嘉兴英语教学网 www.jxenglish.com 收集整理 欢迎使用
语法复习一:句子成分;简单句, 语法复习一:句子成分;简单句,并列句和复合句
一,句子成分 句子成分的定义: (一)句子成分的定义:构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分.句子成分有主要成分和次要成 分;主要成分有主语和谓语;次要成分有表语,宾语,定语,状语,补足语和同位语. 主语: (二)主语:主语是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首.但在 there be 结构,疑问句(当 主语不疑问词时)和倒装句中,主语位于谓语,助动词或情态动词后面.主语可由名词,代 词,数词,不定式,动名词,名词化的形容词和主语从句等表示.例如: During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular.(名词) We often speak English in class.(代词) One-third of the students in this class are girls.(数词) To swim in the river is a great pleasure.(不定式) Smoking does harm to the health.(动名词) The rich should help the poor.(名词化的形容词) When we are going to have an English test has not been decided.(主语从句) (it 真正的主语为后面的不定式) It is necessary to master a foreign language. 作形式主语, 谓语: (三)谓语:谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态.动词在句中作谓语,一般放在 主语之后.谓语的构成如下: 1,简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成.如:He practices running every morning. 2, 复合谓语: 由情态动词或其他助动词加动词原形构成. You may keep the book (
  1) 如: for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. (
  2)由系动词加表语构成.如:We are students. 表语: 表语用以说明主语的身份, 特征和状态, 它一般位于系动词 (如 be, become, get, (四) 表语: look, grow, turn, seem 等)之后.表语一般由名词,代词,形容词,分词,数词,不定式, 动名词,介词短语,副词及表语从句表示.例如: Our teacher of English is an American.(名词) Is it yours?(代词) The weather has turned cold.(形容词) The speech is exciting.(分词) Three times seven is twenty one?(数词) His job is to teach English.(不定式) His hobby(爱好)is playing football.(动名词) The machine must be out of order.(介词短语) Time is up. The class is over.(副词) The truth is that he has never been abroad.(表语从句) 宾语: (五)宾语:宾语表示动作的对象或承爱者,一般位于及物动词和介词后面.例如: They went to see an exhibition(展览)yesterday.(名词) The heavy rain prevented me form coming to school on time.(代词) How many dictionaries do you have? I have five.(数词) They helped the old with their housework yesterday.(名词化形容词) He pretended not to see me.(不定式短语) I enjoy listening to popular music.(动名词短语) I think(that)he is fit for his office.(宾语从句) (
  1)双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语) ,例如:Lend me your dictionary, please. 宾语种类:
第 1 页 共 8 页
嘉兴英语教学网 www.jxenglish.com 收集整理 欢迎使用
(
  2)复合宾语(宾语+宾补) ,例如:They elected him their monitor. 宾语补足语: (六)宾语补足语:英语中有些及物动词,除有一个直接宾语以外,还要有一个宾语补语, 才能使句子的意义完整.带有宾语补足语的一般句型为:某些及物动词(如 make 等+宾语+ 宾补) .宾补可由名词,形容词,副词,不定式,分词,介词短语和从句充当.例如: His father named him Dongming.(名词) They painted their boat white.(形容词) Let the fresh air in.(副词) You mustn't force him to lend his money to you.(不定式短语) We saw her entering the room.(现在分词) We found everything in the lab in good order.(介词短语) We will soon make our city what your city is now.(从句) 定语: (七)定语:修饰名词或代词的词,短语或从句称为定语.定语可由以下等成分表示: Guilin is a beautiful city.(形容词) China is a developing country; America is a developed country.(分词) There are thirty women teachers is our school.(名词) His rapid progress in English made us surprised.(代词) Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom.(不定式短语) The teaching plan for next term has been worked out.(动名词) He is reading an article about how to learn English.(介词短语) 状语: (八)状语:修饰动词,形容词,副词或整个句子,说明动作或状态特征的句子成分,叫做 状语.可由以下形式表示: Light travels most quickly.(副词及副词性词组) He has lived in the city for ten years.(介词短语) He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination.(不定式短语) He is in the room making a model plane.(分词短语) Wait a minute.(名词) Once you begin, you must continue.(状语从句)
状语种类如下: 状语种类如下:
How about meeting again at six?(时间状语) Last night she didn't go to the dance party because of the rain.(原因状语) I shall go there if it doesn't rain.(条件状语) Mr Smith lives on the third floor.(地点状语) She put the eggs into the basket with great care.(方式状语) She came in with a dictionary in her hand.(伴随状语) In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder.(目的状语) He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately.(结果状语) She works very hard though she is old.(让步状语) I am taller than he is.(比较状语) 练习一 一,指出下列句子划线部分是什么句子成分:
  1. The students got on the school bus.
  2. He handed me the newspaper.
  3. I shall answer your question after class.
第 2 页 共 8 页
嘉兴英语教学网 www.jxenglish.com 收集整理 欢迎使用

