单项选择题如何设置干扰项

  1.设置词性相同,但意思不同的单词.往往不同的词有不同的搭配,出题人利 用学生死记短语的习惯设置相关项进行干扰.这种题需要考生着重注意句义 和词义.例如: ( 1 ) It was a pity that the great writer died his works unfinished . A. for B. with C. from D. of (B)
学生往往死记短语 die from 死于(外部原因); die of(死于疾病) ; die for( 为...而死) .. ,出题人抓住了学生这种心理,设置了干扰项 of , from , for ,其实题目要表达: 没有完成他的著作就死去了. With 在这里是复合结构. ( 2 ) I'd like to buy a house- modern , comfortable , and in a quiet
neighborhood . A. in all B. above all C. after all D. at all (B)
四个短语都是副词,但意思有区别,考生需要判断题干的意思.横线处 需要"首要"意思的短语,in all 总计;above all all 与 not 连用,加重语气; ( 3 ) Which of the three ways shall take to the village ? way as you please . A. Each B. Every C. Any D. Either (C ) 首要的是;after all 毕竟;at
四个形容词都可用作定语, 但意思不同, any 表示三者以上的任何一 个;either 表示两者中的任何一个, each , every 意思不合适, 考生需要 抓住 any 与 either 在表示"数"意思的区别. ( 4 ) The number of people present at the concert was than expected . There were many tickets left . A. much smaller (A) 四个词都是形容词,都能填在横线上,注意力应放在词义或搭配上.这 里 number 应当与 large 或 small 连用, 这里由于有后一句 There were many tickets left, 所以选择 samller . ( 5 ) Scientists say it may be five or six years it is possible to test this B. much more C. much larger D. many more
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medicine on human patients . A. since B. after C. before D. when (C)
四个词都是从属连词,词性不必考虑,注意力应放在意思上,这里选 before .
  2.设置词义相同,但形式不同的单词.形式有动词的不定式,动名词,现在分 词,过去分词,动词时态,名词的单数或复数,形容词的比较级或最高级, 代词的格等.考生需要根据题干意思判断哪一种形式符合语境. ( 1 ) You were out when I drop in at your airport . Oh , I for a friend from English at the airport . A. was waiting (A) 从 A,B,C,D 四个选项可以看出,横线处的意思不必考虑,肯定是"等 待",但需要考虑什么时候等待,此处表示"我在飞机场那段时间"正在等,所 以用过去完成时 was waiting . ( 2 ) I'll tell Mary about her new job tomorrow . You her last week . A. ought to tell (D) 四个选项都是"告诉",不必考虑横线处意思,但需要判断"什么时间告 诉?","被告诉?""告诉别人"还是有别的语气?从上文可以看出 ,后者在埋怨 前者"上星期就应当告诉她"所以用 should have told . ( 3 ) Having been ill in bed for nearly a month , he had a hard time the exam. A. pass B. to pass C. passed D. passing (D) B. would have told C. must tell D. should have told B. had waited C. am waiting D. have waited
词义没有必要再考虑,需要考虑语境,病倒卧床将近一个月,通过考试很 艰难 ,have sth. doing sth. 让某事一直在做着(保持着某种状态) ;have sb do sth. 使某人做某事;have sth. done 使某事被做;have sth. to do 有某事要做.这里选 择 passing 表示当时通过考试的艰难情景.
  3.设置词序不同的选项.考生需要按语言知识判断正确词序. ( 1 ) It was back home after the experiment .
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A. not until midnight did he go C. not until midnight that he go (C)
B. until midnight that he didn't
go
D. until midnight when he didn't go
从 A ,B,C,D 四个选项中可以看出词的顺序不同,所以思维目标应定 在句型结构上,此句为强调句型, not 与 until 一起提到被强调的位置 . ( 2 ) Allen had to call a taxi because the box was to carry all the way home . A. much too heavy heavy much (A) B. too much heavy C. heavy too much D. too
从四个选项中可以看出,此题为词序问题,所以,注意力应放在词序上, 理解为 the box was heavy, heavy 之前有修饰语 much too ,much too 后接形容词或 副词; too much 与 much too 用法不同,后跟名词,如:too much water . ( 3 ) The old couple have been married for 40 years and never once with each other . A. they had quarreled had they quarreled (C) B. they have quarreled C. have they quarreled D.
