高考英语语法易错点归纳
一,定语从句 引导定语从句的关系代词有 that,which,who(宾格 whom) ,所有格 whose)和关系副词 where when why 等,关系代词或关系副词在定语从句中充当一个成分,关系代词 that,which,who,whom 等在从句 中分别作主语或宾语,whose 在从句中作定语,而关系副词 when,where,why 等在从句中作状语. 如: ①I will never forget the days when/in which we worked together. ②I will never forget the days which/that we spent together. 解析:在句①中,表示时间的名词 the days 在从句中充当的是状语,所以用关系副词 when 来代指,引导定语从句修饰先行词 the days;而在句②中,表示时间的名词 the days 在从句中充当的是动词 spent 的宾语,所以用关系代词 that 或 which 来代指.
同样,表示地点或原因的名词如果在从句中作状语,则用关系副词 where 或 why 来代指;如果在从句中作动词的宾语,则用 which 或 that 来代替. 如: ①This is the factory where/in which I worked.(作状语) ②This is the factory that/which I visited years ago.(作宾语)
注:当先行词为 time,reason, place 时,引导词可以省略.如: ①This was the first (when/what) I had serious trouble with my boss. ②That is the reason (why) I did it. ③This is the place (where) we met yesterday.
另外,定语从句中谓语动词的数应与先行词的数相一致.如: ①Mr. Jackson is the only foreigner that is present
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at the party.0 ②He is one of the students who were praised by the teacher. 解析:在句①中,先行词 foreigner 被 only 修饰,强调只有一个,所以从句中谓语动词用单数形式, 而在句②中,who 引导的定语从句修饰先行词 the students,为复数,所以从句谓语动词应为复数. 感悟: 学生之所以在这一点上经常出错, 主要是对定语从句的理解不够深刻, 分辨不出主句和从句, 对句子成分的把握也不到位, 搞不清关系代词或关系副词在从句中充当何种句子成分. 所以要做好 这一类题, 要首先弄清关系代词和关系副词的用法, 而且应善于分辨和分析句子结构及其相应成分, 这样才能对症下药,快速准确地找到瓿之所在
二 名词性从句中的易错点 (一)that 引导的定语从句与同位语从句 定语从句与前面的的名词是修饰与被修饰的关系,"……的名词",而同位语从句是用来说明前面名 词的内容.与 that 从句同位的名词必须是一些表示事实或概念的抽象名词,如 fact,news,belief,truth,reply 等.That 在定语从句中必须作成分,可用 which 或 who/whom 代替,而 that 在同位语从句中不充当任何句子成分,只起连接作用.如: ①Along with the letter was his promise that he would visit me this coming Christmas. ②Do you still remember the chicken farm that we visited three months ago. 解析:在句①中,that 引导同位语从句解释说明 promise 的内容,that 不充当任何句子成分,只起 连接作用,而在句②中,that 在其引导的定语从句中作动词 visited 的宾语,对先行词 the chicken farm 起修饰作用. 感悟:学生之所以在这一点上容易出错,主要还是因为对定语从句的理解不够深刻,分辨不出 that 在从句中是否充当了句子成分,因此,还需在句子分析上下功夫,并且搞清何谓同位语从句.
(二)名词性从句中,关于 it 作形式主语和形式宾语的易错点
  1) 名词性从句作主语或宾语时,为保持句子平衡,常用 it 作形式主语或形式宾语.如: It's a pity that he don't come to give a speech.(形式主语)
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We think it possible that you can finish the job today.(形式宾语)

  2)谓语动词 appreciate, dislike, hate, like, love, ) make 等接由 if 或 when 引导的宾语从句时往往在从句前加上形式宾语 it. 例如:I would appreciate it if you could come to my birthday party.

  3)动词 hare, take, hide, punish, put 等,后接由 that ) 引导的病因从句式,往往在从句前加形式宾语 it. 例如:① I take it that you will be leaving Shanghai soon. ② we punished it that we had finished the project ahead of time.

  4)短语动词 answer for, count on depend on, insist on, ) see to 等后接有 that 引导的宾语从句时,必须冠以形式宾语 it. 例如:① I'm counting on it that you will come. ② She'll see to it that he goes ahead. 注:作形式主语和形式宾语时只能用 it.
的用法与区别. 三,代词 it,one,that 的用法与区别 , , One 泛指,指代前面提到的那类人或物,用于指代可数名词,相当于 a+名词单数,其复数形式 ones 前一般要有定语,否则就要用 some. That(those 复数)即可指代不可数名词,表特指,相当于 the+名词,后面经常与介词修饰语连用. It 指代上文出现的名词,表示同类同物,另外还可表示时间,距离,天气,还可指代人称代词,表 示性别身份不明,可作形式主语,形式宾语,引导强调句式以及一些固定搭配,如:get it, catch it, make it. 例如:① I have lost my watch. I think I must buy one.我丢了只表,我想我必须再买一只. (代指上文指到的同类事物,但不指同一个) ② Where is my pen? Have you seen it?
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我的钢笔不知弄到哪去了,你见了吗?(代指上文提到的同一事物) ③ The land of China is larger than that of America. ④ Tome has a red pen and a blue one (或 two blue ones) ⑤ He has no child, and he wants toadopt one (或 some)
四,虚拟语气 I 虚拟语气在 if 引导的条件句中的易错点. ① if my lawyer had been here last Saturday, he would have prevented me from going. ② if you had studied hard at school, you would be a college student now. 句子①②都是虚拟语气在条件句中的使用,从句中都是假设过去的情况,所以用过去完成时,但在 主句中,句①依然指代过去的情况,谓语动词是 would have done,而②中含有一个表示现在的时间状语 now, 这样就必须将其理解为假设现在的情况,所以谓语动词必须为 would/should/might+动词原形,学生 在这一点上经常会忽略 now 的存在,从而按句①的形式填写答案.
Ⅱ虚拟语气在名词性从句中的用法