  4. What a beautiful Chinese painting!
  5. They went hunting together early in the morning.
  6. His job is to train swimmers.
  7. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing.
  8. There is going to be an American film tonight.
  9. He is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow.
  10. His wish is to become a scientist.
  11. He managed to finish the work in time.
  12. Tom came to ask me for advice.
  13. He found it important to master English.
  14. Do you have anything else to say?
  15. To be honest; your pronunciation is not so good.
  16. Would you please tell me your address?
  17. He sat there, reading a newspaper.
  18. It is our duty to keep our classroom clean and tidy.
  19. He noticed a man enter the room.
  20. The apples tasted sweet. 二,用符号划出下列短文各句中的主语(?),谓语(=),宾语(~): I hope you are very well. I'm fine, but tired. Right now it is the summer vacation and I'm helping my Dad on the farm. August is the hottest month here. It is the time of year for the rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark. Sometimes we go on working after dark by the lights of our tractors. We grow rice in the south of the States, but in the north where it is colder they grow wheat. We have a lot of machines on the farm. Although the farm is large, my Dad has only two men working for him. But he employs more men for the harvest. My brother takes care of the vegetable garden. It doesn't often rain in the summer here. As a result, we have to water the vegetable garden. Every evening we pump water from a well. It then runs along channels to different parts of the garden. 三,用符号划出下列短文各句中的定语(?),状语(=),补语(~): Most Saturday evenings there is a party, even at harvest time. These parties often make us very happy. We cook meat on an open fire outside. It's great! Americans eat a lot of meat ? too much in my opinion. Some of my friends drink beer. I don't, because I have to drive home after the party. In your letter you asked about the time in different areas of the States. There are five different time areas in the States. In my state we are fourteen hours behind Beijing time. How many different time areas do you have in China? Well, I must stop and get some sleep. Please give my best regards to your parents. 四,选择填空: ( )
  1. will leave for Beijing. A. Now there the man B. The man here now C. The man who is here now D. The man is here now ( )
  2. The weather . A. wet and cold B. is wet and cold C. not wet and cold
第 3 页 共 8 页
D. were wet and cold
嘉兴英语教学网 www.jxenglish.com 收集整理 欢迎使用
( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( )
  3. The apple tasted . A. sweets B. sweetly C. nicely D. sweet )
  4. He got up yesterday morning. A. lately B. late C. latest D. latter )
  5. The actor at the age of
  70. A. dead B. died C. dyed D. deaded )
  6. were all very tired, but none of would stop to take a rest. A. We, us B. Us, we C. We, our D. We, we )
  7. He found the street much . A. crowd B. crowding C. crowded D. crowdedly )
  8.I think necessary to learn English well. A. its B. it C. that D. that is )
  9. The dog mad. A. looks B. is looked C. is being looked D. was looked )
