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高考英语阅读理解技巧练习??判断推理类阅读技巧 高考英语阅读理解技巧练习??判断推理类阅读技巧 ??判断 和方法
英语阅读中,有时作者并未把意图说出来,而是要求阅读者根据字面意思,通过语篇逻 辑关系,研究细节的暗示,推敲作者的态度,理解文章的寓义,这就是判定推理题。判定推 理题在阅读测试中属于难题。因此,考生应在理解全文的基础上,从文章本身所提供的信息 出发,运用逻辑思维,哲学原理,并借助一定的常识进行分析,推理,判定。? 推理题经常使用的提问方式有:? It can be inferred/ concluded that.? Which of the following conclusions can we draw according to the passage?? In which of the following publication would this passage most likely be printed? The passage implies, but doesn't directly state that.? The writer suggests that.? What's the author's attitude toward? The writer probably feels that.? The author uses the examples of... to show that.? 判定推理是一种创造性的思维活动,但它并非无章可循。? 推理判定题要在阅读理解整体语篇的基础上, 把握文章的真正内涵。 ①要吃透文章的字 面意思,从字里行间捕捉有用的提示和线索,这是推理的前提和基础;②要对文字的表面信 息进行挖掘加工,由表入里,由浅入深,从具体到抽象,从非凡到一般,通过分析、综合、 判定等,进行深层处理,符合逻辑地推理。不能就是论事,断章取义,以偏概全。③要忠实 于原文,以文章提供的事实和线索为依据。立足已知,推断未知。立足现在,猜测未来。不 能主观臆想,凭空想象,随意揣测,更不能以自己的观点代替作者的观点;④要把握句、段 之间的逻辑关系,了解语篇的结构。要体会文章的基调,揣摸作者的态度,摸准逻辑发展的 方向,悟出作者的弦外之音。 一、细节推断题? 要求考生根据语篇关系,推断具体细节,如时间、地点、人物关系、人物身份、事件等。 一般可根据短文提供的信息,或者借助生活常识进行推理判定。? 【例题】 A visitor visits an island where two tribes live. One tribe always tells the truth and the other 欢迎广大教师踊跃来稿,稿酬丰厚。www.ks5u.com 1
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always lies. The truth?tellers live on the western side of the island, and those who lie live on the eastern side. The visitor wants to determine whether the native beside him is a truth?teller or not by asking only one question. He asks the native,“Go and ask the native in the distance which side of the island he lives on.” When the messenger returns, he says, "He said he lives on the western side of the island."? Is the messenger a truth teller or not? How can the visitor be sure??
  1. According to the messenger's answer, the visitor can conclude that? A. The messenger lives on the western side of the island because he tells the truth.? B. the messenger lives on the eastern side of the island because his answer may be a lie. C. it's hard to determine whether the messenger is a truth teller or not. D. the messenger probably lives in the western side of the island because his answer may be true.
  2. The native in the distance says he lives on the western side of the island. According to his answer, which conclusion of the following is wrong?? A. He may live on the eastern side of the island. ? B. He may live on the western side of the island.? C. He may be telling the truth.? D. He can't be telling the truth. 【解析】 第 1 题是推测有关信使(近处的当地人)的情况的。我们知道,讲真话的部 落住在岛的西部, 撒谎的部落住在岛的东部。 这个信使去问远方的当地人住在岛的哪一边 (东 部还是西部) 。远方的当地人只能有两种情况,要么住在岛的西部,要么住在岛的东部。假 如他住在岛的西部,他就是一个讲真话的人,他就会如实回答他住在西部。假如他住在岛的 东部,他就是一个撒谎的人。他本来住在东部,但在回答时,必须要说谎,他只能回答他住 在西部。所以远方的当地人不管是住在东部还是西部,他的回答只有一个:“我住在西部”。 假如信使告诉参观者远方的当地人住在西部, 信使无疑是说了真话, 那么信使一定是住在岛 的西部。反之,假如信使告诉参观者远方的当地人住在东部,那么信使就说了假话,信使肯 定住在东部。故此题答案是 A。? 第 2 题是推测远方的当地人的情况的。 从短文提供的信息来看, 我们无法判定远方的当 地是住在岛的东部还是岛的西部,两种情况都是可能存在的。此题要留意情态动词的语气。 A.“他可能住在岛的西部”;B.“他可能住在岛的东部”;C.“他可能讲了真话”。上述 A、B、C 三 欢迎广大教师踊跃来稿,稿酬丰厚。www.ks5u.com 2
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种情况都是可能的。D.“他不可能讲真话”,语气太绝对。推测错误。故答案为 D。? 二、因果推断题? 要求考生根据已知结果推测导致结果的可能原因。 考生要正确把握文章的内涵, 理解文 章的真正含义。? 【例题】 When the young waitress near my house started saying hello to me every day, I was very happy. She was at least fifteen years younger than I. One day she signedme to come near. When I walked over, she asked,“Are you single?"? “Why, yes." I answered, smiling at her happily.? “So is my mother." she said, “Would you like to meet her?"?
