Can you guess the meanings of the following words?

  1. He is a resolute man. Once he made up his mind to do something, he won't give it up halfway. A. strong B. firm C. kind D. clever
  2. The official asked the man what his occupation was. The man told him that he worked as an engineer. A. work B. study C. name D. interest
  3. The old woman has a strange habit to keep over 100 cats in her house. Her neighbors all call her an eccentric lady. B.古怪的 A. 爱猫的 B.古怪的 C.闲不住的 D.动物保护主义者
  4. In many countries there are two financial extremes, from penury to great wealth. A. 便士 B. 温饱 C. 赤贫 D.虚弱
  5. Mrs. Smith is loquacious while her husband is the silent type. A. 活泼的 B.好动的 C.多嘴多舌的 D. 可爱的
2010年高考大纲中关于阅读理解的要求 年高考大纲中关于阅读理解的要求
要求考生读懂熟悉的有关日常生活话题的简 短文字材料,例如公告,说明,广告以及书, 短文字材料,例如公告,说明,广告以及书,报, 杂志中关于一般性话题的简短文章.考生应能: 杂志中关于一般性话题的简短文章.考生应能: 理解主旨要义; 1,理解主旨要义; 理解文中具体信息; 2,理解文中具体信息; 根据上下文推断生词的词义; 3,根据上下文推断生词的词义; 作出简单判断和理解; 4,作出简单判断和理解; 理解文章的基本结构; 5,理解文章的基本结构; 理解作者的意图和态度. 6,理解作者的意图和态度
2005?2009年阅读理解试题分类情况 年阅读理解试题分类情况
题目设计数量 事实细节题 试 主旨大意题 题 设 计 词义猜测题 分 类 推理判断题 2005 10 2 1 6 2006 12 2 2 6 2007 10 2 1 6 2008 12 1 3 4 2009 11 0 2 2
词义猜测题常用的提问方式有: 词义猜测题常用的提问方式有:

  1. The word "…" refers to / probably means / could best be replaced by .
  2.The word "…" is most likely to mean .
  3. What do you think the expression "…" stands for?
  4. The underlined word "…" means . ......
对考纲外生词的猜测
Many United Nations employees are polyglots: polyglots: Mr. Jim, for example, speaks five languages fluently. "polyglot" most probably means "."
对考纲内熟词新义的猜测
I had first known she was wrong that her anxiety had clouded her judgment. (04全国卷) (04全国卷) "cloud" means "."
对句义的猜测 The biggest finding in brain research in the last ten years is that the brain at any age is highly plastic. If you ask your brain plastic. to learn, it will learn.(07四川卷) learn.(07四川卷) By saying "the brain at any age is highly plastic", the writer means the brain can be . A. used B. mastered C. developed D. researched
词义猜测题常用的提问方式有: 词义猜测题常用的提问方式有:

  1. The word "…" refers to / probably means / could best be replaced by .
  2.The word "…" is most likely to mean .
  3. What do you think the expression "…" stands for?
  4. The underlined word "…" means . ......
语境法 Context clues
猜测词意
构词法 Word formation
Word Formation 构词法:
英语单词大多是由词根,词头(前缀) 英语单词大多是由词根,词头(前缀) 和词尾(后缀)所组成. 和词尾(后缀)所组成.词根是单词最基本 的部分,表达单词的基本含义. 的部分,表达单词的基本含义.在词根前或 后加上前缀或后缀, 后加上前缀或后缀,可以用来引申或转变原 词的意义.只要我们掌握了各种词根, 词的意义.只要我们掌握了各种词根,词头 和词尾的基本含义, 和词尾的基本含义,那么就可以很容易猜测 出由其构成的新词的含义了. 出由其构成的新词的含义了.
中学英语中常见的前缀和后缀有: 中学英语中常见的前缀和后缀有:
super- (超) mini- (极小的 微小的 极小的, 超 极小的 微小的) micro-(极微小的) re- (再,反复) 反复) (极微小的) mis-(误,恶) im-(不) ( ( un-(不,非) in-(不,非) ( ( non-(不,非) -able(能…的 ) ( ( 的 -less(不,无) -wards (向) ( 向 inner- (内部的,里面的) 内部的,里面的)
Can you guess the right meanings?
superman (超人) 超人) nonnatural (非自然的) 非自然的) homeless (无家可归的) 无家可归的) rebuild (重建) 重建) microwave (微波) 微波) mispronounce (发错音) 发错音) nonsmoker (非烟民) 非烟民) eastwards (向东) 向东)
Mary, of course you are overweight. You eat too much junk food. Even worse, you excercise infrequently. "Even when a man is said to be a best friend," Rubin writes, "the two share little about their innermost feelings."
WordWord-formation
(复合法,转化法,派生法) 复合法,转化法,派生法)