  10.I will never forget the day I joined the army. A. that B. when C. in which D. where
第 4 页 共 8 页
嘉兴英语教学网 www.jxenglish.com 收集整理 欢迎使用
二,简单句,并列句和复合句 简单句, (一)句子种类两种分类法 按句子的用途可分四种: 1,按句子的用途可分四种:
  1)陈述句(肯定,否定) :He is six years old; She didn't hear of you before.
  2) 疑问句 (一般, 特殊, 选择, 反意) Do they like skating? How old is he? Is he six or seven : years old? Mary can swim, can't she?
  3)祈使句:Be careful, boys; Don't talk in class
  4)感叹句:How clever the boy is! 2,按句子的结构可分三种: 按句子的结构可分三种:
  1)简单句:只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语) . e.g. He often reads English in the morning. Tom and Mike are American boys. She likes drawing and often draws pictures for the wall newspapers.
  2) 并列句:由并列连词(and, but, or 等)或分号(; )把两个或两个以上的简单句连在 一起构成. e.g. You help him and he helps you. The future is bright; the road is tortuous. 前途是光明的,道路是曲折的.
  3)复合句:含有一个或一个以上从句的句子.复合句包含:名词性从句(主语从句, 宾语从句,表语从句和同位语从句) ,定语从句和状语从句等. e.g. The foreign visitors took a lot of pictures when they were at the Great Wall. (二)简单句的五种基本句型 1,主语+系动词+表语:e.g. He is a student. 2,主语+不及物动词:e.g. We work. 3,主语+及物动词+宾语:e.g. Henry bought a dictionary. 4,主语+及物动词+双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语) :e.g. My father bought me a car. 5,主语+及物动词+复合宾语(宾语+宾补) :e.g. Tom made the baby laugh. 注:其他各种句子都可由这一种基本句型扩展,变化或省略而构成. (三)并列句的分类 1,表示连接两个同等概念,常用 and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then 等连接. e.g. The teacher's name is Smith, and the student's name is John. 2, 表示选择, 常用的连词有 or, either…or…, otherwise 等. Hurry up, or you'll miss the e.g. train. 3, 表示转折, 常用的连词有 but, still, however, yet, while, when 等. He was a little man e.g. with thick glasses, but he had a strange way of making his classes lively and interesting. 4, 表示因果关系, 常用的连词有 so, for, therefore 等. August is the time of the year for e.g. rive harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark. (四)高考考点探讨 1,简单句的五大句型是最基本的句型.虽然近几年单纯考查这种基础句型的题不多, 但是在阅读中有时需借助于划分句子成分去理解, 在书面表达中, 没有最基本的遣词造句的 能力是不可能用地道的英语句子来表达清楚的. 2,祈使句,反意疑问句和感叹句是高考命题的热点之一.有时把祈使句与反意疑问句 结合于一体来考查.一个题目,几个考点,是近几年命题的发展趋势. 3,高考对简单句,并列句和各种复合句的考查常表现在对连词的选择和使用上.如: and, but, or, while,以及其它连接名词性从句,定语从句和状语从句的连接词,关联词.
第 5 页 共 8 页
嘉兴英语教学网 www.jxenglish.com 收集整理 欢迎使用
4,各种主从复合句的考查常常与动词的时态联系在一起,以宾语从句与状语从句最为 明显,时间从句与条件从句中,如果主句是将来时,从句则用一般式表将来,这一点在高考 中经常考查. 如:We will go outing if it doesn't rain tomorrow. 练习二,简单句, 练习二,简单句,并列句和复合句 一,判断下列句子是简单句,并列句还是复合句:
  1. We often study Chinese history on Friday afternoon.
  2. The boy who offered me his seat is called Tom.
  3. There is a chair in this room, isn't there?
  4. My brother and I go to school at half past seven in the morning and come back home at seven in the evening.
  5. He is in Class One and I am in Class Two.
  6. He was fond of drawing when he was yet a child.
  7. Neither has he changed his mind, nor will he do so.
  8. What he said at the meeting is very important, isn't it?
  9. The farmer is showing the boy how to plant a tree.
  10. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music. 二,判断下列短文中各句是简单句,并列句还是复合句: I hope you are very well( ). I'm fine, but tired( ) . Right now it is the summer vacation and I'm helping my Dad on the farm( ). August is the hottest month here( ). It is the time of year f
 