从四个选项中得知,此题为词序问题,有的是正常词序,有的是倒装,注 意力集中到题干中是否有否定意义的词打头,这里 never 在句首,所以, 用倒装形式. 还要考虑时态, 这里由于前一分句有 have been married ,所以, 后一分句也应用现在时,故选择 A.
  4.设置近义词干扰.近义词虽然意思相近,但往往用法上有区别,考生可以从 用法或搭配上加以判断. (
  1) How do you we go to Beijing for our holidays? I think we'd better fly there . It's much more comfortable . A. insist B. want C. suppose D. suggest (D)
从四个选项中可以看出,四个词意思不同,但都是动词,这种情况应注意 横线处需要的意思,另外还要注意句中的特殊语言现象,这里有 we go to Beijing ,相当于 we should go to Beijing ,should 被省掉了.四个词中 insist 和 suggest 可以与 should do 结构连用,should 可以省略.但 insist 表示"硬要
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做..,坚持说"所以,只有 suggest 可以填入横线处. .. ( 2 ) Don't leave matches or cigarettes on the table within of little children . A. hand B. reach C. space D. distance (B)
四个都是名词,所以要考虑搭配和词义,这里 reach 与 within 连用,within reach of 意思为:. ..够得着
  5.设置不同的词,使结构发生变化进行干扰.考生首先去掉附加成分,独立成 分等,单词或短语归位,需要搞清题干要讲什么意思,需要什么结构.例如: ( 1 ) It was with great joy he received the news that his lost daughter had been found . A. because B. which C. since D. that (D)
此题考查学生对句型结构的辨认,如果选择 since 或 because ,引导状语 从句,如果选择 which 或 that ,则引导定语从句,如果选择 that 还有一种可能, 是强调句型,当 it is (was )在句首时,应首先怀疑是强调结构,然后加以判断. 判断方法是把 it is ( was )…… that ……强调结构去掉,如果漏出一个成分完整的 句子,证明是强调句型的句子,如果去掉之后不是一个完整的句子,则不是强调 句型,应考虑定语从句或 it 做人称代词表示时间,距离,天气的情况.此句去 掉 it was…that ….之后,漏出 with great joy he received the news that his lost daughter had been found .是一句成分完整的句子,所以,判断此句是一个强调句. ( 2 ) What surprised me was not what he said but he said it . A. the way B. in the way C. in a way D. the way which (A)
此题给出四个不同的短语,不论填入其中哪一个 ,句型结构都会有变化. 添入 the way , way 与 what he said 对等,由 but 连接,way 后的 he said it 是 way 的定语从句; 填入 in the way ,but 前后结构不能构成并列;填入 in a way 也 是如此;填入 the way which , but 前后可以构成并列,但 which 不能引导此类 定语从句. ( 3 ) straight on and you'll see a church . You won't miss it . A. Go B. Going C. If you go D. When going (A) 项可考虑条件
从四个选项中可以看出,此题是在考查句子结构问题,C
状语从句;B 项或 D 项可考虑分词短语做状语;而 A 项则考虑祈使句.这里有
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and 连接前后各一个句子,所以,选择 A.
  6.不同口语表达方式的干扰.考生需要判断句子表达的意思,需要什么样的口 语表达方式.例如: ( 1 ) Go for a picnic this weekend , OK ? . I love getting close to nature . A. I couldn't agree more don't think so (A) B. I'm afraid not C. I believe not D. I
这里需要选项 A, I couldn't agree more ,意思为:我再同意不过.设置了 I'm afraid not (我恐怕不行); believe not (我相信 不行); don't think so (我认 I I 为不是这样), 由后一句 I love getting close to nature 可知:要去野餐.
( 2 ) I think you should phone Jenny and say sorry to her . . It was her fault . A. No way B. Not possible C. No chance D. Not at all (A)
从 It was her fault 一句可以看出, 此人不想打电话给她, 因为是她的过 错.四个选项中 no way 表示"没门儿".
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