so/as far as I know 作“就我所知”解,在句中作插入语。e.g.: As/So far as I know,he will come here next Monday. 据我所知,他将于下星期一到这里 来。
  7. as a result,as a result of 表示“由于……的结果”。 e.g.:
She died as a direct result of the accident. 她的死是那次事故的直接结果。
  8. as well 为“也,还”之意。e.g.: Come early,and bring your brother as well. 早点来,把你的弟弟也带来。
  9. so as to,so. . . as to 若跟动词原形,表示目的或结果。e.g.: He studied hard so as to pass the exam. 他努力学习以便通过考试。(表示目的) 考点例题:用 as 完成
  1)对于学生而言, 电脑和英语是同样重要的学科。 For us students, .
  2)尽管他不是个小孩子, 他凭借他的表演天赋已获得一些名气。 , he has gained some popularity through his talents for acting.
【模拟试题】 模拟试题】 (一)用框内所给词组的适当形式完成下列句子(其中两个是多余的) hold…in place, fall ill, apply…to, prevent…from, first aid, over and over again, dress the cut, stick to, protect. …from…, make no difference

  1. It whether I give my suggestions or not, because he won’t listen to me.
  2. His back injury may him playing in tomorrow’s game.
  3. The third degree burns all three layers of skin and even tissue and organs under the skin.
  4. It is said that taking this medicine can one being infected with flu virus.
  5. It’s illegal to advertisements public places.
  6. Though his method of teaching is good, I can’t it my teaching.
  7. There’s a great need for everyone to learn some knowledge of , in case of emergencies.
  8. He didn’t come to school, because he .
  9. My grandfather is forgetful. I have to tell him something before he remembers it.
  10. His arm is bleeding heavily. We must at once. (二)使用 as 完成下列句子
  1. 对于学生而言, 电脑和英语是同样重要的学科。 For us students, .
  2. 尽管他不是个小孩子, 他凭借他的表演天赋已获得一些名气。 , he has gained some popularity through his talents for acting.
  3. 由于我经验不足,所以我不能独自驾车出去。 , I can’t drive out on my own.
  4. 我小时候,常和伙伴们一起玩捉迷藏游戏来取乐。 , I often played hide-and ?seek games with my little friends to amuse ourselves.
  5. 正如我们所料,只有很少人来参加音乐会 Only a number of people came to the concert, .
  6. 只要你答应归还,你就可以把这本书借走。 You may borrow this book . (三)根据括号内所给的提示翻译下列句子。 We often think of future. We often wonder 1_the world will be like a hundred years’ time. Think of 2 space
 

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