2009 年高考英语语法知识梳理
第4讲
一、Language points
  1. sth sth for sth prepare + for sth to do sth be prepared for be prepared to do sth make preparations for They tied for first place in the game. We tied with the visiting team in the basketball match. The dog is tied to a tree. affect vt. 影响 effect n. 效果,作用 have a good/bad effect on in effect 事实上 cause and effect 因果 take effect 生效,起作用 come into effect 生效,实行 effort n. 努力 without effort 毫不费力 make every effort 尽一切努力 spare no effort 不遗余力 weigh vt. 称…的重量 vi. 重达…, 重量为… put on weight lose weight by weight in meters/pounds/calories by the day/the week/the yard/the dozen/the ton + in…参加…比赛 compete + with/against…与…竞赛/竞争 + for…角逐…,为获取…而竞赛 Where there is a river, there is a city. Where there is a will, there is a way. Where there is life, there is hope. + do sth + not do sth

  2.

  3.

  3.

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  5.

  6.
do sth than do sth =would do sth rather than do sth =would do sth rather than do sth =prefer to do sth rather than do sth + that-clause+ did──表现在或将来 had done──表过去
  7. do damage to sth live one’s dream in ruins/in pieces under attack/discussion/construction/consideration/treatment
  8. almost: 差距比 nearly 小。可与 never, no, no one, none, nobody, nothing, nowhere 等否定词连用,但不能 与 not 连用。 nearly: 不可与上述否定词连用,但可与 not 连用,构成 Not…nearly, 意为“远非…,远不及…” 二、语法专题──形容词和副词的考点
  1. 形容词和副词的辨析:一般无规律可循,只能在于平常时多积累。我们应注意这几 点: (
  1)分清形容词和副词各自的语法功能,即形容词常用作定语,而副词常用作状语; (
  2)掌握具体的形容词、副词的基本含义和语法功能。如 therefore 意为“所以”, 在句中起关联作用。 (
  3)有些副词有两种形式,其中一种形式与形容词相同,另一种形式是在形容词后加 -ly,意义不太相同,应加以分辨。常见的有: close 接近──closely 仔细地,密切地; high 高──highly 高度地; free 免费──freely 自由地,自如地; late 晚,迟──lately 近来; deep 深──deeply 深刻地,深入地; near 邻近──nearly 几乎; hard 努力地──hardly 几乎不; most 最──mostly 主要地; wide 宽阔──widely 广泛地; easy 从容地──easily 容易地 (
  4)有些副词与形容词的词形完全相同。换言之,有些词同时兼有形容词和副词两种词 性。常见的有:early, straight, slow, enough, fast, hard, long, firm 等。
  2. 形容词和副词的词序: (
  1)enough 用作形容词修饰名词时,可前可后;用作副词修饰形容词或副词时,只能位 于之后。例:enough time/time enough; strong enough。 (
  2)形容词修饰复合不定代词时要后置,something important。 (
  3)as, how, so, too 修饰单数名词时,其词序为:as/how/so/too+adj.+a/an+n.,too large a room; how interesting a film; Mike is as clever a boy as Tom。 (
  4)such 修饰单数名词时,其词序为:such+a/an+adj.+n.,such a large room; 但名 词前是 one, some, many, all, no 等修饰时,其词序为: one/some/many/all/no+such+adj.+n.。 (
  5)多个形容词作定语时的词序为:
+ would rather +
限定词+描绘性形容词+大小、长短、高低等形容词+新旧+颜色+国家、地区+材料 +用途+被修饰名词。 限定词包括:前位限定词,如: 倍数词、分数词及 all, both, half, double 等; 中位限定词,如: 冠词、物主代词、 指示代词、 所有格及 some, any, no, every, each, either, neither, enough, much, whose 等; 后位限定词, 基数词, 如: 序数词及 little(表示少), few, last, next, other, another, more, less, most, several, least, plenty of 等不定量代词; 限定词的排列顺序:前位+中位+后位+中心词。 (
  6)倍数的表示法:A is n times bigger than B. as big as the size of John has five times as many books as mine.
  3. 形容词和副词的比较等级: (
  1)当 A>B 时,比较级+than (
  2)当 A>B,且 B 包含 A 时 He is older than any of the other boys(=any other boy) in his class. 当 A>B,但 B 不包含 A 时 He is richer than any of the people here. I’m taller than any student of your class. (
