任何一篇文章都离不开篇章纽带的起承转合。尤其是高考英语 高考英语书面表达,尽管它不属于真正意义上的 高考英语 作文,但作文的基本要素却是不能缺乏的。因此,高分的关键和作文的出彩在于过渡词(transitional words)恰到好处的运用。牢记并自如地运用过渡词是每一位考生决胜高考的法宝。以下是书面表达中常 用连词分类举例。 ▲举例:for example,for instance,take…for example,such as,like,and so on,so on and so forth,and so on and on and on, etc.等。 ▲说明:that's to say,in other words,namely,等。 ▲因果:so,for,therefore,as a result,thus,because,because of,thanks to…,owing to…,due to ……等。 ▲递进:then,besides,in addition, furthermore,moreover, what's more 等。 ▲顺序:firstly, secondly,thirdly, finally;in the first place,in the second place, in the third place, lastly to begin with, then, furthermore, finally; start with, next, in addition, to finally;first and foremost, besides, last but not least;most important of all,moreover, finally(以上为时间顺序) in the front of,in front of …,before, behind, at the back of, on the right/left(of), to the right /left of…,on the other side of …,in the center of …,in the middle of …,at the beginning of , at the end of …,by the side of …,on the top of …,at the foot of …,on the bottom of, inside,outside, upstairs, downstairs(以上为空间顺序) ▲转折: nevertheless, however, although, though, but,on the country,after all, oppositely 等。 ▲总结: in short, in a word, in general, generally speaking, finally,at last,as far as I know,in brief,briefly speaking, in the end, as a matter of fact, in reality, in fact, on the whole, in conclusion, on account of this, therefore 等。 ▲强调: really, indeed,certainly,surely,for sure, above all 等。 ▲对比: in the same way, just as, common with, compared with, on the one hand…on in the other hand, for one thing… for another,similarly 等。 ▲平行:and,both…and…,as well as,as well,neither…nor…or,either…or…,not only…but also…等。 二、书面表达的常考常用句型在实际的英语写作 英语写作中,我们应该掌握一些常用的句型以便在实战中发挥 英语写作 作用。高考英语书面表达的句式基本上都是简单句,就是复合句也大都是极普通的常用句式或句型。先讨 论简单句的使用情况。所谓简单句式在英语中无非是三种基本句型及其扩充。 一类是 S.+V.+O.式,例如,①I like English and computer best. (NMET19
  96) ②I started school from 1984 to 19
  96) 二类是 S.+V.+Adv.式,例如,① My parents live in the country.(NMET19
②The other day my brother and I went to the cinema by bicycle. (NMET19
  97) 三类是 S.+V.+Pre. 例如,①My name is Li Hua.(NMET19
  96) ②The playground is now in front of the school.(NMET19
  99) ③It was
  7:15 on the morning of February
  00. (NMET20
  00) 下面我们主要分析一下书面表达中部分复合句式,惯用句型与套语以及惯用结构等。高考英语书面表 达中的复合句式多为带时间状语从句的复合句和带宾语从句的复合句,其他如强调句型、带定语从句的复 合句、带主语从句的复合句、条件句、让步或转折的句式等,也是常见常用常考的复合句形式。有些复合 句式几乎年年都考。复合句虽可化简,但就一篇文章而言,若全是简单句,无一复合句或难句起采,难见 考生功力,得高分就不容易了。所以,该用复合句或难句表现的,而且自信没什么问题,就应大胆写出来, 考生切记。
  1. 带时间状语从句的复合句①Before we knew it, we had to say good-bye to the workers. (NMET19
  98) ②In short, things have begun to improve since schools were called on to reduce learning load. (NMET20
  01) ③As we got into a forest, we lost out way.(北京 20
  02) ④It's also possible a pickpocket stole your money while you were shopping. (2004 北京 卷) ⑤When I was about to play football, I saw mom washing clothes for me. (2004 重庆卷) ⑥By the time mom came back, I had finished the work. (2004 重庆卷) ⑦Soon after I started, a friend came and invited me to play football with him.(2004 重庆卷) ⑧As the snatcher was running past him, the old man quickly picked up his umbrella and put it between the snatcher's legs. (2004 辽宁卷) 这类时间状语从句不仅考得频繁,而且连词 when, while, as, before, after 甚至 by the time 都考到了,时态上现在时、过去时、过去进行时和过去完成时等都出现了。而且有些年份带时间状语从句 的复合句还同时出现多次。因此我们建议广大考生应加强训练这类复合句,在高考中尽量少犯错误。
  2. 带宾语从句的复合句①I think this is a good chance for you to show your singing talent, and how well you've learned Chinese. (NMET20
  04, I) ②I'm sure we'll have a wonderful time and enjoy each other's company.(NMET20
