《英语语法》 英语语法》 语法
The plane takes off at 8 a. m. tomorrow. ⑥主将从现。常见的从属连词:when, before, after, till, once, if, unless, as/so long as, as soon as, the moment, the minute, the second, immediately, the day, the year 等 If it rains tomorrow, we will stay at home. When you come next time, I’ll show you around our campus. He is going to visit his aunt the day he arrives in Beijing. ⑦在动词 hope, make sure 等宾语从句中(表将来) I hope that they have a nice time next week. Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room. ⑧表示“报纸上说”、“书上说” The newspaper says that it is going to rain tomorrow. ⑨叙述往事,使其生动 Napoleon’s army now advances and the great battle begins. ⑩句型:Here comes…/ There goes… Here comes the bus. There goes the bell.
  2)现在进行时: 形式 am/is/are +doing 用法 ① 说话时正在进行的动作 ② 目前正在发生的动作,但说话时,动作未必发 生 --What are you doing recently? --I’m learning to drive these days. ③ 瞬间动词可用现在进行时表示即将发生的动作 go, come, leave, start, arrive, die, give, return, take, get, see off, reach 等 I’m leaving for Shanghai tomorrow. ④描述将来的安排 They are opening that new supermarket next week. ⑤表示渐变, 常见的动词 get, grow, become, turn, begin, go 等

一、几种主要动词时态、构成及用法 二、时态的呼应 三、动词的语态 几种常见的动词被动语态构成和用法 一、主要动词时态:
  1.现在时态:一般现在时态; 现在进行时态;现在 完成时态;现在完成进行时态
  2.过去时态:一般过去时态;过去进行时态;过去 完成时态;过去完成进行时态
  3.将来时态:一般将来时态;过去将来时态;将来 进行时态;将来完成时态
  1)一般现在时: 形式 do/does; am/is/are 用法 ①经常或习惯的动作 I leave home for school at 7 every morning. ②客观事实和真理 Snow melts at 0 C. Shanghai lies in the east of China. ③现在存在的状态或特征 She is always ready to help others. He writes good English but does not speak well. ④格言或警句 Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。
⑤根据规定、日历、时间表预计要发生的动作或事 件 Christmas falls on a Sunday next year.
The weather is getting warmer and warmer. The leaves are turning red. ⑥现在进行时与 always , constantly, forever,
《英语语法》 英语语法》 语法
This is the first time that I have visited China.
continually 连用时,表示说话人的某种感情(赞许, He is always thinking of others.( 赞许) The couples are always quarrelling about little things.(不理解,厌烦) He is constantly disturbing me.(厌烦) My parents are continually criticizing me. (厌 烦) ★不用于进行时态的动词: 表示知道或了解的动词 believe, know, doubt,forget, imagine, remember, realize,suppose, understand,… 表示“看起来”、 “看上去”的动词 appear, seem, resemble, look,… 表示喜爱或不喜爱的动词 like, love, prefer,dislike, hate,… 表示构成或来源的动词 be, come from,contain, include,… 表示拥有、 需要、 愿望的动词 belong to, need,own, possess, want, wish…
  3)现在完成时: 形式 have/has +done 用法 ①过去发生的动作到现在为止已经完成或刚刚完 成 Now we have planted all the trees. I’ve just received a letter. ②发生在过去但对现在有影响的动作 I’ve lost my keys. ( I can’t open the door.) Mary has (already)gone to Japan. ③发生在过去,持续到现在的动作,可能刚刚结束 也可能还要继续延续下去。常与 since, for, so far,until (till, up to)now, up to the present, in/during the past (last, recent )few (several, two…)months (days…)等时间状语连用。 She has been here since last Month. They have learned English for about six years. So far she has written five books. Up to now, I have finished two-thirds of the work. ④句型 It/This is the first/second time that S. + has/have done