  1.在 it is important (strange, natural, necessary……)+that 句子或者 It is decided (ordered,suggested, demanded, advised……)+that 句子中,主语从句中的谓语动词常用(should)+动词原形结构,表示某事"重要", "必要","被决定"等 例如:① it is important that everyone (should ) obey the rules all day and all night. ② it is decided that the meeting (should) be held tomorrow afternoon.
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  2. suggest, insist 后面指宾语从句时需注意的地方

  1)①suggest 当"建议""提出"讲时,其后宾语从句的谓语动词常用"should+动词原形" ) 例如:He suggested that the work (should) be started at once 他建议立即动工. 类似的动词还有 insist 坚持,demand 要求,desire 要求,请求,request 请求,require 要求,需要, order 命令,propose 建议,command 命令,ask 要求,advise 建议,prefer 宁愿等. 这些动词变被动语态(如:It is suggested + that 主语从句)形式后,主语从句谓语动词仍用"(should)+动词原形" 这些动词变名词(如 suggestion)后,其后的表语从句和同位语从句中的谓语部分仍用"(should)+ 动词原形" ②suggest 当"提出(某看法) ,暗示,启发"讲时,其后宾语从句的动词不用虚拟语气. 例如: (
  1)The police suggested that the thief might be one of the family member 警察局提出窃贼可能是一名家庭成员. (
  2)Her yawns suggests that she is sleepy. 她打哈欠表明她困了. (
  3)Although he didn't suggest that we __ the decision to swim across the river, but his look suggested that our decision __wrong.虽然他没提出我们应该终止游过这条河的决定,但他的表情表明我们的决定是错误的. A:stop; wasB: should stop; beC: stopped ;wasD: stopped; should be 在这个句子中,前一个 suggest 当"建议""提出"讲,而后一个作"表明"讲,所以答案为"A"

  2)①insist 作"坚决要求…该…;坚持认为…定要…"讲时,其后宾语从句的谓语动词用"(should)+ ) 动词原形" 例如:I insisted that you (should) be there on time.我坚持认为你应该准时到那里去 ②insist 作"坚持(意见,看法) ;坚持说,确信"讲时,其后从句不用虚拟语气.
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例如:He suggested (that) he heard someone in the next room. 他坚持说他听到隔壁屋子里有人.
五.反意疑问句中的易错点 反意疑问句中的易错点
  1.在一般疑问句中,无论肯定的问或是否定的问,如果回答为肯定则用 yes,反之则用 no.特别注意 如果出现省略则看下文所暗示的意义. ①?Are you a new comer? ?Yes, I came here only yesterday. ②?Isn't Tom a good student? ?Yes, he is excellent. ③?Don't you think the composition good? ?No, It can't be any worse. 注意:在②③句中,当回答的意思与问句相一致时,则用 No,译为"是的",当回答的意思与问句 相反时,则用 Yes,译为"不"

  2.情态动词 must ① I must leave now, mustn't I ? ② He must be in the classroom, isn't ?(表推测) ③ He must have finished his homework, hasn't he ? (表现在的结果) ④ He must have finished his homework yesterday afternoon,didn't he? (表过去) 当句子中有表示猜测的情态动词时, 其反意疑问句的构成不能再用原句中的情态动词, 而应根据原 句在去掉情态动词的情况下的主谓关系来确定其反问形式.
六,非谓语动词中的易错点 非谓语与其逻辑主语(即动作的执行者或承受者)之间有三种关系,如为主谓关系,则用现在分词 或不定式的主动式;如为被动关系则用过去分词,现在分词的被动(强调动作正在进行)或不定式 的被动式(动作将进行) ;如既无主动也无被动关系则只能用状语从句或独立主格结构(即非谓语 加上自己的逻辑主语) .
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Judging/considering/genrally speaking/supposing 指说话者的动作,故只用主动式.如: Having been ill in bed for nearly a month , he had a hard time passing the exam. 解析:从这个句子可以看出,句词的逻辑主语与句子的主语 he 一致,并且是主谓关系,所以用了 现在的分词作状语,同时,分词的动作明显地发生在句子的谓语动词动作之前,故采用了现代分词 的完成式. In order to improve English , . A. Jenny's father bought her a lot of tapes. B. Jenny's father bought a lot of tapes for herself. C. A lot of tapes were bought by Jenny. D. A lot of tapes were bought by Jenny father. 解析:根据不定式短语我们可以推知,句子的逻辑主语应该是人而不是物,所以,应该排除 CD, 再就是应该是 Jenny 提高自己的英语,而不是她爸爸,故答案先 B. ???,we decided to go out for a walk. A. It is fine B. It fine C. Being fine D.It being fine 解析:主句主语 we 与动词短语 be fine 之间既无主动关系与无被动关系,所以要加上自己的逻辑主语 It,由于不存在主,被动关系, 故不能选 C 项,而应该选 D 项. ????more attention, the trees could have grown better. A. Given B.To give C.Giving D. Having giving 解析:give 与主句的主语之间是被动关系,故选 A.如为主动关系则选 C. 易出错的问题一般都是学生在学习中对知识理解不深刻或能力欠缺的地方,应及时纠错和建立"错 题档案",还应"借题发挥",有意地把一些易错题予以归类,找出错误根源,总结规律.
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