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高三英语二轮复习专题
  06:阅读理解 1
高考阅读理解的解题技巧 阅读理解作为考查考生语言能力的重点, 《考试大纲》提出了明确的要求: “要求考生读懂 熟悉的有关日常生活话题的简短文字材料。考生应能:理解主旨要义;理解文中具体信息;根 据上下文推断生词的词义;作出简单判断和推理;理解文章的基本结构;理解作者的意图和态 度。 ”高考英语阅读理解也围绕这一要求来命题,基本上可分为五类:
  1.细节判断题;
  2.猜测词义题;
  3.主旨大意题;
  4.推理引申题;
  5.篇章结构题。下面以 20
  04、20
  05、 2006 年全国统一高考英语科试题为例来分析上述五种试题的命题特点、具体要求以及解题技 巧和方法。
第一节 细节判断题解题技巧 《普通高中英语课程标准》中达到英语学科的高中毕业要求为七级,其有关阅读最基本的 要求是: “能从一般性文章中获取和处理主要信息” 。对这种“获取和处理主要信息”能力的考 查,主要采用的方式就是:细节判断。这类题在高考阅读理解题中占一定的比例,做好这类题 是确保基础分的关键。同时,弄清细节,正确获取信息,也是把握文章主旨的前提。因此,要 特别重视做好这类题。 细节判断题题干常见的问句形式多种多样。如: Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage? Which of the following statements is NOT true? Which of the following statements is correct according to the passage? Which of the following is NOT considered as …? According to the passage, which of the following is NOT mentioned as one of the reasons for … ? How many … … ? What/who/when/where/how/why … … ? 做这类题的一般方法是通过 skimming 把握文章中心后,再通过寻读法(scanning)快速确 定该细节在文中的出处(信息源) ,对照选项进行“三对一错或三错一对”的判断。若该信息 句是长句或难句,要学会找出其主干部分、分析句子结构,正确理解信息句的意义。
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命题者在出这类题时惯用“偷梁换柱、张冠李戴”的手法来迷惑考生,即对原句细微处做 改动,截取原文词语或结构进行改造,因果倒置,把 A 的观点说成 B 的观点等。所以正确理 解题干和信息句的意义是关键。 这类细节性问题所涉及的面很广,有的需要经过简单的数学运算确定时间、距离、次数、 数量等;有的涉及正误判断;有的询问事实、原因、结果、目的等。例如: (注:本书例题练 习中选用全国各地高考题均保留原题号) (05 全国卷 II B 篇)The days of elderly women doing nothing but cooking huge meals on holidays are gone. Enter the Red Hat Society -a group holding the belief that old ladies should have fun. “My grandmothers didn’t do anything but keep house and serve everybody. They were programmed to do that,” said Emily Comette, head of a chapter of the 7-year-old Red Hat Society. While men have long spent their time fishing and playing golf, women have sometimes seemed to become unnoticed as they age. But the generation now turning 50 is the baby boomers(生育高峰 期出生的人), and the same people who refused their parents’ way of being young are now trying a new way of growing old. If you take into consideration feminism(女权主义), a bit of spare money, and better health for most elderly, the Red Hat Society looks almost inevitable(必然的). In this society, women over 50 wear red hats and purple(紫色的) clothes, while the women under 50 wear pink hats and light purple clothing. “The organization took the idea from a poem by Jenny Joseph that begins: When I am an old woman, I shall wear purple. With a red hat which doesn’t go.” said Ellen Cooper, who founded the Red Hat Society in 19
  98. When the ladies started to wear the red hats, they attracted lots of attention. “The point of this is that we need a rest from always doing something for someone else,” Cooper said. “Women feel so ashamed and sorry when they do something for themselves.” This is why chapters are discouraged from raising money or doing anything useful. “We’ a ladies’ play re group. It couldn’t be more simple,” added Cooper’s assistant Joe Heywood.
  47.Who set up the Red Hat Society ? A.Emily Comette. B.Ellen Cooper. C.Jenny Joseph. D.Joe Heywood. .

  48.Women join the Red Hat Society because
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A.they want to stay young B.they would like to appear more attractive C.they would like to have fun and live for themselves D.they want to be more like their parents 解析: 这两题都是细节判断题。 47 题相关的信息句是文中的: 和 “The organization took the idea from a poem by Jenny Joseph that begins: When I am an old woman, I shall wear purple. With a red hat which doesn’t go.” said Ellen Cooper, who founded the Red Hat Society in 19
  98. 理解了 这句话,我们不难得出答案 B。 通过浏览我们了解了“the Red Hat Society”这个社团的性质 和作用,再结合信息句 “Enter the Red Hat Society -a group holding the belief that old ladies should have fun.” ,我们很容易得出 48 题正确答案为 C。 (05 福建卷 A 篇) Paul Zindel’ death on March 27,2003 ended the brilliant life of a famous s writer. Not only did Paul Zindel win a Pulitzer Prize as well as an Obie Prize for his 1970 play The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds, but he was one of the earliest writers in the field of contemporary (当代的) literature for young adults 成人) The Pigman, published in 1968, ( . is still one of the most well-known and widely-taught novels in the genre. The American Library Association has named it one of the 100 Best of the Best Books for Young Adults published between 1967 and 1992, and Zindel’s autobiography, The Pigman and Me, was among the 100 Best of the Best Books published for teenagers during the last part of the twentieth century. Six of Zindel’s books, in fact, have been voted the Best Books for Young Adults, and most of his recent horror books-such as The Doom Stone and Rats have been chosen as Quick Picks for Reluctant Young Adult Readers. Clearly, he was a writer who knew how to interest contemporary children. Recognizing that, the American Library Association in 2002 honored Paul Zindel with the Margaret A. Edwards Prize for his lifetime achievements, and later that same year he was presented with the ALAN Prize for his contributions to Young Adult Literature. With his passing, young readers, teachers, and librarians have lost a great friend.
  56. Which of Paul Zindel’ books was the most popular with young adults in the 20th century? s A.The Pigman. B.The Doom Stone.
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C.The Pigman and Me. D.The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds.
  57.Why was Paul Zindel honored with the Margaret A. Edwards Prize? A.His books were widely read by children. B.His books were interesting and helpful to adults. C.He made great contributions to contemporary literature. D.He wrote a number of horror books for young adults.
  58.When did Paul Zindel win the ALAN Prize? A.In 20
  02. C.Between 1967 and 19
  92. B.In 20
  03. D.Between 2002 and 20
  03.

