猜测词义 猜测词义

  1.
Teaching background 教学背景
阅 读 理 解
题 型 及 解 题

  1. 主旨大意
  2. 细节理解
  3. 猜测词义
  4.
  5.
  6. 理
Question form (常见提问方式) (常见提问方式 常见提问方式)
The underlined word “__”in the passage means __ . What does “”in the third paragraph stand for ? The word/phrase “” most nearly means . The word/phrase “__” could best be replaced by __. The word/phrase “__” in Line…,Para …refers to__. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the phrase/word/sentence “”? What’s the meaning of “” in Line …,Para …? The author uses the word “” to indicate?
做题要领

  1)文中找线索或信息词; 文中找线索或信息词;
  2) 根据熟悉的词及词义 判断新单词之意; 判断新单词之意;
  3)根据上下文判断新词 汇在特定句中确切意思。 汇在特定句中确切意思。
? Quiz: However, men quickly found more
convenient and reliable ways of telling the time. They learned to use the shadows cast by the sun. They marked the hours on candles, used sand in hour- glasses, and invented water-clocks. Indeed, any serious student of antique should spend as much time as possible visiting palaces, stately homes and museums to see some of the finest examples of clocks from the past.(2007 广东卷) 广东卷)
The underlined phrase stately homes in paragraph 4 means
A. state-owned houses B. houses in very good condition C. grand houses open to the public D. houses where statesmen meet regularly
Definition Contrast Similarity
定义法 对比法 相似法
Cause and effect 因果法 Example 例举法
Word Formation 构词法 Context 上下文
Definition 定义法:一般通过定义/ 定义法: 技巧 1 定语从句/ 定语从句/词组或同位语从句来确 定词义
定义猜词时, 定义猜词时,文中常有解释性词语引出生词 含义, 含义,如that is, mean, stand for, namely, in other words, to be等,有时用破折号, 有时用破折号, 括弧来表示,或者用同位语、 括弧来表示,或者用同位语、定语从句的形 式出现。考生要通过上下文来寻求线索, 式出现。考生要通过上下文来寻求线索,找 到关键性的解释性词语或短语。 到关键性的解释性词语或短语。
It will be very hard but very brittle? brittle? that is , it will break easily . The herdsman , who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year. A calendar is a list of the days, weeks, months of a particular year.
Check the answers
从后面的解释中,我们可以了解到 从后面的解释中, brittle是 易碎的,脆的” brittle是“易碎的,脆的”的意思 定语从句中looks 定语从句中looks after sheep就表明了 sheep就表明了 herdsman的词义为 牧羊人” herdsman的词义为“牧羊人”。 的词义为“
技巧 2
Contrast 对比法:利用文中
的反义词、表对比关系的词猜 的反义词、 测词义。 测词义。 表示对比的词有but 表示对比的词有but 、 yet 、 while 、 however、 otherwise等 however、 otherwise等。
e.g.. Although the early morning ???? had been very cool, the noonday ?? sun was tropical. hot 热的
Unlike Unlike his brother, who is truly a handsome handsome man, John is quite homely. “homely” means “ ugly ”.