  04, II) ③I am so sorry that I won't be able to attend the lecture on American history tomorrow afternoon. (NMET20
  04, III) ④I wonder if it is possible for the talk to be recorded, and if so, could I borrow the tape? (NMET20
  04, III)
⑤I'm so pleased to learn that you and your classmates are learning Chinese. (2004 浙 江卷) ⑥Please let me know if you want me to buy these dictionaries. (2004 浙江卷) ⑦Some of them think that English learning should start from childhood. (2004 湖北卷) ⑧I would also think that the growth population should be brought under control so that we'll have a better hometown in future. (2004 江苏卷)
  3. 带定语从句的复合句①The flat is in a building on Fangcao Street, which is not far from Jianxin Chinese School. (NMET20
  03) ②If there is anything I can do for you, I would be more than glad to help. (NMET20
  04, I) ③People need a place where they can rest and enjoy themselves. (NMET20
  02) ④As is shown on Chart
  2, only 10% of the time is taken up with sports activities. (2004 北京卷) ⑤So the missing money still must be in the other jacket, the one you were wearing yesterday! (2004 北京卷)
  4. 其他 ▲强调句型 It was our brave Ah Fu who had saved my little sister. (NMET19
  93) ▲带主语从句的复合句 ①Here is how you can find us.(NMET19
  95) ②On the other side, where the playground used to be now stands another new building-our library.(NMET19
  99) ▲so that 句型: ①I became so impatient that I had to go to explain my difficulty. (2004 广东卷) ②I am so sorry that I won't be able to …。 tomorrow afternoon. (NMET20
  04, III) ③I would also think that the growth population should be brought under control so that we'll have a better hometown in future. (2004 江苏卷) ④The noise was so loud that I couldn't go on studying. (2004 广东卷) ▲让步或转折: ①It was hard for me, but I felt it a pleasure to be able to share housework with mom. (2004 重庆卷)
②I don't know about others, but I used to have to work even at weekends doing homework and attending classes as well. (NMET20
  01) ③Although the city is modern and convenient, there are still some problems, such as air pollution, crowdedness and noise. (2004 湖南卷) ④I know the school will organize a lot of things for you to do in the morning, but in the afternoon, I'll show you around and take you to some places of interest. (NMET20
  04, II) ▲条件句: ①If they study Chinese pinyin and English at the same time, it will be very easy for them to mix them up.(2004 湖北卷) ②If you would like to try, you' ll have to go to the TV station to sign up before the end of June. (NMET20
  04,I) ③If there is anything I can do for you, I would be more than glad to help. (NMET20
  04, I) 三。书面表达开头和结尾的写作
  1.书面表达的开头俗话说万事开头难。其实,一点也不难。高考英语书面表达的开头句一般已为你写 好。你要做的是分段缩进重起第二段。注意千万不要接着已写好的首句。一是不美观,二是不便于阅卷老 师细览。那么你的起头句实际上是第二段了。开始句根据要求一般可以写的漂亮一点,即要用一些好的套 语开始。比如: ①Opinions are divided on the question.(NMET20
  02) ②Chart 1 shows the daily average amount of time the students of the school spend on different after-class activities. (2004 北京卷) ③As is shown on Chart
  2, only 10% of the time is taken up with sports activities.(2004 北京卷) ④Although the city is modern and convenient, there are still some problems, such as air pollution, crowdedness and noise.(2004 湖南卷) ⑤My parents and I are very pleased to have you with us.(2004 全国卷 I) ⑥I am so sorry that I won't be able to attend the lecture on American history tomorrow afternoon. (2004 全国卷 III) 可是很多考生总在开头处写的不尽如人意,总喜欢搞一些生造的句子或词语来开头,这是一大忌。有 些开头可以以套语开始, 或以俗语开始比较有力, 这样就容易被老师看好。 档位在开始时就已定得很高了。 现以 2004 湖北卷书面表达试题的开始句为例看考生的千奇百怪的错误: ①Some students agreed start learning English from childhood. ②Some students think: we should learn English from childhood. Because of we have a good memory in childhood.