  59.Choose the correct statements from the following according to the passage. a.The Pigman and Me was one of the Best Books for teenagers. b.Zindel was one of the earliest writers who wrote for adults only. c.The Doom Stone and Rats are not popular with young adults. d.Zindel was given four prizes for literature before he died. e.At least eight of Zindel’s books were very popular in his times. A.c, d, e B.a, b, c C.a, b, d D.a, d, e
解析:这四题都是细节判断题。
  56、
  57、58 三题, 只要我们根据题干的问句找到信息源, 很快就能找到正确答案分别是:A、C、A,做第 59 题时我们要对五个陈述作出正误判断,b、 c 两个说法是错误的,因此,正确答案为 D。 下面请同学们实战演练上述方法和技巧。 【实战演练练习一】 (05 北京卷 A 篇) Chances I really love my job because I enjoy working with small children and like the challenges and awards from the job. I also think my work is important. There was a time when I thought I would never have that sort of career(职业). I wasn’t an excellent student because I didn’t do much schoolwork. In my final term I started thinking what I might do and found I didn’ have much to offer. I just accepted that I wasn’ the type t t to have a career.
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I then found myself a job. Looking after two little girls, It wasn’t too bad at first. But the problems began when I agreed to live in, so that I would be there if my boss had to go out for business in the evening. We agreed that if I had to work extra hours one week, she’d give me time off the next. But unfortunately, it didn’t often work out. I was getting extremely tired and fed up, because I had too many late nights and early mornings with the children. One Sunday, I was in the park with the children, and met Megan who used to go to school with me, I told her about my situation. She suggested that I should do a course and get a qualification(资 格证书)if I wanted to work with children. I didn’t think I would be accepted because I didn’t take many exams in school. She persuaded me to phone the local college and they were really helpful. My experience counted for a lot and I got on a part ? time course. I had to leave my job with the family, and got work helping out at a kindergarten. ve Now I’ got a full ? time job there. I shall always be thankful to Megan. I wish I had known earlier that you could have a career, even if you aren’t top of the class at school.
  56.What is the author’s present job? A.Working part ? time in a college. B.Taking care of children for a family. C.Helping children with their schoolwork. D.Looking after children at a kindergarten.
  57.When staying with the two girls’ family, the author A.was paid for extra work C.got much help from her boss
  58.Why did the author leave her first job? A.She found a full ? time job. B.She was fed up with children. C.She decided to attend a part ? time course. D.She needed a rest after working extra hours. 【实战演练练习二】 (05 湖南卷 A 篇) We were on tour a few summers ago, driving through Chicago, when right outside of the city, we got pulled over. A middle-aged policeman came up to the car and was really being troublesome at . B.often worked long hours D.took a day off every other week
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first. Lecturing us, he said, “You were speeding. Where are you going in such a hurry?” Our guitarist, Tim, told him that we were on our way to Wisconsin to play a show. His way towards us totally changed. He asked, “Oh, so you boys are in a band(乐队)?”We told him that we were. He then asked all the usual band questions about the type of music we played, and how long we had been at it. Suddenly, he stopped and said, “Tim, you want to get out of this ticket, don’t you?” Tim said, “Yes.” So the officer asked him to step out of the car. The rest of us, inside the car, didn’t know what to think as we watched the policeman talk to Tim. Next thing we knew, the policeman was putting Tim in the back of the police car he had parked in front of us. With that, he threw the car into reverse(倒车) ,stopping a few feet in back of our car. Now we suddenly felt frightened. We didn’ t know if we were all going to prison, or if the policeman was going to sell Tim on the black market or something. All of a sudden, the policeman’s voice came over his loudspeaker. He said, “Ladies ”Turns out, the and gentlemen, for the first time ever, we have Tim here singing on Route
  90. policeman had told Tim that the only way he was getting out of the ticket was if he sang part of one of our songs over the loudspeaker in the police car. Seconds later, Tim started screaming into the receiver. The policeman enjoyed the performance, and sent us on our way without a ticket.
  56.The policeman stopped the boys to A.put them into prison C.enjoy their performance . B.give them a ticket D.ask some band questions .

  57.The policeman became friendly to the boys when he knew they A.had long been at the band C.were driving for a show 【实战演练练习三】 (06 江西卷 B 篇)
B.played the music he loved D.promised him a performance
Buster Biown was a thief??and a good one, too, he thought. He’d never been caugh
 

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