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高考英语语法复习专题一
定语从句 一、考点聚焦

  1、功能:相当于形容词,修饰名词或代词,在句中作定语
  2、位置:定语从句置于被修饰词之后 Those who are willing to attend the party, sign here please.
  3、先行词:被定语从句修饰的词称为先行词 (
  1) 先行词一般是名词和不定代词, 如:some-, any-, every-和 no 与-boy, -thing 的合成词; 或 all、none、any、some、that、those 等代词。数词也可以作先行词,人称代词也同样可作 先行词。 (
  2)先行词与关系词是等量关系。必须注意两点: ①先行词在从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的数由先行词而定。 This is the place which is worth visiting. ②关系词在从句句子中充当了成分,其意思就是先行词的意义,所以在从句中不能重 复其意。 There are many places we can visit(them)in China.
  4、关系词:引导定语从句的都称关系词 关系代词:who, whom, which, that, whose, as。 关系副词:when, where, why。that 偶尔也作关系副词。
  5、确定关系词的步骤 (
  1)先找关系词,看先行词指的是什么。 (
  2)看关系词在从句中所充当的成分。
  6、在定语从句中,当先行词指物时,下列情况的关系词宜用 that 而不用 which (
  1)先行词被①形容词最高级 ②序数词 ③数词几种词修饰或被 ④only、any、few、 little、no、all、one of 等修饰时。 (
  2)先行词为 all、much、little、none、few、one、something、anything 等不定代词时。 (
  3)先行词中既有人又有物时。 He was looking pleasantly at te children and parcels that filled his bus. (
  4)先行词在主句中作表语关系词在从句中作表语时。 The village is no longer the one that was 5 years ago. (
  5)当主句中含有疑问词 which 时。 Which are the books that you bought for me ?
  7、宜用 which 而不用 that 的情况 (
  1)在非限制性定语从句中 (
  2)在关系词前有介词时 (
  3)当先行词本身是 that 时 (
  4)当关系词离先行词较远时
  8、关系词 who 与 that 指人时,也有不同情况分别用不同的关系词 (
  1)当主句是 there be 句型时,关系词用 who。 (
  2)先行词是为 anyone、those、someone、everyone、one 等词时,关系词用 who。 (
  3)当主句是 who 作疑问词时,关系词用 that。
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Who is that girl that is standing by the window? (
  4)whom 在从句中只作宾语,可被 who 取代。
  9、whose 作关系词既指人又指物,在从句中作定语。如: Do you know Mr.Smith whose story is very moving ? There is a room, whose window faces the river. There is a room, the window of which faces the river.
  10、关系代词 as,在从句中作主语、宾语和表语。 (
  1)先行词被 such 和 the same 修饰,或句型 as many(much)中,从句都用 as 引导。 Such books as you bought are useful. The school is just the same as it was 10 years age. 注意:区别①such … that … 引导的结果状语从句。They are such lovely children that we love them much.②the same … that … 引导定语从句。I want to use the same tool that you used just now. (
  2)无先行词的定语从句用 as 和 which 引导。 区别:①意义上:as 含有“这点正如……一样” 。②位置上:as 从句可置句首,也可 在另处。 He didn’t pass the exam, as we had expected. There is lots of air in loose snow, which can keep the cold out. As is known, the earth is round, not flat.
  11、关系副词 when 与 where、why、that when 指时间 = in / at / on / during which where 指地点 = in / at / from / which why 指原因 = for which 当先行词为 way、day、reason、time 时,可用 that 作关系副词。 (非正式场合) I don’t like the way that / in which / he talks. 当 time 作先行词时,关系词可以省掉。 This is the first time I have given you a lesson in French.
  12、必须注意的问题 (
  1)关系词作主语时,从句中谓语的数。 (
  2)注意区别定语从句与强调句。 ①定语从句中关系词作从句成分,复合句。 ②强调 it 无意义,that / who 不是引导词。 ③强调 it is / was 和 that / who 后如果句子意思讲得通则是强调句,讲不通则不是。 It is the museum that / which we visited last year.(定语从句) It was in the hotel that we stayed last night.(强调句) (
  3)定语从句与同位语从句的区别。 ①定语从句引导词被称为关系词,that 充当主语、宾语、表语。有时可省略。 ②同位语从句引导词被叫做连词,that 不能充当任何成分,不可省。 Word came that their army was defeated.(同位语) We expressed to them our wish that was the same as their.(定语) (
  4)关系词在从句中省略的情况。 ①关系词作宾语,前无介词时。 ②关系词作表语。 (
  5)限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的翻译。
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  6)关系词前有介词或复杂介词,关系词只能是 which 和 whom。 (
  7)几个特殊的定语从句句型: ①He is the only one of the students who has got very good marks in the match.(句中 one 为先行词) He is one of the students who have got good marks in the match.(句中 students 为先行词) ②Is this place the one (that) we visited yesterday? Is this the place(that / which)we visited yesterday ? ③He stood at the window, from where he could see what was happening. ④It may rain, in which case the match will be put off.
二、精典名题导解 精典名题导解
选择填空
  1. The film brought the hours back to me I was taken good care of in that faraway village.(NMET 20
  01) A.until B.that C.when D.where 解析:答案为 C。本题考查分隔定语从句的关系词的选择。作好本题的关键是要能辨认 出该定语从句的先行词 the hours 和关系词被介词短语 to me 所分隔。 定语从句的先行词是表 时间的名词 hours, 并且关系词在从句中用作状语,故应选择表示时间的关系副词 when。
  2. is known to everybody, the noon travels around the earth once every month.(NMET 20
  01) A.It B.As C.That D.What 解析:答案为 B。本题考查 as 引导的非限制定语从句。as 作“正如……”解时,引导 的非限制性定语从句来修饰整个句子。当 as 在从句中作主语时,常用于下列短语:as is known、as is said、as is reported、as is announced 等。要注意掌握作关系代词引导定语从句 的用法。
  3. After living in Pairs for fifty years he returned to the small town he grew up as a child.(NMET 19
  96) A.which B.where C.that D.when 解析:答案为 B。本题考查限制性定语从句中关系词的选择。定语从句的先行词是 表示地点的名词短语 the small town, 且关系词不作定语从句中的主语和宾语而作地点状语, 因此定语从句必须用关系副词 where 引导。 要注意分清先行词在从句中充当的成分, 然后选 择适当的关系词。
  4.The English play my students acted at the New Year’s party was a great success. A. for which B. at which C. in which D. on which 解析: 答案为 C。 考定语从句。 主句部分应是 The English play at the New Year’s party was a great success.从句补全为独立句子应是 my students acted in the play。所以应选 in which,其 余介词不妥。
  5.There were dirty marks on her trousers she had wiped her hands. A. where B. which C. when D. that 解析:答案为 A。本题考地点状语从句,用 where 引导。句意是“她的裤子上她擦过手 的地方有脏痕” 。此处不能用时间状语从句,排除 C,本题易被误认为考定语从句,意为“在 她擦过手的裤子上有脏痕” 。定语从句修饰 trousers,也只能用 where。B 和 D 可引导定语从
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句,但只作主、宾等成分。定语从句缺少状语,不缺主语、宾语,故不可用。 the sailing time
  6.The journey around the world took the old sailor nine months, was 226 days. A. of which B. during which C. from which D. for which 解析:答案为 A。本题考定语从句,关系代词 which 指代 the journey,定语从句恢复为 独立句子应是:The sailing time of the journey was 226 days,故选 of which。
基础训练