  3)比较级+and+比较级:表示自身的变化 The+比较级,the+比较级:表示随之变化。 (
  4)“否定词+谓语+比较级”相当于最高级 I’ve never seen a nicer bird than this one. How beautifully she sings! I have never heard a better voice. (
  5)常见的无比较级、最高级的形容词和副词有:cpmparative(ly), relative(ly), particular(ly), special(ly), excellent(ly), extreme(ly), perfect(ly), complete(ly)等。 (
  6)more+原级+than: 与其说…不如说…。 (
  7)可以修饰比较级的副词有:any, even, far, much, rather, still, yet, a bit, a little, a lot, by far, 但不可加 very, many, more, fairly, quite(但 quite better 除外)。
  4. 形容词和副词的成分区别: (
  1)不能作定语的形容词(大多数以 a 开头):afraid, alike, alive, alone, ashamed, asleep, awake, ill, well, 若要作定语,则分别改用 frightened, similar, living, lone, shy, sleeping, waking, sick, healthy; 有时这些形容词也可以作定语,但一 般作后置定语。 (
  2)作状语一般用副词,但有时形容词可作伴随状语。 He hurried home, full of fear./ All men all created equal. 三、题型归纳──语境、语境+语法型单项填空 在题干上附加一些语言信息, 将词法、 句法等知识融入到语境之中, 使试题语境化, 其特点是:如果单独看空白和选项,各个选项都是正确的。然而,将题干和选项联系起 来考虑,就只有一个最佳选项。常见的题型有:(
  1)对话语境;运用对话语境命题是高 考的一种趋势,应该正确理解对话双方的语气、时态、语态,从而确定正确的选项;(
  2)
句中的语境:有些试题选项中的一个或几个好像都适用这个问题,但是,根据句子的语 境的意义,就可判断出只有一个是最佳答案;(
  3)动词的时态和语态,情态动词及语气, 形容词和副词的级。
  1. Why? Tom, your shirt is so dirty? Mom, I my store room downstairs. A. cleaned B. have cleaned C. was cleaning D. have been cleaning
  2. I think Gorge doesn’t really care for TV plays. Right, he still watches the program. A. and B. but C. or D. so
  3. If you can’t come tomorrow, we’ll have to hold the meeting next week. A. yet B. even C. rather D. just
  4. I’m going to Beijing tomorrow. Do you have anything to your brother there? A. to take B. to be taken C. taken D. take
  5. We are sure everything here by the time you come back from abroad in a few years. A. had changed B. will have changed C. had been changed D. will have been changed
  6. Hello, you 323-656
  68. I’m sorry but I’m unable to answer your call right now. A. reached B. are reaching C. have reached D. had reached
  7. The meeting is not over, and you not leave. A. will B. shall C. may D. need
  8. Had I learnt English well, I the interview for the job tomorrow. A. would take B. would have taken C. shall take D. could be taken
  9. Bob is honest boy, and he won’t tell lies. A. most B. the most C. a most D. very much
  10. With the doctor’s treatment, Sally feels better now. A. very B. fairly C. so D. quite
  11. Though the ship sunk, all the people on her be resuced. A. could B. should C. had to D. were able to
  12. We will all appreciate you can come to join us in developing my hometown. A. that if B. it if C. it that D. that when
  13. he said to us yesterday true? A. What can, was B. That can, was C. Can what, be D. Can that, be
  14. He told me that he would remember the days in Beijing University forever he got much help there from Professor Zhu. A. where B. which C. that D. when
  15. is what he did, not what he said, that moved us greatly. A. It B. This C. Which D. As 1-5 DBDBD 6-10 BBACD 11-15 DBCDA
 

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