一,冠词 冠词分为不定冠词(a, an) ,定冠词(the) ,和零冠词. I. 不定冠词的用法 1 2 3 4 指一类人或事,相当于 a kind of 第一次提及某人某物,非特指 表示"每一"相当于 every,one 表示"相同"相当于 the same A plane is a machine that can fly. A boy is waiting for you.有个男孩在等你. We study eight hours a day. We are nearly of an age. ? Hello, could I speak to Mr. Smith? 用于人名前,表示不认识此人或与某名人有类似性质的人或 ?Sorry, wrong number. There isn't Mr. Smith here. 5 事 A. 不填 B. a C. the D. one
That boy is rather a Lei Feng.(活雷锋) 6 7 8 用于固定词组中 用于 quite, rather, many, half, what, such 之后 用于 so(as, too, how)+形容词之后 a couple of, a bit, once upon a time, in a hurry, have a walk, many a time This room is rather a big one. She is as clever a girl as you can wish to meet. success(抽象名词)→a success(具体化) 成功的人或事 a failure 失败的人或事 a shame 带来耻辱的人或事 a pity 可惜或遗憾的事 a must 必需必备的事 a good knowledge of 精通掌握某一方面的知识
9
用于抽象名词具体化的名词前
II. 定冠词的用法 In many places in China, bicycle is still popular means of 1 表示某一类人或物 transportation. A. a; the 2 用于世上独一无二的事物名词前 B. /; a C. the; a D. the; the
the universe, the moon, the Pacific Ocean
1
3 4 5
表示说话双方都了解的或上文提到过的人或事 用于演奏乐器 用于形容词和分词前表示一类人
Would you mind opening the door? play the violin, play the guitar the reach, the living, the wounded ?Could you tell me the way to Johnsons, please?
6
表示"一家人"或"夫妇" (对比上文的不定冠词用法
  5)
?Sorry, we don't have Johnson here in the village. A. the; the B. the; a C. /; the D. the; /
7 8 9 10 11 12
用于序数词和形容词副词比较级最高级前 用于国家党派等以及江河湖海,山川群岛的名词前 用于表示发明物的单数名词前 在逢十的复数数词之前,指世纪的某个年代 用于表示度量单位的名词前 用于方位名词,身体部位名词
He is the taller of the two children. the United States, the Communist Party of China, the French The compass was invented in China. in the 1990's(二十世纪九十年代) I hired the car by the hour. He patted me on the shoulder.
III. 不用冠词(又名零冠词)的用法 1 2 3 4 5 专有名词,物质名词,抽象名词,人名地名等名词前 名词前有 this, my, whose, some, no, each, every 等限制 季节,月份,星期,节假日,一日三餐前 表示职位,身份,头衔的名词前 表示球类,棋类等运动的名词前 Beijing University, Jack, China, love, air I want this book, not that one. / Whose purse is this? March, Sunday, National Day, spring Lincoln was made President of America. He likes playing football/chess. We went right round to the west coast by sea instead of driving 6 与 by 连用表示交通方式的名词前 across continent. A. the; the 7 以 and 连接的两个相对的名词并用时 B.不填;the C. the; 不填 D. 不填;不填
husband and wife, knife and fork, day and night
2
8
表示泛指的复数名词前
Horses are useful animals. 二,名词和主谓一致 名词和主谓一致 普通名词 可数名词 个体名词 集体名词 抽象名词 特别注意名词类别的相互转换 个体名词与抽象名词的相互转换 不可数名词 物质名词
I. 名词的种类 专有名词 国名地名人名,团体机构名称


意 义 花儿 开花 青春 年轻人 成功 成功的事 物质名词与个体名词的相互转换 意 义 铁 熨斗 玻璃 玻璃杯 小鸡 鸡肉 抽象名词与个体名词的转换
名词性质 个体名词 抽象名词 抽象名词 个体名词 抽象名词 个体名词
①She held some flowers in her hand. ②The trees are now in flower ①Youth is beautiful. ②He is a youth of twenty ①They have achieved remarkable success in their work. ②?How about the Christmas evening party? ?I should say it was a success. 例 ①Iron is a kind of metal. ②Please lend me your iron. ①He broke a piece of glass. ②He broke a glass. ①I bought a chicken this morning ②Please help yourself to some chicken 句
名词性质 物质名词 个体名词 物质名词 个体名词 个体名词 物质名词
具有动作意义的抽象名词加用 与某些动词(如:have 等)连 用,表示某一次短暂的动作
①?I'd likeinformation about the management of your hotel,please. ?Well, you could haveword with the manager. He might be helpful A.some,a B.an,some C.some,some D.an,a ②They sent us word of the latest happenings. 消息 (抽象名词)
