高考英语作文写作辅导十六天 高考英语作文写作辅导十六天 英语作文写作辅导十六
第一天:造句的两大技巧 【芝麻开门】 句子是文章的基本单位. 成功的作品是由清晰而合乎语法规则的句子组成的. 然而一个好的 句子除了能够准确表达作者的意思,还需要简洁生动,这是在考试中获得高分的法宝. 一,句子要简洁 A hero is nothing but a product of his time. 时势造英雄. 写作要求精练,因为,简洁的表达能起到更加强调的作用.我们要写出效果好,影响大的文 章,就要想方设法
  1)避免使用空洞,多余的短语;
  2)避免过多地使用较长的句子结构, 如并列句和从属句等;
  3)避免不必要的重复.请看下面各例:
  1)Owing to the fact that I had a lot of work to do, it wasn't possible for me to accept their invitation. 本句要表达的意思很简单, 可是一堆空洞的短语使句子显得很累赘, 改为下面的句子就简洁 明了多了. I was too busy to accept their invitation.
  2) He is a man who is honest, who always pays his just debts, and who observes the golden rules in his dealings with others. 英语中比较重要的从属概念可用从句的形式表达, 其它次要的概念常用词或短语来表达, 因 为句子比短语显得更重要. 过多地使用从句会把次要的与主要的概念混为一谈, 削弱句子的 重点.该句可改为: He is an honest man who always pays his just debts, and who observes the golden rules in his dealings with others.
  3) My hometown is a quiet, peaceful place. It is quiet and peaceful because of the small number of people living there. 有时为了构成平行的句子结构或达到强调的目的,我们会重复使用某些词语.但是,无目的 地重复会导致笨拙.所以本句可改为: My hometown is a quiet, peaceful place because of the small number of people. 二,语言要生动 写作时要吸引读者的兴趣,句子就需生动,充满活力.平淡无味的句子会使人生厌,注意力 分散.但要写出生动的句子就必须注意做到:
  1.交错使用长短句 长句和短句各有各的特点, 各有各的用场. 长句结构复杂, 容量大, 能表达比较复杂的内容, 叙事具体,说理严密.短句结构简单,短小精悍,明白易懂.在写作中应当交错使用长句和 短句,使句子的长短多样化,增加语言的表现力.请看下面的一段话: It is better to trust to valour than to luck. 靠运气不如靠勇气. I returned to my room. There was a note under my door. It was from Bob. He said he was in the town looking for a job. He hadn't found anything yet. He added that he was sorry to have missed me. 这里出现的是一连串的短句, 读起来使人感到单调乏味, 而且各句之间所固有的逻辑关系没 能用句法手段表达出来.为了使文字更为生动,意义更加明确,可做如下改动: When I returned to my room, I found a note from Bob under the door. He said he was in the town
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looking for a job, but hadn't found anything yet. He added that he was sorry to have missed me.