  1. (05重庆卷)
  1.When he reached the place with (05重庆卷) his army, he found an impassable river in front of him. 词的派生) (词的派生)
  2. It's true that lighthouse were built in out-of-theout-of-the-way place. (合成形容词) 合成形容词)
  3. When men and women lived by hunting 50,000 years ago, how could they even begin to picture modern life?
(词性变化) 词性变化)
语 境 法 Logical relations 猜 测 词 义
?
Ex
  1.
木匠
动物学家
牧人
夜班
◎A person who is skilled at making or repairing wooden objects is called a carpenter. carpenter zoologist, ◎His uncle is a zoologist an expert who does research on animals. herdsman, ◎The herdsman who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year. ◎We are on the night shift from midnight to 8 a.m. this week.
语 境 法 猜 测 词 义

  1. 定义描述


定义或释义关系常由定语从句或is, 定义或释义关系常由定语从句或 be called,be known as, be defined as , 等词汇或破折号来表示 ; 或由that is (to say), in other words, 或由 , to put it another way引出 一些具体的解释性的短语解释生词
Ex.2
替代
丰满的
The new tax law supersedes or supersedes, replaces, the law that was in effect last year.
Mother was tall, fat and middle-aged. My aunt was an old woman, almost as plump as mother, and much shorter.
节约的 Though Tom's face has been washed quite clean, his neck still remains grubby. grubby
污秽的
John usually wastes a lot of money on such useless things, his wife, however, is very thrifty thrifty.
混乱
天生的
◎In the past the world seemed to run in an orderly way. Now, however, everything seems to be in a state of turmoil turmoil.
◎Some human actions are learned, but innate. quite a few other actions are innate
(2009四川 四川,C) Honesty comes in many forms. First there's 四川 self-honesty. Is what people see the real article or do you appear through smoke and mirrors?
  49. The underlined part "appear through smoke and mirrors" in the first paragraph means " ". A. to be honest B. to be unreal C. to become clear D. to come from an imagined world
(2009陕西 陕西,
  50) Even though science an tell us 陕西 that some of our traditional beliefs don't hold water, there is still a lot of truth in the old wives' tales.
  50. The phrase "hold water" in the last paragraph most probably means "". A. to be believable B. to be valuable C. to be admirable D. to be suitable
语 境 法 猜 测 词 义

  2. 同义反义


由and或or, like , similarly, 或 , as …as, the same as等连接的两 等连接的两 个词构成同义关系; 个词构成同义关系; 表转折关系的词常有如 表转折关系的词常有如but, while, however, instead of, rather than, unlike, yet, otherwise, though, , on the contrary等. 等
( 09安徽卷) Of course, the good of oxen is not 09安徽卷)
limited to plowing. In fact, they are seen as "boats "boats on land" for their ability to carry loads. land"
  60. The words "boats an land" underlined in Paragraph 2 refer to __ A. animals for taking goods B. creatures for pulling plows C. treasures of the folk culture D. tools in the farming economy
弹性的
Ex
  3.
混浊的
Rubber can be made to stretch more than nine times its normal elastic. length because it is very elastic
The river is so turbid that it is impossible to see the bottom even when it is shallow.
◎Since I could not afford to purchase the original painting, I bought a replica An replica. inexperienced eye could not tell the difference. ◎He's such a shrewd businessman that he loses no money in any trade. ◎She wanted the hairdresser to trim her hair a bit because it was too long. 复制品 精明的 修剪
语 境 法 猜 测 词 义