③Some students considered it's useless to slart learning English from childhood. ④One group thought its necessary to start learning English from child. ⑤In some students opinion, we shall start learning English from childhood. ⑥Some of students considered that children at their ages had a good memory…
  2.书面表达的结尾:⑦⑧结尾在书面表达的写作中占有很重要的地位,通常结尾都要算一个内容要求, 所以,写好结尾且让阅卷老师有一个完整的印象是十分必要的。好的结尾可以是一段,由一句或几句话组 成,能使全文增色。例如: ①If there is anything I can do for you, I would be more than glad to help.( 2004 全国 卷 I) ②It would mean a great deal to me to listen to the tape and learn what is covered in the talk. (2004 全国卷 III) ③What's more, some statues of famous people will be set up to encourage us to work harder. Don't you think it a wonderful program?(2004 福建卷) ④Please let me know if you want me to buy these dictionaries. (2004 浙江卷) ⑤By the time mom came back, I had finished the work. Mom praised me, and I felt proud too. (2004 重庆卷) ⑥In short, the students have not arrived at any agreement yet.(2004 湖北卷) 但是,在实际的操作中,许多考生却不知如何来结尾,原本一、两句话或极少的表达就可很圆满地完 成写作任务,往往又旁生枝节,写上一些废话,甚至错话,结果因表达不当又被扣分。以 2004 年湖北卷 书面表达试题考生的错误为例,可以看出很多考生是吃力不讨好的。结尾中主要的错误体现在不必要的累 赘和废话上面: ▲结尾的枝节(不必要的累赘) ①In a word, the discussion is broken…… ②In my opinion, the students should enjoy free, sunshine, flowers, the walks in the beauty of the countryside not except the studying. ③Though they have two different kinds of opinions about this discussion, but they are very friendly in this discussion. ▲废话 ①The discuss meeting didn't again a same result. ②What do you think, can you tell me. ③The discussion didn't get a conclusion. What's your opinion?
一、人们总以为淡水是取之不尽的,实际上淡水资源是很有限的。请谈谈你的看法。 It is generally believed that there is a good supply of fresh water. But to our disappointment, the fact is just the opposite. As we can see, the world population is growing rapidly day by day. So enough fresh water is needed to feed such a big population. What's more, with the development of industry, factories and vehicles produce poisonous gases or wastes, which consequently results in the pollution of water. Though fresh, a good amount of it can no longer be used. Only quite limited fresh water resource is available to human beings. So it's high time for us human beings to take quick action to protect water resource. Stop pollution and save water, otherwise, we cannot survive on the earth. With fresh water, the world will be prosperous.
二、人们大量捕杀动物,请你就这一看法发表自己的看法。 As is often read in the newspaper reports, wild life especially the rare species is threatened with extinction. Human beings are making attempts to hunt wild animals for a big profit., which, of course, results



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