嘉兴英语教学网 www.jxenglish.com 收集整理 欢迎使用
语法复习一:句子成分;简单句, 语法复习一:句子成分;简单句,并列句和复合句
一,句子成分 句子成分的定义: (一)句子成分的定义:构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分.句子成分有主要成分和次要成 分;主要成分有主语和谓语;次要成分有表语,宾语,定语,状语,补足语和同位语. 主语: (二)主语:主语是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首.但在 there be 结构,疑问句(当 主语不疑问词时)和倒装句中,主语位于谓语,助动词或情态动词后面.主语可由名词,代 词,数词,不定式,动名词,名词化的形容词和主语从句等表示.例如: During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular.(名词) We often speak English in class.(代词) One-third of the students in this class are girls.(数词) To swim in the river is a great pleasure.(不定式) Smoking does harm to the health.(动名词) The rich should help the poor.(名词化的形容词) When we are going to have an English test has not been decided.(主语从句) (it 真正的主语为后面的不定式) It is necessary to master a foreign language. 作形式主语, 谓语: (三)谓语:谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态.动词在句中作谓语,一般放在 主语之后.谓语的构成如下: 1,简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成.如:He practices running every morning. 2, 复合谓语: 由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成. You may keep the book (
  1) 如: for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. (
  2)由系动词加表语构成.如:We are students. 表语: 表语用以说明主语的身份, 特征和状态, 它一般位于系动词 (如 be, become, get, (四) 表语: look, grow, turn, seem 等)之后.表语一般由名词,代词,形容词,分词,数词,不定式, 动名词,介词短语,副词及表语从句表示.例如: Our teacher of English is an American.(名词) Is it yours?(代词) The weather has turned cold.(形容词) The speech is exciting.(分词) Three times seven is twenty one?(数词) His job is to teach English.(不定式) His hobby(爱好)is playing football.(动名词) The machine must be out of order.(介词短语) Time is up. The class is over.(副词) The truth is that he has never been abroad.(表语从句) 宾语: (五)宾语:宾语表示动作的对象或承爱者,一般位于及物动词和介词后面.例如: They went to see an exhibition(展览)yesterday.(名词) The heavy rain prevented me form coming to school on time.(代词) How many dictionaries do you have? I have five.(数词) They helped the old with their housework yesterday.(名词化形容词) He pretended not to see me.(不定式短语) I enjoy listening to popular music.(动名词短语) I think(that)he is fit for his office.(宾语从句) (
  1)双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语) ,例如:Lend me your dictionary, please. 宾语种类:
第 1 页 共 8 页
嘉兴英语教学网 www.jxenglish.com 收集整理 欢迎使用
(
  2)复合宾语(宾语+宾补) ,例如:They elected him their monitor. 宾语补足语: (六)宾语补足语:英语中有些及物动词,除有一个直接宾语以外,还要有一个宾语补语, 才能使句子的意义完整.带有宾语补足语的一般句型为:某些及物动词(如 make 等+宾语+ 宾补) .宾补可由名词,形容词,副词,不定式,分词,介词短语和从句充当.例如: His father named him Dongming.(名词) They painted their boat white.(形容词) Let the fresh air in.(副词) You mustn't force him to lend his money to you.(不定式短语) We saw her entering the room.(现在分词) We found everything in the lab in good order.(介词短语) We will soon make our city what your city is now.(从句) 定语: (七)定语:修饰名词或代词的词,短语或从句称为定语.定语可由以下等成分表示: Guilin is a beautiful city.(形容词) China is a developing country; America is a developed country.(分词) There are thirty women teachers is our school.(名词) His rapid progress in English made us surprised.(代词) Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom.(不定式短语) The teaching plan for next term has been worked out.(动名词) He is reading an article about how to learn English.(介词短语) 状语: (八)状语:修饰动词,形容词,副词或整个句子,说明动作或状态特征的句子成分,叫做 状语.可由以下形式表示: Light travels most quickly.(副词及副词性词组) He has lived in the city for ten years.(介词短语) He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination.(不定式短语) He is in the room making a model plane.(分词短语) Wait a minute.(名词) Once you begin, you must continue.(状语从句)
状语种类如下: 状语种类如下:
How about meeting again at six?(时间状语) Last night she didn't go to the dance party because of the rain.(原因状语) I shall go there if it doesn't rain.(条件状语) Mr Smith lives on the third floor.(地点状语) She put the eggs into the basket with great care.(方式状语) She came in with a dictionary in her hand.(伴随状语) In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder.(目的状语) He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately.(结果状语) She works very hard though she is old.(让步状语) I am taller than he is.(比较状语) 练习一 一,指出下列句子划线部分是什么句子成分:
  1. The students got on the school bus.
  2. He handed me the newspaper.
  3. I shall answer your question after class.
第 2 页 共 8 页
嘉兴英语教学网 www.jxenglish.com 收集整理 欢迎使用