相关内容

高考英语句子成分??简单句、并列句和复合句

   高考英语语法 句子成分;简单句、 句子成分;简单句、 并列句和复合句 简单句的五种基本句型 1、主语+系动词 表语:e.g. He is a student. 、主语 系动词 表语: 系动词+表语 2、主语 不及物动词:e.g. We work. 不及物动词: 、主语+不及物动词 3、主语+及物动词 宾语:e.g. 、主语 及物动词+宾语: 及物动词 宾语 Henry bought a dictionary. 4、主语 及物动词 双宾语(间接宾语 直接 及物动词+双宾语 、主语+及物动 ...

英语语法精讲-句子成分及简单句并列句和复合句

   嘉兴英语教学网 www.jxenglish.com 收集整理 欢迎使用 语法复习:句子成分;简单句, 语法复习:句子成分;简单句,并列句和复合句 一,句子成分 (一)句子成分的定义:构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分.句子成分有主要成分和次 句子成分的定义: 要成分;主要成分有主语和谓语;次要成分有表语,宾语,定语,状语,补足语和同位语. (二)主语:主语是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首.但在 there be 结构,疑问句 主语: (当主语不疑问词时) 和倒装句中, 主语位于谓语, 助动词 ...

英语简单句并列句复合句及练习

   英语简单句、并列句、复合句及练习 一、简单句 1、概述 只有一个主语和一个谓语动词的句子称为简单句。 I am a student.我是一个学生。 She likes English very much.她非常喜欢英语。 He usually does morning exercises on the playground.他常常在操场上做 早操。 2、简单句的基本句型 英语简单句可分为五种基本句型,其它的句子可看成是这几种基本句型的扩 展、组合、倒装、省略。这五个基本句式:主谓结构(S + ...

英语:简单句和并列句

   简单句和并列句 I. 句子的分类(按结构) 句子的分类(按结构) 按结构可分为: 按结构可分为: 1. 简单句 (Simple Sentences) ) 2. 并列句 (Compound Sentences) ) 3. 复合句 (Complex Sentences) ) 1. 简单句 说明:由一个主语(或并列主语) 说明:由一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语 (或并列谓语)构成的句子。 或并列谓语)构成的句子。 例句:1. She goes to work every day. 例句: 2. ...

2010年中考英语语法考点复习-名词

   外语下载中心 http://down.tingroom.com 透析中考英语语法名词考点 【名词命题趋势与预测】 名词命题趋势与预测】 1、 根据近几年全国各地中考试题对名词部分考查的分析可知,今后对名词部分的考查重点 为: 2、 名词的可数与不可数性。 3、 名词单复数在特定情况下的使用。 4、 名词的普通格与所有格作定语的选用。 5、 物质名词、抽象名词具体化。 名词词义的区别与固定搭配。 考点诠释】 【考点诠释】 名词的各种分类。 一、名词的各种分类。单、复数的用法及单数名词变复数名词 ...

2010年中考英语专题复习05??句子翻译

   2010 年中考英语专题复习 05??句子翻译 句子翻译 考点一、根据中文补全句子 (2010 江苏省宿迁市五、根据所给汉语完成下列句子,每空词数不限 ,满分 10 分) 61. 迈克敲了敲门,但没有回应。 Mike ▲ the door, but there was no answer. 62. 昨天这位医生为病人做手术了吗? Did the doctor ▲ the patients yesterday? 63. 我认为用毯子扑灭火是个好方法。 I think it’s a good w ...

初中英语语法专题(精品讲练结合附答案)学习啊

   学英语简单吗?肯定会有许多学生说: 难死了 难死了”。 学英语简单吗?肯定会有许多学生说:“难死了 。 为什么有好多学生对英语的学习都感到头疼呢?答案只有一个: 不得法 不得法。 为什么有好多学生对英语的学习都感到头疼呢?答案只有一个:“不得法。” 英 语与汉语一样都是一种语言,为什么你说汉语会如此流利? 语与汉语一样都是一种语言,为什么你说汉语会如此流利?那是因为你置身于 一个汉语环境中,如果你在伦敦呆上半年,保准说起英语来会非常流利。 一个汉语环境中,如果你在伦敦呆上半年,保准说起英语来 ...