3
A.a B.an C./ D.the ③Could we have word before you go to the meeting? 话(个体名词) A.a B.an C./ D.the 类例:have a dream/a rest/a smoke/a swim/a trip/a wash/a discussion/a look take a walk/a bath make an advance(进步)/make an early start(早点出发) /make a decision/make a change/give a cry of pain(发出痛苦的叫声) /give a try ①Many people agree thatknowledge of English is a must ininternational trade today. A.a, / B.the, an C.the, the D. /, the a knowledge of truth(知道实际情况) give a fuller knowledge of China(提供关于中国更为翔实的知识) have a knowledge of shorthand(有速记的知识) ②If there were no examination, we should haveat school. A.the happiest time B.a more happier time C.much happiest time D.a much happier time ③ is money. A.The time B.A time C.Time D.Times ①Oh, John. you gave me! A.How a pleasant surprise B.How pleasant surprise C.What a pleasant surprise D. What pleasant surprise ②She looked up when I shouted. D.in some surprise A.in a surprise B.in the surprise C.in surprise 其它例子:The gift came as a complete surprise to me. We have had some unpleasant surprise ③It iswork of art that everyone wants to have a look at it. A.so unusual B. such unusual C.such an unusual D.so an unusual
表示知识和时间的抽象名词转 换为普通名词时可以用来表示 其中的一部分
抽象名词转换为普通名词可用 来表示"一次,一阵,一种" 具体的行为,事件,现象或结 果.这时名词前往往有形容词 修饰
II. 名词的数 规则名词的复数形式:名词的复数形式,一般在单数形式后面加-s 或-es(参看有关语法书) .英语里有些名词的复数形式是不规则的,请看下表 规 1 2 3 单复数相同 只有复数形式 则 例 词 改变名词中的元音字母或其他形式 man-men, woman-women, foot-feet, goose-geese, mouse-mice sheep, deer, series, means, works, fish, species ashes, trousers, clothes, thanks, goods, glasses, compasses, contents
4
4 5
一些集体名词总是用作复数 部分集体名词既可以作单数 (整体) 也可以作复数 (成 员) 复数形式表示特别含义 加-s
people, police, cattle, staff audience, class, family, crowd, couple, group, committee, government, population, crew, team, public, enemy, party customs(海关), forces(军队), times(时代), spirits(情绪), drinks(饮料), sands(沙滩), papers(文件报纸), manners(礼貌), looks(外表), brains(头脑 智力), greens(青菜), ruins(废墟) Americans, Australians, Germans, Greeks, Swedes, Europeans Swiss, Portuguese, Chinese, Japanese Englishmen, Frenchwomen sons-in-law, lookers-on, passers-by, story-tellers, boy friends grown-ups, housewives, stopwatches women singers, men servants 况 举 例
6
7
表示 "某国人"
单复数同形 以 -man 或 -woman 结 尾 的 改 为 -men,-women 将主体名词变为复数 无主体名词时将最后一部分变为复数 将两部分变为复数
8
合成名词
III. 主谓一致 规则 语 情 His father is working on the farm. To study English well is not easy. Reading in the sun is bad for your eyes. 以单数名词或代词动词不定式短语, 动名词短语或从句作主 What he said is very important for us all. 语时,谓语动词一般用单数形式;主语为复数时,谓语动词 由 what 引导的主语从句, 后面的谓语动词多数情况用单数形式, 用复数形式. 但若表语是复数或 what 从句是一个带有复数意义的并列结构 时,主句的谓语动词用复数形式. what I bought were three English books. What I say and do is (are) helpful for you. 由连接词 and 或 both…and 连接起来的主语后面,要用复数 形式的谓语动词.但若所连接的两个词是指同一个人或物 时,它后面的谓语就用单数形式.由 and 连接的并列单数 主 语 前 如 果 分 别 有 no, each, every 或 more than a (an)/one,many a (an) 修饰时,其谓语动词要用单数形式. Lucy and Lily are twins The writer and artist has come. Every student and every teach is in the classroom. Many a boy and many a girl likes it. No boy and no girl likes it.