  4. What a beautiful Chinese painting!
  5. They went hunting together early in the morning.
  6. His job is to train swimmers.
  7. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing.
  8. There is going to be an American film tonight.
  9. He is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow.
  10. His wish is to become a scientist.
  11. He managed to finish the work in time.
  12. Tom came to ask me for advice.
  13. He found it important to master English.
  14. Do you have anything else to say?
  15. To be honest; your pronunciation is not so good.
  16. Would you please tell me your address?
  17. He sat there, reading a newspaper.
  18. It is our duty to keep our classroom clean and tidy.
  19. He noticed a man enter the room.
  20. The apples tasted sweet. 二,用符号划出下列短文各句中的主语(?),谓语(=),宾语(~): I hope you are very well. I'm fine, but tired. Right now it is the summer vacation and I'm helping my Dad on the farm. August is the hottest month here. It is the time of year for the rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark. Sometimes we go on working after dark by the lights of our tractors. We grow rice in the south of the States, but in the north where it is colder they grow wheat. We have a lot of machines on the farm. Although the farm is large, my Dad has only two men working for him. But he employs more men for the harvest. My brother takes care of the vegetable garden. It doesn't often rain in the summer here. As a result, we have to water the vegetable garden. Every evening we pump water from a well. It then runs along channels to different parts of the garden. 三,用符号划出下列短文各句中的定语(?),状语(=),补语(~): Most Saturday evenings there is a party, even at harvest time. These parties often make us very happy. We cook meat on an open fire outside. It's great! Americans eat a lot of meat ? too much in my opinion. Some of my friends drink beer. I don't, because I have to drive home after the party. In your letter you asked about the time in different areas of the States. There are five different time areas in the States. In my state we are fourteen hours behind Beijing time. How many different time areas do you have in China? Well, I must stop and get some sleep. Please give my best regards to your parents. 四,选择填空: ( )
  1. will leave for Beijing. A. Now there the man B. The man here now C. The man who is here now D. The man is here now ( )
  2. The weather . A. wet and cold B. is wet and cold C. not wet and cold
第 3 页 共 8 页
D. were wet and cold
嘉兴英语教学网 www.jxenglish.com 收集整理 欢迎使用
( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( )
  3. The apple tasted . A. sweets B. sweetly C. nicely D. sweet )
  4. He got up yesterday morning. A. lately B. late C. latest D. latter )
  5. The actor at the age of
  70. A. dead B. died C. dyed D. deaded )
  6. were all very tired, but none of would stop to take a rest. A. We, us B. Us, we C. We, our D. We, we )
  7. He found the street much . A. crowd B. crowding C. crowded D. crowdedly )
  8.I think necessary to learn English well. A. its B. it C. that D. that is )
  9. The dog mad. A. looks B. is looked C. is being looked D. was looked )