高中英语语法专题训练题--定语从句练习新人教版必修1

   练习、 练习、定语从句 一、把下列每对句子合并成含有定语从句的主从复合句: 1. The fan is on the desk. You want it. 2. The man is in the next room. He brought our textbooks here yesterday. 3. The magazine is mine. He has taken it away. 4. The students will not pass the exam. They don’t ...

中考英语语法复习

   一般将来时词性 一 、 实词 1.名词(nouns)n.: 名词是词性的一种,也是实词的一种,是指代人、物、事、时、地、 情感、概念等实体或抽象事物的词。名词可以独立成句。在短语或句子中 通常可以用代词来替代。名词可以分为专有名词(Proper Nouns)和普通 名词 (Common Nouns),专有名词是某个(些)人,地方,机构等专有的 名称,如 Beijing,China 等。普通名词是一类人或东西或是一个抽象概念 的名词,如:book,sadness 等。 2.代词(pronoun ...

初中英语语法总复习

   初 中 语 法 复 习 泾川县党原乡中学 初中语法复习 词类。 Ⅰ 词类。 词类 名词 冠词 代词 形容词 数词 动词 副词 介词 连词 感叹词 名词: (一) 名词: 专有名词:表示人名、月份、日期、地名等。如 China, John, London, the USA, Harbin . 个体名词:表示单个的人或事物。如 boat, chair, desk, apple . 集体名词:表示一群人或一些事物的总称。如 family, people, class, police . 可数名词 ...

热门内容

英语学习_双语:想拯救世界吗,我要知道你的想法_必备

   弃我去者, 弃我去者,昨日之日不可留 乱我心者, 乱我心者,今日之日多烦忧 Our planet isn’t in very good shape right now. The air is polluted. The ocean is becoming plastic soup. We’re in a financial crisis. 现在我们的地球可不太平:空气被污染,海洋变成了塑料粥,经济还在衰退...... Things don’t seem to be looking too g ...

英语考试试题

   非常抱歉,该文档存在转换错误,不能在本机显示。建议您重新选择其它文档 ...

英语电话场景对话

   英语电话场景对话. *可直接转接的电话. speaking, Good morning, computer name, Sherry speaking,May I help you? please?/Can Could I speak to Mr/Mrs sb please?/Can I talk to sb? please? May I ask/have who is calling please? May I have your name please? surname. My name ...

三三英语

   《三三速记英语词汇》资料    目录:1.综合九种记法,不怕任何单词 2. 如此记单词,上瘾,越记越想记(1至6) 综合九种记法,不怕任何单词          无论任何单词,不管是词根词缀法还是奇特联想法,如果你在其它地方找不到某个难词的记忆窍门,你都可以在《三三速记英语词汇》丛书里面碰碰运气,说不定就有意外的收获。    说 明:综合运用九种记忆方法,针对不同特点的单词配附恰当的记忆窍门,就不怕任何单词难记。    这里不仅对传统的记忆方法做了合理改良,而且在记忆方法的创新上也有突破。 ...

如何应对统考英语

   如何应对英语统考 戴丽萍 一. 关于统考的意义和重要性 “统考”是指教育部对现代远程教育试点高校网络教育部分公共基础课实施的全国统一 考试,即对我国网络高等学历教育部分公共基础课的全国统一测试,简称“统考”。 在市场机制和宽进机制下, 如何保证网络高等学历教育基本的人才培养质量,是教育部和 所有试点高校网络教育学院共同关心的问题, 也是社会关注的问题之一。 进行统考是为了促 进我国网络高等学历教育健康、有序发展,切实提高网络高等学历教育的教学质量,提高网 络高等学历教育的社会声誉而采取的重要 ...