  3. 因果关系


常用关联词( because, 常用关联词(如because, as,since,for,so,thus, as,since,for,so,thus, result, as a result,so, so … that, such … that therefore等 表示前因后果. therefore等)表示前因后果.
(06陕西卷) The homeless people (06陕西卷 陕西卷) may have become jobless and then been unable to pay their rent and so no longer have a roof over their heads. In paragraph 2, " a roof over their heads" most probably means . A. a cap B. a car C. a home D. a covering
Ex.4
装置
家禽
Cars must have certain safety devices such as seat belt, headlights, and good brakes.
On the farm they mainly raise poultry such poultry, as chickens, ducks and geese, for their eggs and meat.
家电
民俗
The new couple bought a lot of household appliances , such as washing machine, fridge and microwave oven ect.
Difined most broadly, folklore includes all the customs, belief and tradition that people have handed down from generation to generation.
语 境 法 猜 测 词 义

  4.举例归纳
  4.举例归纳


常用such as, like, for 常用 , example, for instance等引出例 等引出例 子,可根据例子隶属的类别归纳 出总称词即词义 .
对考纲外生词的猜测
Many United Nations employees are polyglots: Mr. Jim, for example, polyglots: speaks five languages fluently. "polyglot" most probably means
通晓多种语言的 "."
EX.5 When a doctor performs an operation on a patient, he usually gives an anaesthetic to make him unconscious, because he does not want his patient to feel pain or to know what is happening to him. When you throw a stone into still water of a lake, you will watch a ripple spread in rings on the surface of water. Metal expands when heated and contracts when cooled. 麻药 波纹 膨胀 冷缩
◎Because this chemical liquid is highly volatile, we must keep it in a bottle which has a tight lid.
◎In the strong wind, the beggar shivered with the terrible cold.
易挥发的
颤抖
语 境 法 猜 测 词 义

  5.生活常识
  5.生活常识


根据自身的直接或间接的经验, 根据自身的直接或间接的经验,或运用自 己已有的常识将生词推测出来. 己已有的常识将生词推测出来. 因此平时 多了解英美国家的风俗习惯,宗教信仰, 多了解英美国家的风俗习惯,宗教信仰, 社会生活等,可以帮助加深对文章的理解, 社会生活等,可以帮助加深对文章的理解, 遇到生词,猜测词义的能力自然就提高了. 遇到生词,猜测词义的能力自然就提高了.
(05 福建卷) Rainforests like the 福建卷) Amazon are important for mopping up CO2 from the atmosphere and helping to slow global warming. The phrase " mopping up" in the paragraph means. A. cleaning up B. taking in C. wiping out D. giving out
(2009天津 Frequently it happens that a place 天津) 天津 has two names: One is named by the people and the other by the government. As in many areas, old habits died hard, and the place continues to be called by its unofficial name long after the meaning is lost.
  37. What does the underlined phrase "die hard" in Paragraph 1 probably mean? A. Change suddenly. B. Change significantly. C. Disappear mysteriously. D. Disappear very slowly.
语 境 法 猜 测 词 义

  6.上下推断
  6.上下推断


所谓"词不离句,句不离章" 所谓"词不离句,句不离章"讲的就是对 于词语或句子的正确理解依赖于一定的情 猜测生词义或句意时, 景.猜测生词义或句意时, 一定要认真 读懂与生词密切相关的前后句子, 读懂与生词密切相关的前后句子,进行合 情合理的推测,排除肤浅的表义, 情合理的推测,排除肤浅的表义,选择蕴 含在其中的深意. 含在其中的深意.
对句义的猜测 The biggest finding in brain research in the last ten years is that the brain at any age is highly plastic. If you ask your brain plastic. to learn, it will learn.(07四川卷) learn.(07四川卷) By saying "the brain at any age is highly plastic", the writer means the brain can be . A.used B. mastered C. developed D. researched
猜测句子含义题的解题方法: 猜测句子含义题的解题方法:
猜测句子含义题涉及选材背景,句型结构,文章 猜测句子含义题涉及选材背景,句型结构, 主旨,作者观点态度等方面.联系主旨, 主旨,作者观点态度等方面.联系主旨,整合上 下文信息是解这类题的关键 是解这类题的关键. 下文信息是解这类题的关键. 首先, 首先,要确认所要求猜测句义的句子在文中 的位置; 的位置; 其次,审读题干,确认猜测点. 其次,审读题干,确认猜测点. 第三,整合上下文信息, 第三,整合上下文信息,确
 

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