  1. The pretty lady you told me the other day turned out to be a thief. A. who B. whom C. about whom D. with whom

  2. Is this the factory your father used to work many years ago? A. the place B. which C. in which D. the one in which

  3. Do you know who lives in the building there is a big apple tree? A. in front of it C. in front of where B. in front of whose D. in front of which

  4. The person my father spoke just now is my English teacher. A. who B. to whom C. to who D. whom

  5. The reason she didn’t come to Tom’s birthday is that her mother won’t let her. A .that B. which C. for which D. for what

  6. China is a beautiful country, we are greatly proud. A. which B. in which C. of which D. where

  7. I will never forget the day I join the army. A. on which B in which C. which D at which

  8. Last week, only two people came to look at the house, wanted to buy it. A. none of them C. none of whom B. both of them D. neither of whom

  9.There are two buildings,stands nearly a hundred feet high. A. the larger C. the larger one that B. the larger of them D. the larger of which

  10. “I’d like to give my thanks to those help my son will be able to survive his terrible disease,” said the woman on TV. A who B that C with whose D with their
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强化训练

  1. Some of the roads were flooded, made our journey more difficult. A. which B. it C. what D. that

  2. Finally they arrived at a place sold cigarettes and other small articles. A. where B. which C. in which D. what

  3. He was educated at a local grammar school, he went on to Cambridge. A. from which B. after that C. after which D. from this

  4. Some pre-school children go to a day care center, they learn simple games and songs. A. then B. there C. while D. where

  5. ?Mom, what did the doctor say? ?He advised me to live the air is fresher. A. in where B. in which C. the place where D. Where

  6. It is reported that two schools, are being built in my hometown,will open next year. A.they both B.which both C.both of them D.both of which were

  7.A survey was carried out on the death rate of newborn babies in that area, surprising. A.as results B.which results C.the results of it D.the results of which

  8.There were two small rooms in the house, served as kitchen. A. the smaller of which B. the small of which C. the smaller of them D. the smaller one

  9. Frank's dream was to have his own shop to produce the workings of his own hands. A. that B. in which C. by which D. how help my son will be able to survive his terrible

  10. “I’d like to give my thanks to those disease,” said the woman on TV. A.who B.that C.with whose
D.with their

  11. She had two new cars, was made in Japan. A. one B. which C. and one of which D. and one of them

  12. On my way home I met a man, I think was her brother.
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A. whom B. that C. who D. /
  13. Next winter, you will spend in Harbin, I’m sure, will be another exciting holiday. A. which B. when C. in which D. that

  14. to take the English Evening Course, please fill in this form. A. Those who want C. Those that want B. Anyone wants D. People want

  15. I don't like you solve such problems. A. the way C. the way which B. the way in that D. the way of which

  16. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80% are sold abroad. A. of which B. which of C. of them D. of that

  17. I can think of many cases students obviously knew a lot of English words and expressions but couldn't write a good essay. A. why B. which C. as D. where

  18. The Oscar is the only one of the film prizes offered to any Chinese actor or actress by far. A. which is not C. that has not B. that have not been D. that has not been

  19. Is this factory some foreign friends visited last Friday? A. that B. where C. which D. the one

  20. That tree, branches are almost bare, is very old. A. whose B. of which C. in which D. on which

  21. I have bought the same dress she is wearing. A. as B. that C. which D. what

  22. This is the very film I've long wished to see. A. which B. that C. who D. whom
高考训练
2007 年
  1. His movie won several awards at the film festival, was beyond his wildest dream.
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(上海卷) A. which B. that C. where D. it

  2. ?Where did you get to know her? ?It was on
 

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