  10.I will never forget the day I joined the army. A. that B. when C. in which D. where
第 4 页 共 8 页
嘉兴英语教学网 www.jxenglish.com 收集整理 欢迎使用
二,简单句,并列句和复合句 简单句, (一)句子种类两种分类法 按句子的用途可分四种: 1,按句子的用途可分四种:
  1)陈述句(肯定,否定) :He is six years old; She didn't hear of you before.
  2) 疑问句 (一般, 特殊, 选择, 反意) Do they like skating? How old is he? Is he six or seven : years old? Mary can swim, can't she?
  3)祈使句:Be careful, boys; Don't talk in class
  4)感叹句:How clever the boy is! 2,按句子的结构可分三种: 按句子的结构可分三种:
  1)简单句:只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语) . e.g. He often reads English in the morning. Tom and Mike are American boys. She likes drawing and often draws pictures for the wall newspapers.
  2) 并列句:由并列连词(and, but, or 等)或分号(; )把两个或两个以上的简单句连在 一起构成. e.g. You help him and he helps you. The future is bright; the road is tortuous. 前途是光明的,道路是曲折的.
  3)复合句:含有一个或一个以上从句的句子.复合句包含:名词性从句(主语从句, 宾语从句,表语从句和同位语从句) ,定语从句和状语从句等. e.g. The foreign visitors took a lot of pictures when they were at the Great Wall. (二)简单句的五种基本句型 1,主语+系动词+表语:e.g. He is a student. 2,主语+不及物动词:e.g. We work. 3,主语+及物动词+宾语:e.g. Henry bought a dictionary. 4,主语+及物动词+双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语) :e.g. My father bought me a car. 5,主语+及物动词+复合宾语(宾语+宾补) :e.g. Tom made the baby laugh. 注:其他各种句子都可由这一种基本句型扩展,变化或省略而构成. (三)并列句的分类 1,表示连接两个同等概念,常用 and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then 等连接. e.g. The teacher's name is Smith, and the student's name is John. 2, 表示选择, 常用的连词有 or, either…or…, otherwise 等. Hurry up, or you'll miss the e.g. train. 3, 表示转折, 常用的连词有 but, still, however, yet, while, when 等. He was a little man e.g. with thick glasses, but he had a strange way of making his classes lively and interesting. 4, 表示因果关系, 常用的连词有 so, for, therefore 等. August is the time of the year for e.g. rive harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark. (四)高考考点探讨 1,简单句的五大句型是最基本的句型.虽然近几年单纯考查这种基础句型的题不多, 但是在阅读中有时需借助于划分句子成分去理解, 在书面表达中, 没有最基本的遣词造句的 能力是不可能用地道的英语句子来表达清楚的. 2,祈使句,反意疑问句和感叹句是高考命题的热点之一.有时把祈使句与反意疑问句 结合于一体来考查.一个题目,几个考点,是近几年命题的发展趋势. 3,高考对简单句,并列句和各种复合句的考查常表现在对连词的选择和使用上.如: and, but, or, while,以及其它连接名词性从句,定语从句和状语从句的连接词,关联词.
第 5 页 共 8 页
嘉兴英语教学网 www.jxenglish.com 收集整理 欢迎使用
4,各种主从复合句的考查常常与动词的时态联系在一起,以宾语从句与状语从句最为 明显,时间从句与条件从句中,如果主句是将来时,从句则用一般式表将来,这一点在高考 中经常考查. 如:We will go outing if it doesn't rain tomorrow. 练习二,简单句, 练习二,简单句,并列句和复合句 一,判断下列句子是简单句,并列句还是复合句:
  1. We often study Chinese history on Friday afternoon.
  2. The boy who offered me his seat is called Tom.
  3. There is a chair in this room, isn't there?
  4. My brother and I go to school at half past seven in the morning and come back home at seven in the evening.
  5. He is in Class One and I am in Class Two.
  6. He was fond of drawing when he was yet a child.
  7. Neither has he changed his mind, nor will he do so.
  8. What he said at the meeting is very important, isn't it?
  9. The farmer is showing the boy how to plant a tree.
  10. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music. 二,判断下列短文中各句是简单句,并列句还是复合句: I hope you are very well( ). I'm fine, but tired( ) . Right now it is the summer vacation and I'm helping my Dad on the farm( ). August is the hottest month here( ). It is the time of year f
 