  4)现在完成进行时: 形式 have/has been doing 用法 ① 表示一个动作从过去开始, 一直延续到现在, 强调动作刚停止或仍在继续,可跟 all day, all night, for two hours, these few weeks, since early morning 等时间状语连用。 I’ve been reading this book for two hours,but I haven’t finished it. He’s been doing his science project all night. ② 表示某个重复动作,一般带有感情色彩。 She has always been working like that.
  1)一般过去时 形式 did, was/were 用法 ①过去时间内发生的动作或存在的状态 We had a meeting yesterday. ②过去一段时间内,经常性、习惯性的状态或动作 When we were children, we always had a lot of questions to ask.
《英语语法》 英语语法》 语法
动作,即“过去的过去”,常与 by, before 等过去时 间状语连用。 I had finished the novel by nine o’clock. We had learned over two thousand English words by the end of last term. They had planted six hundred trees before last Sunday. ②用于 said, told, knew, heard, thought 等动 词后的宾语从句中, 常与 for 或 since 时间状语连用。 She said she had not heard from him since last year. He told me that he had never been to Paris. ③动作前后关系:动作在前的用过去完成时,在后 的用一般过去时 When I got to the station, the train had already left. The young girl sitting next to me on the plane was very nervous. She had never flown before.

  2)过去进行时 形式 was/were+ doing 用法: ①过去某一时刻或一段时间内正在进行的动作 I was watching a TV play at 8 p.m. yesterday evening. At that time he was serving in the army. ②某些瞬间动词的过去进行时表示过去即将发生 的动作。如:go, come, leave, arrive, start, die 等 They told me that they were arriving at seven the next morning. ③描述故事发生的背景或状态 He was sleeping under a tree when the storm began. ④有礼貌的请求 I was wondering if you could recommend a good restaurant. I was hoping you might help me with this application form.
  3)过去完成时 形式 had +done 用法 ①表示在过去某一时间或动作前已发生或完成的 t. 时。
④在包含由 after, before, as soon as 等连词的 复合句中,如果两个动作紧接着发生,可不用过去完成 After we (had)said good-bye to the students, we left the school. As soon as he (had)arrived, he gave us a phone call. ⑤hope, expect, intend, mean, want, suppose,think 等动词的过去完成时表示过去未曾实现 的愿望或意图 I had hoped to see more of Shanghai. I had thought you would come, but you didn’
《英语语法》 英语语法》 语法
am/is/are coming( leaving, taking, dying…) 用法 shall/will +do ①表示将要发生的动作或状况 We shall/will have a parent meeting next week. ②表示一种倾向或习惯性动作 Crops will die without water.(倾向) Oil will float on water. (习惯性动作) ③依据观点或信念揣测未来
⑥固定句式 It was the third time that S. + had done; It was +一段时间+…since …had done…; Hardly had…done when…did… No sooner had…done than…did… It was the third time that he had made the same mistake. It was ten years since we had enjoyed ourselves. Hardly had I got home when the rain poured down.
  4)过去完成进行时 形式 had been +doing 用法 ①表示在过去某一时刻以前开始,一直延续到这一 过去时刻, 并仍可能继续进行的动作, 常与 all the time, all day, for, since, by 等时间状语连用。 It was six and he was tired because he had been working since dawn. They had been working on the program for almost one week before I joined them. ② 表示过去反复的动作。 He had been trying to get her on the phone.
He’ll make a good doctor. ④表示预见、意图 I hope that he will be able to go to the party. ⑤说话瞬间做出突然决定 I think I’ll go for a walk--I’ve a slight headache. ⑥主将从现 If it rains tomorrow, we will stay at home. When you come next time, I’ll show you around our campus. am/is/are going to +do ①打算、准备要做的事 I’m going to study medicine. ②根据观察到的迹象、证据做出推测 Look at these clouds. It’s going to rain. He’s going to fail the test. am/is/are(about)to +do 表示即将进行的动作, 不与时间状语连用 We’re about to leave.