  1. The writer talked about the waitress' age because he thought. A. she was youngB. it a pleasure to make friends with her? C. she was beautiful D. it strange for her to fall in love withhim
  2. The waitress said hello to the writer every day because.? A. she lived near his house B. he often went to visit her mother C. she wanted to be friendly with him D. she loved him very much? 【解析】 这是两道推测原因的题目。女服务员天天向作者示好,作者产生误解,以为 女孩对他有意。考虑到他们年龄相差悬殊,作者认为女孩爱上他有点希奇。故第 1 题答案是 D。女孩问作者是否单身,并提到她母亲也是单身,并邀请他与她母亲见面,可见,女孩天 天向他问好,目的是想取得他的好感,进而搓和他和她母亲。第 2 题答案是 C。? 【例题】 The entertainment profession or “show business" attracts many young people. Unfortunately, only very few can hope to become famous and successful. Talent is not enough, because show business is as competitive as any other business .Without a good manager ,a performer can never hope to succeed .Fashion is important in this business, too. The best tailor in the world will never be a success if he makes old-fashioned clothes. In exactly the same way, a performer must change his “act" in order to follow the taste of the moment. This is true for actors, dancers and comedians, but perhaps most of all singers.? “Pop" stands for “popular" and a pop singer has to work very hard to become popular .He must either give the public what they already want, or he must find a new way of singing that will attract their attention. Even when he has succeeded, and his records are sold everywhere, he can 欢迎广大教师踊跃来稿,稿酬丰厚。www.ks5u.com 3
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not relax. Then he must work harder than ever because there are always younger singers trying to become famous and to steal some of the popularity.? The life of a successful pop singer is not at all easy. He can only relax when he is alone, because everything he does is watched and reported in the special newspaper written for the “fans”. The fans are the most important people in the world for the singers. They buy his records, they go to his concerts and they make him rich and famous. But they can be very annoying, too. Sometimes their enthusiasm get so hysterical that they do anything to get a “souvenir"?(纪念品). They steal handkerchiefs, they tear off buttons, and they even cut off pieces of the unfortunate singer's hair. Many singers have been forced to hide. A pop singer has to spend a lot of money on clothes, because he must always look smart or at any rate different. He must have a luxurious car. And ? most important ? he must always keep smiling for the benefit of his public.?
  1. Why must a pop singer have a good manager?.? A. To protect him from his fans C. To help him to change his “act" B. To look after his business interests? D .So that he can relax

  2. Why must a pop singer work even harder when he has become famous?? A. Because he wants to attract the attention of the public ? B. Because he wants to sell more records ? C. Because he wants to become popular ? D. Because he wants to stay popular 【解析】
  1. 答案为 B。因果推断题。根据 Talent is not enough, because show business is as competitive as any other business. Without a good manager, a performer can never hope to succeed .我们可以知道,正因为这个行业竞争激烈,所以表演者需要一个好的经纪人。帮助 演员策划和安排商业表演活动,协助他的演艺事业的发展。故 B 项正确。?
  2. 答案为 D。因果推断题。Then he must work harder than ever because there are always younger singers trying to become famous and to steal some of the popularity. 一个成名演员要更 加努力地工作,直接原因文中已有论述,即,表演行业是个竞争十分激烈的行业,新人不断 涌现, 对成名演员造成很大的压力。 那么间接原因是什么?通过前面的分析我们可以推断出 成名演员更加买力地工作,是因为他要保持他的名气,延长他的艺术生命。? 【例题】 Once Napoleon stayed in a small inn. The next morning, he went to thank the innkeeper. 欢迎广大教师踊跃来稿,稿酬丰厚。www.ks5u.com 4
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“You, have served me well, innkeeper, “said Napoleon. “I wish to reward you. Tell me what you want." ? “Sir, we want nothing, “said the innkeeper. “But will you tell us something?" “What is it?" Napoleon asked. ? “We have heard a story." said the innkeeper, “that once during the war, a small village was taken by the Russians. You happened to be in the village. You hid while they looked for you. Will you tell us how you felt when they were looking for you?" Napoleon looked very angry. He called in two of his soldiers. Then he pointed to the door. The soldiers took the innkeeper and his wife out into the yard. ? At the end of the yard was a wall. The innkeeper and his wife were led to the wall. The soldiers tied the hands of the innkeeper and his wife. Napoleon watched, saying nothing. ? “Please, sir." begged the innkeeper, “Don't kill us! we meant nothing!" The soldiers moved back. The innkeeper saw them raising their guns. Then Napoleon called: “Ready! Aim!" The wife screamed. “Stop!" said Napoleon. He went to the innkeeper, “Now, you know the answer to the question you asked me just now, don't you?" ?
  1. Why did the innkeeper ask Napoleon to tell him how Napoleon felt when he was being looked for?? A. He wanted to know the difference between a general and an ordinary people. B. He looked down upon Napoleon, for he thought a great man shouldn't be defeated. ? C. He showed his sympathy? (同情) to Napoleon in time of danger. ? D. He was interested in other's failure, especially Napoleon's.
  2. Why did Napoleon ordered his men to tie the couple?? A. Because he wanted to teach the innkeeper a good lesson for bothering him. B. Because he wanted to kill the couple to get rid of his anger.? C. Because he wanted to show that he was so admiring a general that nobody could upset him. D. Because he wanted to made the innkeeper know that a general like him had the same feeling as the ordinary people in face of danger. 【解析】
  1. 此题为因果推断题。 根据“Sir, we want nothing, " said the innkeeper. “But will you tell us something?" 可以看出来, 这个店老板问拿破仑这个问题是出于好奇。他想知道作 欢迎广大教师踊跃来稿,稿酬丰厚。www.ks5u.com 5
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为将军的拿破仑与普通人到底有什么区别。故答案为 A。
  2. 因果推断题。从最后一句话“Now, you know the answer to the question you asked me just now, don't you?" 可以看出拿破仑并不想杀这个店老板, 他这样做的目的是想让他体验一 下他当时的感受。 故可推出面对危险像拿破仑这样的将军与普通人没有什么两样。 故答案为 D。 三、人物性格、态度及观点判定题? 高考阅读测试中有些是考查考生对作
 

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