5



either, neither, each, every 或 no+单数名词和由 some, any no, every 构成的复合不定代词,都作单数看待.. 原
Each of us has a new book. Is everyone here today? Somebody is speaking in class. Everything around us is matter 若 none of 后面的名词是不可数名词,它的谓语动词就要用单 数.若它后面的名词是复数,它的谓语动词用单数或复数都可 以. None of the sugar was left. None of us has (have) been to America.

Those who want to go please write their names on the blackboard. 在定语从句里,关系代词 that, who, which 等作主语时,其 He is one of my friends who are working hard. 谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致. He is the (only) one of my friends who is working hard. 在强调句型中应与被强调部分一致 It is I who am going to the cinema tonight. It is we who are going to the cinema tonight.
The police are looking for the lost child. The cattle are eating grass in the field. 如果集体名词指的是整个集体,它的谓语动词用单数形式; His family has moved to the south .(他的一家) 如果它指的集体的成员,其谓语动词用复数形式 His family are watching TV.(他的家人) Class four is on the third floor.(四班) Class Four are unable to agree upon a monitor.(四班的学生) There are a lot of people in the classroom. Three-fourths of the surface of the earth is sea. 由 a lot of /lots of/ plenty of/ a heap of/ heaps of/ the rest of/the 50 percent of the students in our class are girls. ,但 majority of+名词构成的短语以及由分数或百分数+名词构 此外,还有 a number of +复数名词有类似的用法(用复数) 成的短语作主语时, 其谓语动词的数要根据短语中后面名词 the number of +复数名词的数就得依 number 而定(用单数) . A number of students have gone to the farm to help the farmer pick 的数而定. apples. The number of pages in this book is three hundred. 在倒装句中,谓语动词的数应与其后的主语一致 There comes the bus. On the wall are many pictures. Such is the result. Such are the facts. Between the two hills stands a monument.
6
逻 辑 意 义 一 致 原 则
Which is your bag? What, who, which, any, more, all 等代词可以是单数, 也可是 Are any of you good at English? All can be done has been done. 复数, 主要靠意思来决定. All have been taken out.
Which are your bags? Has any of you got a pen? All is going well. All have gone to Beijing.
Thirty minutes is enough for the work.. 表示时间重量长度价值等的名词的复数作主语时, 谓语动词 Twenty pounds is too dear. 通常用单数形式, 这是由于作主语的名词在概念上是一个整 如强调这类词的复数意义,则谓语动词要用复数形式 体. Forty kilos of water are used every day. 若英语是书名名格言剧名报名国名等的复数形式, 其谓语动 The United States is smaller than China. "The Arabian Nights" is an interesting story-book. 词通常用单数形式. 表数量的短语"one and a half"后面接复数名词作主语时, 其谓语动词要用单数形式. One and a half apples is left on the table.
一 些 学 科 名 词 是 以 -ics 结 尾 , 如 : mathematics, politics, physics 以及 news, works 等. 都属于形式上是复数的名词, The paper works was built in 19
  90.这家造纸厂建于 1990 年. I don't think physics is easy to study. 实际意义为单数名词, 它们作主语时,其谓语动词要用单数形式. trousers, glasses, clothes, shoes, scissors (剪刀)等词作主语 My glasses are broken. 时, 谓语用复数, 但如果这些名词前有 a(the) pair of 等量词 The pair of shoes under the bed is his. 修饰时(clothes 被 a suit of 修饰)谓语动词用单数. "定冠词 the+形容词或分词" 表示某一类人动词用复数; , 若 表示某一类东西时,动词用单数. The old are taken good care of there. The beautiful gives pleasure to all.
就 近 /远 一 致 原 则
Either the teacher or the students are our friends. 当两个主语由 either or, neither nor, not only but also ,whether Neither he nor they are wholly right. or 连接时,谓语动词和邻近的主语保持一致,即就近一致. Neither they nor he is wholly right. Is neither he nor they wholly right? there be 句型中 be 动词的单复数取决于其后的主语.如果 There are two chairs and a desk in the room. 其后是由 and 连接的两个主语,
 

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