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阅读表达题是自 2007 年开始山东省高考试题中增加的一种新的测试题型, 要求考生在 阅读所给短文,然后按照题目要求回答文后的五个问题,每个问题 3 分,总分 15 分。该题 型的测试目的是从多方位多角度考查考生通过阅读获取信息、 处理信息并进行书面表达的能 力。比传统的阅读理解题型更具综合性和主观性,更能体现对考生的 综合语言运用能力的 考查。 阅读表达题的解题方法与技巧
  1、主旨概括:主要考查考生对文章内容的整体把握能力。要想答好该题,考生必须有 很强的概括能力或归纳能力, 要善于寻找能够概括全文的主题段落或者主题句, 剔除文中的 细节事实或者作者所用的论据, 即要分清主旨和细节, 概括出来的中心意思一定要能够覆盖 全文或整个段落, 绝对不可太笼统离题太远或者以偏概全; 文中标题格式可以是完整的句子, 简洁的短语,也可以用问题的形式,同时要注意字数要求。具体的表达可以先根据文章内容 找出关键词,再在此基础上确定文章标题或者文章的 main idea。
  2、同义句替换:只有准确理解所给句子的意义,才能准确快速地找出原文中意义相同 的句子。
  3、填空:回答此类问题时,一定首先注意弄清楚上下文的逻辑关系,如递进、转折、 并列、对比、因果等等;然后根据上下文的含义搞清楚空白处该填句子还是短语或者单词, 再读上下文,最后确定答案。
  4、翻译句子:在该类题目中要求翻译的句子往往是结果较为复杂或者包括一些特定习 语的句子。 因此再翻译之前一定要先分析句子结构, 并结合文章中心思想以及上下文弄清句 子所在的语境,同时还要注意英、汉两种语言及其问题特征的差异,最后在忠实于原文的基 础上,把画线部分的句子翻译成符合汉语表达习惯的句子。
  5、封闭性问题:封闭性问题是指答案是固定或唯一的问题,一般可在文章中找到明确 的答案或依据,包括常见的 wh-questions。
  6、开放性问题:开放性问题是阅读表达中主观性最强的试题,要求考生结合个人的观 点、经验来回答相关问题。
  7、其他类型:该题是结合文章的不同题材和体裁给出的除以上 6 种类型以外的类型的 题。比如设计图表题,推理判断题等。 下面通过 2007 山东卷的阅读表达实例对各种类型问题的答题技巧一一说明。 An American friend of mine who was high up in a big corporation had worked out a way of handling a flood of e-mails before most of us had even heard of the concept. If any information he was sent was vital enough, his lack of response would ensure the sender rang him up, if the sender
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wasn’t important enough to have his private number, the communication couldn’t be that important, my friend is now even more senior in the same company so the strategy must work. Almost every week now there seems to be a report suggesting that we are all being driven crazy by the bother of e-mail. If this is the case, it’s only because we haven’t developed an appropriate discrimination in dealing with it. . Firstly, you junk nothing with an exclamation mark or a string of capital letters, or from any address you don’t recognize or feel confident about. Secondly, e-mails don’t all have to be answered. Because e-mailing is so easy, there’s a tendency for correspondence to carry on for ever, but it is permissible to stop an endless discussion or to accept a point of information sent by a colleague without acknowledging it. Thirdly, a reply e-mail doesn’t have to be the same length as the original. We all have e-mail pals who send long, chatty e-mail, which are nice to receive, but who then expect an equally
long reply. The charm of e-mail can consist in the simple, incomplete sentence, totally regardless of the format of the letter sent by post. You are perfectly within the bounds of politeness in responding to a marathon e-mail with a better reply.
  76.Which sentence in the passage is the closest in meaning to the following one? The possible existence of annoyance results from our inability to sort out e-mails
  77.Fill in the blank in Paragraph 3 with a proper sentence.(within 10 words )
  78.What advice is given in the last paragraph? (within 10 words)
  79.For what purpose does the author mention his American friend in Paragraph 1 ?(within 10 words)
  80.Translate the underlined sentence in the last paragraph into Chinese. 答案与解析:
  76. 答案:If this is the case, it’s only because we haven’t developed an appropriate discrimination
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in dealing with it. 解析:该题为同意句替换题,细读所给句子,不难得出其意义“这些令人恼火的情况之所以 存在,是因为我们没有对电子邮件进行分类的能力” 。然后对照原文,就很容易找到其同意 句了。
  77. 答案:E-mail(s) can be handled in the following ways. / Here are the ways to deal with e-mail(s). / handling e-mail(s) is an art. 解析: 该题为填空题。 做该类题目首先要根据上下文搞清楚所填内容是句子还是短语或单词。 从该题要求来看我们可以知道此处要填入合适的句子。 联系上下文可知, 下文所列三条都是 处理电子邮件的方法,那就不难知道,此处所填句子内容应该是一个概括性较强的 topic sentence,这样我们就不难知道该填什么内容了。
  78. 答案:You may reply to a long e-mail briefly./ You don’t have to write a long reply e-mail. 解析:该题为封闭性问题,要求答出最后一段所给的建议。做这种类型的题目时,首先要读 懂该段要告诉读者的是什么信息,然后根据要求进行总结,因为有字数限制,所以答题时要 特别注意如何用词和如何组织语言。 从最后一段的第一句我们就可以知道这条建议是告诉读 者“在回复 e-mail 时,不必和对方来信的长度一样” 。其实这句话就是该问题的答案,但是 由于有字数限定,我们就必须改变一下说法,使答案的字数控制在 10 个单词以内,这样就 可以避免学生照抄原文,从而达到考察学生灵活运用语言能力的目的。
  79. 答案:To show a way of handling e-mail(s) with an example. / To introduce the topic of the text. 解析: 该题属于其他类型的题目, 要求考生写出作者在第一段中提到他美国朋友的写作意图。 纵观全文不难知道, 该短文的主旨是向读者介绍处理电子邮件的方法。 而作者在第一段引用 他美国朋友处理邮件的方法做为例子,目的正是为了揭示文章主题。
  80. 答案:用简短的话回复冗长的邮件完全不失礼节。/ 用简短的话回复马拉松式的电子邮 用简短的话回复冗长的邮件完全不失礼节。 用简短的话回复冗长的邮件完全不失礼节 件也是礼貌的。 件也是礼貌的。 解析:该题为句子翻译题。做该题时应先分析句子成分,搞清每个意群的含义,然后结合上 下文以及文章的中心思想,调整成符合汉语表达习惯的通顺的汉语句子。翻译该句,关键是 搞清处两个短语的含义,一个是 within the bound of (在…范围内), 另一个是 in responding to (作答,回复)。 本人教学中搜集并整理了 300 多篇山东高考题型的阅读表达题, 现挑选出 50 篇供大家 欣赏, 如有需要请发邮件到 wzm5607@1
  26.com 和我联系。