相关内容

高考英语语法专题复习-简单句、并列句和复合句

   嘉兴英语教学网 www.jxenglish.com 收集整理 欢迎使用 语法复习一:句子成分;简单句, 语法复习一:句子成分;简单句,并列句和复合句 一,句子成分 句子成分的定义: (一)句子成分的定义:构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分.句子成分有主要成分和次要成 分;主要成分有主语和谓语;次要成分有表语,宾语,定语,状语,补足语和同位语. 主语: (二)主语:主语是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首.但在 there be 结构,疑问句(当 主语不疑问词时)和倒装句中,主语位于谓语,助动词或 ...

高考英语句子成分??简单句、并列句和复合句

   高考英语语法 句子成分;简单句、 句子成分;简单句、 并列句和复合句 简单句的五种基本句型 1、主语+系动词 表语:e.g. He is a student. 、主语 系动词 表语: 系动词+表语 2、主语 不及物动词:e.g. We work. 不及物动词: 、主语+不及物动词 3、主语+及物动词 宾语:e.g. 、主语 及物动词+宾语: 及物动词 宾语 Henry bought a dictionary. 4、主语 及物动词 双宾语(间接宾语 直接 及物动词+双宾语 、主语+及物动 ...

英语:简单句和并列句

   简单句和并列句 I. 句子的分类(按结构) 句子的分类(按结构) 按结构可分为: 按结构可分为: 1. 简单句 (Simple Sentences) ) 2. 并列句 (Compound Sentences) ) 3. 复合句 (Complex Sentences) ) 1. 简单句 说明:由一个主语(或并列主语) 说明:由一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语 (或并列谓语)构成的句子。 或并列谓语)构成的句子。 例句:1. She goes to work every day. 例句: 2. ...

初中英语语法专题(精品讲练结合附答案)学习啊

   学英语简单吗?肯定会有许多学生说: 难死了 难死了”。 学英语简单吗?肯定会有许多学生说:“难死了 。 为什么有好多学生对英语的学习都感到头疼呢?答案只有一个: 不得法 不得法。 为什么有好多学生对英语的学习都感到头疼呢?答案只有一个:“不得法。” 英 语与汉语一样都是一种语言,为什么你说汉语会如此流利? 语与汉语一样都是一种语言,为什么你说汉语会如此流利?那是因为你置身于 一个汉语环境中,如果你在伦敦呆上半年,保准说起英语来会非常流利。 一个汉语环境中,如果你在伦敦呆上半年,保准说起英语来 ...

2009年高考英语第二轮语法专题复习教案四:虚拟语气

   2009 年高考英语第二轮语法专题复习四 虚拟语气 Subjunctive mood 虚拟语气分三种情况来掌握: 虚拟语气分三种情况来掌握: 1,虚拟条件句. 2,名词性虚拟语气. 3,虚拟语气的其他用语. 一,虚拟条件句: 虚拟条件句: 条件状语从句是非真实情况,在这种情况下要用虚拟语气. 1,条件从句与现在事实不一致,其句型为: If 主语+过去时,主语+should(could, would, 或 might)+动词原形,如: If I were you, I would study ...

2011届高考英语二轮专题复习学案:专题1 语法和词汇知识之名词、冠词和主谓一致

   2011 版高中英语二轮专题复习学案: 版高中英语二轮专题复习学案: 语法和词汇知识之名词、冠词和主谓一致( ) 新课标) (新课标 专题一 语法和词汇知识之名词、冠词和主谓一致(1) 新课标) ( 【备考策略】 备考策略】 1 考情分析 2 解题技巧 【考点分类突破】 考点分类突破】 一、名词、冠词和主谓一致 【专题考点】 1 考查名词词义辨析、搭配、名词作定语以及其基本功能,包括数、格等; 2 考查冠词的类指、泛指与特指、零冠词的使用、冠词的特殊搭配与抽象名词具体化; 3 考查主谓一致。 ...

中考英语语法复习

   英语语法复习- 英语语法复习-动词的功用 动词在语言中是必不可少的一部分.它的语法现象也较多,但在初中范围主要 有以下几方面问题.① 时态:初中范围主要有一般现在时,一般过去时,现在 完成时,过去完成时,将来时与过去将来时六种时态.② 语态:主动语态与被 动语态.③ 助动词和情态动词.④ 非谓语动词,也就是不定式,动名词及现在 分词的用法.时态主要掌握以下几种时态的应用要点和习惯用法. 1 一般现在时:主要有以下三方面,① 用来表示状态,特征或不受时间限 制的客观存在和真理. Matter ...