In the past the world seemed to run in an orderly way. Now, however, everything seems to be in a state of turmoil. turmoil. 一片混乱
相似法:利用同义词、 技巧 3 Similarity 相似法:利用同义词、 近义词或词组猜测词义
作者可能会用一个近义词或者同义词去 解释另一个更难的词, 解释另一个更难的词,以便使他的文字 意思更清楚, 意思更清楚,近义词往往出现在同一句 或者同一段落中。 或者同一段落中。
also 有害的 adj.
At the beginning they did not have enough capital to start a business, nor were they able to borrow the amount of money they needed from the bank. 资金 n.
同义词常见信号词: 同义词常见信号词: 常见信号词 or, namely, that is, i.e., that is say,等 to say,等。
技巧 4 Cause
Effect 因果法:从 因果法: 原因推测结果, 原因推测结果,从结果推测 原因 That museum is so immense that it will be impossible to see all the exhibits in one day.
既然一天之内看不完所有的展品,这个 博物馆当然是够“大的”了。
The lack of movement caused the muscles to weaken. Sometimes the weakness was permanent.So the player could never play the sport again. 从后面的结果"永远不能再运动 中 , 可以 从后面的结果 永远不能再运动"中 永远不能再运动 的意思为"永远的 永远的, 推测 permanent 的意思为 永远的,永久的 "。 。
例举法: 技巧 5 Example 例举法:利用文中的举 例猜测词义。 例猜测词义。
Today young couples often spend lots of their money on appliances, appliances, for instance , washing-machine, washingrefrigerators and color televisions.
家用电器
Cars must have certain safety devices such as seat belt, headlights, and good brakes. 设备 常见的举例的提 示词有for 示词有for instance, for example, such as 等。
技巧 6
Word Formation 构词法:英语单
词大多是由词根、词头(前缀)、词尾 词大多是由词根、词头(前缀)、词尾 )、 后缀)所组成。 (后缀)所组成。词根是单词最基本的 部分,表达单词的基本含义。 部分,表达单词的基本含义。在词根前 或后加上前缀或后缀, 或后加上前缀或后缀,可以用来引申或 转变原词的意义。 转变原词的意义。只要我们掌握了各种 词根、词头、词尾的基本含义, 词根、词头、词尾的基本含义,那么就 可以很容易地猜测所构成的新词的含义 了。
中学英语中常见的前缀和后缀有
super- (超) mini-(极小的 微小的) 微小的) 超 ( micro-(极微小的) re- (再,反复) 反复) (极微小的) mis-(误,恶) im-(不) ( ( un-(不,非) in-(不,非) ( ( non-(不,非) -able(能…的 ) ( ( 的 -less(不,无) --wards (向) ( 向
Can you guess the meanings of the following words?
superman (超人) 超人) nonnatural (非自然的) 非自然的) homeless (无家可归的) 无家可归的) rebuild (重建) 重建) microwave (微波) 微波) informal (非正式的) 非正式的) mispronounce (发错音) 发错音) nonsmoker (非烟民) 非烟民) eastwards (向东) 向东)
上下文: 技巧 7 Context 上下文:
利用语境及前后的提示来猜测词义
根据上下文判断新词汇的确切意思典型例句 分析。 例题:(
  1) Tom can’t find his sneakers. A.Money B. bowls C. shoes Tom can’t find his white sneakers. A.Money B. bowls C. shoes Tom can’t play tennis now because he can’t find his white sneakers. A.Money B. bowls C. shoes
【解析】sneakers中学课本中未出现过的新词。 根据英语语法,作为名词的A、B、C代入句中意 思也说得通。 但在speakers前加一个修饰语white white就成 white 为Tom can’t find his white sneakers.那 么 A领则可去掉,答案则可能是B和C。 而在这句的前面再加一层意思,这就是:Tom can’t play tennis now because he can’t find his white sneakers. 这样一看就知道bowls(碗) 与打网球没有什么联系,而shoes与打网球却有密 切联系,不穿鞋怎么打网球呢?C就成为唯一正确 选项。