  2.灵活使用多样句式 要达到语言的生动性, 写作时就要经常地变换句型和句子结构及表达思想的方式. 切忌所有 的句子都用相同的句型或句子结构,使文章读起来单调乏味. 在考虑英语句式的变化时, 我们一般从以下几个方面入手: (
  1) 既可以用主动式也可以用被动式, 例如: 例 1:Today, we use machines not only in industry but in other sectors of national economy as well. Today machines are widely used not only in industry but in other sectors of national economy as well. 例 2:Some people believe that it will be possible for automatic machines to replace completely in the future. It is believed by some people that it will be possible for automatic machines to replace completely in the future. (
  2) 既可以用肯定式也可以用否定式, 例如: 例 1: I shall go there unless it rains. I shall go there if it doesn't rain. 例 2:Their daily lives don't provide them with the exercise needed to keep them healthy. Their daily lives fail to provide them with the exercise needed to keep them healthy. (
  3) 某些修饰成分既可以用在句子前面也可以用在后面, 还可以用在中间, 例如: 例 1:With a car, people can get around freely. People can get around freely with a car. 例 2:In fact, speaking is one of the most important means of communication. Speaking is in fact one of the most important means of communication. (
  4) 既可以是正常语序也可以是倒装语序, 例如: 例 1:A new type of TV sets was among the products on display. Among the products on display was a new type of TV sets. 例 1:We did not realize the problem of energy crisis until the end of last century. Not until the end of last century did we realize the problem of energy crisis. (
  5) 既可以用简单句也可以用并列句或者主从复合句, 例如: 例 1:Nowadays a lot of people work in office, spending most of their time indoors. Nowadays a lot of people work in office and they spend most of their time indoors. 例 2:There are many means of getting information and they enable us to keep up with what is going on in the world. There are many means of getting information which enable us to keep up with what is going on in the world. 例 3:Doonesbury cartoons satirize contemporary politics. The victims of political corruption pay no attention. They prefer to demand that newspapers not carry the strip. Doonesbury cartoons laugh at contemporary politics, but the victims of political corruption pay no attention and prefer to demand that newspapers not carry the strip. 例 4:The campus parking problem is getting worse. The university is not building any new garages. The campus parking problem is getting worse because the university is not building any new garages.
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Ignorance is the mother of impudence.??无知是鲁莽之源.
  3.善用形象化语言 适当地使用一些修辞手法如比喻,夸张,排比,拟人等能更形象,更深刻地说明事理,增加 文章的活力.例如: In the morning the dust hung like fog, and the sun was as red as ripe new blood. (明喻) His daughter is the apple of his eyes. (暗喻) An idea spoke within him, racing through his mind. (拟人) His voice was loud enough to wake the dead. (夸张) Many of us allow our children to eat junk, watch junk, listen to junk, talk junk, play with junk, and then we are surprised when they turn out to be social junkies. (排比)
  4.恰当使用英语习语 写作时适当地使用习语,成语等也是使语言生动活泼的好办法.如: Once a man is dead, there is no helping; you can't rekindle the spark of life in him. 本句中的 there is no helping 是汉语式的英语,不符合英语的习惯说法.这里虽然用了比喻, 但更改了原来的主语,句子显得罗嗦,笨拙.如果改成下面的习惯表达,句子变得既简洁又 生动. Once a man is dead, he can't be brought back to life. 再如 The committee refused to listen to our request. 如果被改成 The committee turned a deaf ear to our request. 句子生动,增加了文采. 活动教室〖〗请修改下面的短文增加句式的多样化以便使其生动,流畅. We are terrified of death. We do not think of it, and we don't speak of life. We don't mourn in public. We don't know how to console a grieving friend. In fact, we have eliminated or suppressed all the traditional rituals surrounding death. The Victorians coped with death differently. Their funerals were elaborate. The yards of black crepe around the hearse, hired professional mourners, and its solemn procession to an ornate tomb is now a distant memory. They wore mourning jewelry. They had a complicated dress code for the grieving process. The rituals severed a psychological purpose in helping the living deal with loss. 【友情提示】 句式多样化是英语作文取得高分的灵丹妙药,请你一定要勤学苦练,掌握这一招.另外,在 使用一些修辞方法和英语习语的时候,要注意尽量避免老套的比喻或尽人皆知的习语. One careless move may lose the whole game.??一步不慎,满盘皆输. 第二天:段落的构成要素 段落是由若干个彼此关联的句子构成的, 通常用以表达一个中心思想或者从一个角度对文章 的主题进行阐述.因此,段落不能是一组句子的任意堆砌,而是符合一定的模式,具有某些 基本特征,遵循一定段落发展方法的. 当然, 段落并没有固定的模式.在实践中,我们常常碰到各种各样的段落,有些仅仅充当导 言或结束语,有些仅仅起过渡词作用,这种段落便不可能也不必要包含完整的思想内容.要 写出一篇好文章, 我们就必须了解一些结构完整的段落的写法, 掌握一点组句成段的基本知 识. 结构完整的段落大多由三部分组成: 一,主题句 主题句是概括段落中心思想,反映作者写作意图的一个概括性的句子,是段落的核心所在. 所以,写好主题句是写好一个段落的前提.