  1)一般将来时 形式 shall/will +do; am/is/are going to +do; am/is/are (about)to+do 定)
am/is/are to+ do 表示预定、义务、命令或吩咐等 He is to return from Germany tomorrow. (预 No one is to leave the room without permission. (命令)

  2)过去将来时 形式 would /should+ do; was/were going to do; was/were about to + do; was/were to + do 用法
《英语语法》 英语语法》 语法
②表示按计划或安排将要发生的动作 Tom will be meeting Mr. Black at the airport.
  4)将来完成时 形式 will /shall+ have done 用法 表示到将来某一时间之前已经完成的动作或状态, 常跟下列时间状语连用: by+将来时间,by the end of+将来时间,by the time+从句 By tomorrow morning, the weather will have cleared up. By the end of this month, we surely will have found a satisfying solution to the problem. The conference will have lasted a full week by the time it ends.
①表示从过去某时看将要发生的动作,常用于宾语 从句,主句的谓语动词用过去时 He said that he would speak at the meeting. He was sixty-eight. In two years he would be seventy. ②表示过去的愿望或倾向,常用于否定句,意思是 “不会、不肯” I knew he would never permit such a thing.
③was/ were about to + do 表示过去正要进行的 动作 I was about to leave when the telephone rang. ④was/were going to do 和 was/ were to + do 表过去按计划、安排要发生的事 I was told that the press conference was going to be held/was to be held the next day.
  3)将来进行时 形式 will/shall be+ doing 用法 ①表示将来某时刻或某段时间正在进行的动作, 常与下列时间状语连用: this time + tomorrow/next week…, at …/from… to …/between …and…/+将来时间 We will be seeing a film this time tomorrow afternoon. I will be having an English class at 8 tomorrow. She will be typing an article from 2:00 to 4:00 this afternoon. 时 She said she was busy then. ②如从句谓语动词表示的动作发生在主句谓语动 词表示的动作之前,从句中须用过去完成时 I didn't know that she had been to London twice. ③从句谓语动词表示的动作发生在主句谓语动词 二、时态的呼应
  1)主句的谓语动词为现在时态,从句中的谓语动 词依需要而定(该用什么时态就用什么时态) She knows you have been in Beijing for five years.
  2)主句中的谓语动词为过去时态,从句谓语动词 根据表示的时间而定 ①如从句谓语动词所表示的动作与主句谓语动词 表示的动作同时发生,从句中用一般过去时或过去进行
《英语语法》 英语语法》 语法
将来完成时 情态动词 will have been +done 情态动词+be+ done
They didn't know when they would have a rest. ④从句中的情态动词 must, should /ought to, need, dared 无时态变化 He thought that I need not tell you the truth.

  1)不知道动作的执行者或不必说出动作的执行者 (可省 by 短语) The classroom is cleaned every day. My bike was stolen last night.
  2)强调或侧重动作的承受者 Smokers are persuaded to give up smoking by doctors. The project is going to be sponsored by UNESCO. The house has been washed away by the flood.
⑤如从句说明的是一种普遍真理现象, 谓语动词 仍用一般现在时 When I was a little child, my father told me that the earth is round. ⑥从句中有表示具体过去时间的状语,虽然其谓语 动词表示的动作发生在主句谓语动词表示的动作之前, 从句仍用一般过去时;但如果该状语表示的时间不具 体,则从句要用过去完成时 Tom said he was born in 19
  75. Tom said he had seen the film. 三、动词的语态 主动语态 :主语是动作的执行者 被动语态 :主语是动作的承受者 形式 am/is/are + done 常用的几种被动语态 被动 一般现在时 现在进行时 现在完成时 一般过去时 过去进行时 过去完成时 一般将来时 am/is/are +done am/is/are +being done have/has + been done was/were +done was/were +being done had been+ done will be+ done is/are going to be done would be +done was/were going to be done
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