  2)Tom saw an owl last night. night. A .a bird B.an animal C. a star Tom saw an owl in a tree last night. night. A .a bird B.an animal C. a star Tom saw an owl last night but it flew away when he got near. near. A .a bird B.an animal C. a star

  3)The children are looking at an ape. ape. A.a kind of monkey B.a kind of tree B C.a kind of bird The children are looking at an ape at the zoo. zoo.
A A.a kind of monkey B.a kind of tree C.a kind of bird
The children are looking at a large, hairy(毛的) ape hairy(毛的 毛的) at the zoo. zoo. A.a kind of monkey B.a kind of tree C.a kind of bird
?
  1) He sounded quite nervous and he had been talking for a minute or so before I understand anything. Even then all I could make out was that someone called Milly had had a very bad accident. ? A see clearly B understand C expect
从上句“他显得非常紧张, 从上句“他显得非常紧张,讲了一会我才 懂得他讲的内容 …” 中判断 make out 意为 understand, 故选B 故选B

  2. A good teacher works in quite a different way. His audience take an active part in his play: they ask and answer questions, they obey orders, and if they don’t understand something, they say so. ? The word “audience” in the paragraph means . ? A. students ? B. people who watch a play ? C. people who act on the stage ? D. people who listen to something
3 In spite of the fact the fishermen were wearing sou’ westers , the storm was so heavy that they were wet through. A a kind of raincoat B a kind of umbrella C a kind of shoes 4 Please give me your recipe for this cake,so I , can make it too. . A.a dish B.directions for cooking . . C.a meal D.directions to your house . .
  5.There is a stack of papers on Mr. Green’s desk. . A.piece B.balance . . C.mixture . D.pile .
6 Mr. Brown is an amateur photographer.He is an . engineer.But in his free time he likes to take . pictures. . A. as a hobby B.for money . C.as a job D.as work . .
  7.Chicken pox can be very serious for a child who is not in good health.The child develops . red spots,and feels hot and uncomfortable. , . A healthy child gets well quickly. . A. a kind of animal B.a kind of food . C. a kind of childhood disease D. a lack of pure water
Definition Contrast Similarity
定义法 对比法 相似法
Cause and effect 因果法 Example 例举法
Word Formation 构词法 Context 上下文
Practice练习 练习
Guess the correct meanings

  1. There are some glaciers moving down the mountain valleys. A glacier is a river of ice. A 雪山 B 树枝 C 冰河 D 冰
  2. He is a resolute man. Once he made up his mind to do something , he won’t give it up halfway. A weak B firm C kind D clever
  3. Mr. Brown is now working at Princeton University far away from home. For this reason he has to rent a room near the office where he works. A 租用 B 借出 C 购买 D 参观

  4. The official asked the man what his occupation was. The man told him that he worked as an engineer. (context) A work B study C name D interest
  5. The old woman has a strange habit to keep over 100 cats in her house. Her neighbor all call her an eccentric lady. A 爱猫的 B 古怪的 C 闲不住 D 动物 保护主义者
  6. In many countries there are two financial extremes, from penury to great wealth. A 便士 B 温饱 C 非常贫困 D 虚弱

  7. Mrs. Smith is loquacious while her husband is the silent type. A 活泼的 B 好动的 C 多嘴多舌的 D 可爱的
  8. Those new comers were not used to the life in the suburbs which was so different from that inside the city. A town B capital C countryside D house
  9. This boy is not stupid, on the contrary, no one could be more intelligent. intelligent. A 勤奋的 B 愚蠢的 C 聪明的 D 情报
高考题:
  1.When some kind of pain killer(止疼药)
was brought out recently, researchers found that the colors turned the customers off because they made the product look weak and ineffective. Eventually, it came on the market in a dark blue and white packageblue because we think of it as safe, and white as calm.(2004年NMET全国,广东卷)

  65.The underlined part “the colors turned the customers off” (in Para.
  3) means that the colors. A.had weak effects on the customers B. tricked the customers into shopping C. caused the customers to lose interest D.attracted the customers strongly 通过因果法可知答案为C
Q: Which of the following is closest in meaning to the underlined word “illiterate” A. repeat B. reiterated C. uneducated D. sick
Passage2: Most women in Ghana ??
the educated and illiterate, the urban and rural, the young and old work to earn an income in addition to maintaining their roles as housewives and mothers. Their reputation for economic independence, self-reliance, and hard work is well known and well deserved(应得的,值得的 应得的, 应得的 值得的).
解 释 本题答案选C 本题答案选C
这段文字中讲到加纳这个国家中 的大多数妇女, 的大多数妇女,受过教育的 (educated)和没有受过教育的 );住在城市的 (illiterate);住在城市的 和住在农村的( (urban)和住在农村的(rural), 年轻的( 和年长的( 年轻的(young)和年长的(old) 正好是一对对反义词。 正好是一对对反义词。因此选 C 项。
? Passage
  3. We can not feel speed. But our sense let us know that we are moving. We see things moving past and feel that we are being shaken. We can feel acceleration, an increase in speed. But we notice it for only a short time. For example we feel it during the t
 

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