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  1.段落主题句的位置及其作用 主题句通常由主题和作者的观点两部分组成, 作为段落传递信息的出发点, 简明扼要地告诉 读者段落的线索和范围.但是,主题句的位置并不是固定不变的,它可以位于段首,也可以 位于段中,段尾.主题句位于段首的情况比较多见.段首主题句开门见山,直接点明段落主 题,有助于确定段落的主线,使各个发展句围绕段落主题自然展开;段尾主题句具有结论作 用,是对前面句子的归纳总结. 请看下面各例: Public opinions on what it takes to succeed in one's studies or career vary widely. Given approximately equal circumstances, some claim the success factor is largely a matter of luck? being in the right place and the right time. Others speak of utter devotion to work, combined with a degree of ruthlessness. Still others maintain that it is undoubtedly a matter of how much intelligence you have or simply how much education your mother had. In a word, people have different ideas on it. 本段的主题句 Public opinions on what it takes to succeed in one's studies or career vary widely. 放在段落的开头,开门见山地点明主题,使读者很容易抓住本段的写作主线:对学业或事业 成功所持的各种不同的观点和看法. The purpose of this book is to provide you with practice in spelling English. It is not a book that treats the complex rules of English orthography. Neither does it teach you how to use a dictionary. Its main objective is to introduce regular spelling patterns: that is, to present a regular system for spelling a large group of words. By learning these patterns, and by practicing them, you will master thousands of words. Only the idle will be tired. 只有闲人才会感到疲倦. 本段的主题句 The purpose of this book is to provide you with practice in spelling English 也是放在段落的开头,直截了当地告诉读者作者的写作意图,使 读者对本段的主题思想有了明确的认识. Give students a chance to grow. Do you mold them from one of a thousand patterns? Let them seek knowledge, but do not find it for them. Let them learn patience; do not force it on them. Let them take their own time to grow; do not set rigid time schedules. Most of all, do not push them against a stone wall, crushing them with knowledge gained from the experience of others. Experience cannot be taught; it must come slowly through personal search. 在这个段落中,主题句先不出现,而是先举出许多具体的 experiences,在段落结尾时才予以 归纳, 得出中心结论: Experience cannot be taught; it must come slowly through personal search. 这样的段落结构一开始容易使读者产生悬念,从而收到特殊的表达效果. Most of us may have such experiences: when you go to some place far away from the city you live in and think you know nobody there, you are surprised to find that you should run into one of your old classmates in the street. Perhaps both of you would cry out, "What a small world!" 在这个段落里, 作者先给出了一个假设性的事例,吸引读者的注意力,然后在段落结束时 总结出"What a small world!""世界真小啊" ( )作为段落主题句.这样的段落有感染力,使 读者有兴趣读下去. 但是,主题句有时也可能出现在段落中间,或者根本就没有明显的段落主题句.在下面的例 子中主题句是在段落中间出现的.这种情况比较少见. Californians and New Englanders are both American. They speak the same language and abide by the same federal laws. But they are very different in their ways of life. Mobility ? both physical and psychological? has made a great impression on the culture of Californians; lack of mobility
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is the mark of the customs and morality of New Englanders. 有时为了特别强调主题句的内容,也可以使主题句既出现在段首,又出现在段末.如: Good manners are important in all countries, but ways of expressing good manners are different from country to country. Americans eat with knives and forks; Japanese eat with chopsticks. Americans say "Hi" when they meet; Japanese bow. Many American men open doors for women; Japanese men do not. On the surface, it appears that good man
 

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