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01 If you are worried about things and are under a lot of stress at work or school, then you are probably not sleeping well. Worry can keep you awake, tossing and turning in bed until the early hours of the morning when you eventually fall asleep. When you wake up, you don’t feel refreshed, but tired and worn out and unable to face a new day. Dr. Henry Winkle, in a recent newspaper article entitled Stress and Sleep, indicates that . Dr. Winkle says, “The more we worry, the less we sleep, the more we are unable to deal with stress. If we can find a way to get a good night’s sleep,” he adds, “we can often find the energy to deal with what’s worrying us.” So, what is a good night’s sleep? Research shows that the amount of sleep which people need in order to keep healthy varies a lot. Seven hours in about the average amount, though strangely enough, sleeping longer often gives you a headache instead of making you feel more refreshed. Dr. Winkle believes that preparing for sleeping is important. People who work late should try to give themselves a short break and do something restful before going to bed. This could be watching TV or listening to music. Doing some exercise earlier in the day should help you to feel physically as well as mentally tired. A bedtime drink can also help, but coffee or tea should be avoided as they contain caffeine and will keep you awake. “When you put the light out,” Dr. Winkle says, “concentrate on relaxing your muscles, working slowly up from your feet, and you’ll be asleep before you know it.”
  1. What is the best title of the passage? (Please answer within 10 words)
  2. Which sentence in the passage can be replaced by the following one? People shouldn’t go to sleep immediately but should take a break after working late in the night.
  3. Please fill in the blank in the second paragraph with proper words or phrases to complete the sentence. (Please answer within 10 words)
  4. Someone says that the longer you sleep, the better you feel. Try to find some arguments from the passage against the idea. (Please answer within 30 words)
  5. Translate the underlined sentence in the first paragraph into Chinese.
  1. Sleep and Your Life / Stress and Sleep /Sleep is Important
  2. People who work late should try to give themselves a short break and do something restful before going to bed.
  3. stress / worry and (lack of ) sleep are directly related.
  4. Seven hours is about the average amount, though strangely enough, sleeping longer often gives you a headache instead of making you feel more refreshed.
  5. 当你醒来时,你不但没有感到精力充沛(旺盛) ,反而疲惫不堪,难以面对新的一天。
02 You might be reading this article and saying, “Hey, that sounds just like me!” If so, we’re glad you recognize that this happens to you. Now you can start taking steps to lessen your test anxiety. Here are some ways to do that: Ask for help. Talk to your mom or dad, your teacher, or your school guidance counselor. Just talking to someone about test anxiety can make you feel better .Describe what happens to you
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when you’re taking a test and these people can help you figure out some solutions. For instance, learning study skills can boost your test ?day confidence. Be prepared. Pay attention in class. Do your homework. Study for the test. On test day, you’re more likely to feel like you know the material. Block bad thoughts. Watch out for any negative messages you might be sending yourself about the test (“I’m no good at taking tests” or “I’m going to freak our if I get a bad grade”) .These thoughts can make anxiety worse and make it harder for you to do well on the test. .Everyone makes mistakes .Be more forgiving of your own mistakes, especially if you prepared for the test and are set to do your best. Breathe better. OK, so you already know how to breathe .But did you know that breathing exercises can help calm you down? (Just try not to take in too much air because it might make you feel dizzy.) Here’s how to do it: Inhale (breathe in) slowly and deeply through your nose, and then exhale (breathe out ) slowly through your mouth. Do this two to four times and you just might breathe easier the next time you’re taking a test!
  1. What is the best title of the passage ? (Please answer within 10 words)
  2. Which sentence in the passage can be replaced by the following one? Having too many negative messages in mind leads to worse test anxiety, which may stop you doing well on the test.
  3. Please fill in the blank in the last but one paragraph with proper words or phrases to complete the sentence. (Please answer within 10 words)
  4. Which of the tips do yo
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