初中英语语法总复习

   初 中 语 法 复 习 泾川县党原乡中学 初中语法复习 词类。 Ⅰ 词类。 词类 名词 冠词 代词 形容词 数词 动词 副词 介词 连词 感叹词 名词: (一) 名词: 专有名词:表示人名、月份、日期、地名等。如 China, John, London, the USA, Harbin . 个体名词:表示单个的人或事物。如 boat, chair, desk, apple . 集体名词:表示一群人或一些事物的总称。如 family, people, class, police . 可数名词 ...

英语语法副词专项复习

   简单学习网 (中国高考网络视频辅导专家) www.etlearning.cn 注册即可免费试听 20 讲的课程 第 4 天:副词 01 28 副词的类别 方式副词:bravely 勇敢的 fast 快 happily 愉快地 hard 艰难地 quickly 快 well 好 地点副词:by 近旁 down 下 here 这里 near 附近 there 那里 up 上 时间副词:now 现在 soon 不久 still 仍然 then 那里 today 今天 yet 迄今 频度副词:alw ...

初中英语语法专项练习

   讲义: 讲义:初中英语宾语从句小结 一、当由陈述句充当宾语从句时,用 that 引导,that 无词义,在口语或非正式文体中常省 略。如: She said that she would leave the message on the headmaster's desk.她说她会把留言条放在 校长桌子上。 He said that he could finish his work before supper.他说他会在晚饭前完成工作 二、当由一般疑问句充当宾语从句时,用 if 或 whet ...

热门内容

英语速成400句

   10. I see. 我明白了。 20. I quit! 我不干了! 30. Let go! 放手! 40. Me too. 我也是。 50. My god! 天哪! 60. No way! 不行! 70. Come on. 来吧(赶快) 80. Hold on. 等一等。 90. I agree。 我同意。 100. Not bad. 还不错。 110. Not yet. 还没。 120. See you. 再见。 130. Shut up! 闭嘴! 140. So long. 再见。 15 ...

2010届中考英语交际用语

   非常抱歉,该文档存在转换错误,不能在本机显示。建议您重新选择其它文档 ...

九年级英语新目标第一次模拟考试试题

   九年级第一次模拟考试 英 语 试 卷 听力部分 (共 20 分) 听对话,选择与对话内容相符的图片, 一、 听对话,选择与对话内容相符的图片,将代表图片的字母填写在相应序号后 的括号内。每段对话读两遍。 (共 6 分,每小题 1 分) 的括号内。每段对话读两遍。 请听第一组对话, 小题。 请听第一组对话,完成第 1~3 小题。 A 1. ( ) 2. ( B ) 3. ( C ) D 请听第二组对话,完成第 4~6 小题。 请听第二组对话, 小题。 A 4. ( ) 5. ( ) B 6. ...

重点歌名的翻译从各个角度英语歌名的翻译技巧

   第 4 期 ( 总第 29 期) 2000 年 12 月 黎明职业大学学报 Journal of Liming Vocational University No. 4 Dec. 2000 文章编号 : 1008 - 8075 (2000) 04 - 0048 - 04 英语歌名的翻译技巧 丁容容 ( 黎明职业大学   福建   泉州   362000) 摘要 : 英语歌名虽简短 , 却概括全文重要信息 , 吸引歌迷注意力 。好的歌名翻译能使 名曲佳作广泛流传 。本文归纳总结了英语歌名翻译的力 ...

上海市高一年级“语数外”三科竞赛 英语试题

   2007-2008学 年 度 第 一 学 期 江苏省西亭高级中学高一年级“语数外” 江苏省西亭高级中学高一年级“语数外”三科竞赛 英 语 试 卷 Dec.28,2007 制卷人:顾永红 第 I 卷(共85分) 听力(共20小题 每小题1 小题; 满分20 20分 第一部分 听力 共20小题;每小题1分,满分20分) 第一节 听下面5段对话。每段对话后有一个小题,从题中所给的A、B、C三个选项中选出最佳选 项,并标在试卷的相应位置。听完每段对话后,你都有10秒钟的时间来回答有关小题和阅读 下一 ...