高考阅读理解题考题种种
阅读理解是考查考生语言知识综合运用能力的试题. 它要求考生既能掌握阅读材料的主 旨大意,又能掌握说明主旨大意的事实细节;既能理解具体事实,又能理解抽象概念;既能 理解字面意思,又能理解深层含义;既能理解单个句段意义,又能理解通篇逻辑关系.要达 到这样的要求我们有必要研究一下阅读题的题型结构,纵观近几年高考阅读题,我们可以把 阅读题型分为两大类:主观题和客观题.主观题包括:词义判断题,主旨大意题,逻辑推理 题,标题判断题,作者意图判断题; 客观题是指细节信息判断题. (
  1)词义判断题是检查考生对生词的理解判断能力,在确定词汇的内涵时候我们可借助 上下文判断与确定语意最接近的词汇或句型,根据语意的递进,转折,对比等特定语境确定 应选的词汇;可借助过度词根据前后的句意反差,确定有关词汇或句型,还可以根据语段之 间的逻辑关系,确定有关词汇.以2004年高考题天津卷为例,第70小题是一道词义判断题, 需要考生根据上下文对词义加以判断,考生需要阅读collisions前后的语句,即:"Researchers are worried about the increasing pressure on pilots and ground controllers. And increasing collisions, occurring at or near an airport, have called attention to the need for more aids to aviation control."可以得知,航班的大量增加给飞行员及地勤人员造成很大压力,这就自然导 致机场及周边地区不断增长的飞行事故.本题答案A项是最贴切的.又如:第62小题考查词 义判断题. 原文第五节中, 年轻有为的Schipper回忆起, 她五年前和Gould相见时的情况时说, "…Shane had come along to talk to us and watch us train. It seemed as if we had long been good friends. I don't know why. We just started talking and it went from there."那时,她们互相交谈, Shane还看她们训练,好像她们已是多年的老朋友似的.Schipper解释她都不清楚为什么她们 从交谈中产生了解和友情.故it 意为the friendship最贴切. (
  2)主旨大意题通常是指考查文章的中心思想, 考查文章的主题,立意,中心观点, 基本观点.不少文章一开头便展示文章的的主题, 如新闻报导等;,有些文章中心思想常 常贯穿于全文, 要弄清文章的中心思想,考生必须具备归纳和概括方面的能力.例如: On the evening of June 21, 1992, a tall man with brown hair and blue eyes entered the beautiful hall of the Bell tower Hotel in Xi'an with his bicycle . The hotel workers received him and telephoned the manager , for they had never seen a bicycle in the hotel hall before though they lived in " the kingdom of bicycles ". Robert Friedlander , an American , arrived in Xi'an on his bicycle trip across Asia which started last December in New Belhi , India . When he was 11 , he read the book Marco Polo and made up his mind to visit the Silk Road . Now , after 44 years , he was on the Silk Road in Xi'an and his early dreams were coming true .
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Robert Friedlander's next destinations (目的地)were Lanzhou, Dunhuang, Urimqi, etc. He will complete his trip in Pakistan. 考题 The best headline ( 标题) for this newspaper article would be .
A. The Kingdom of Bicycles
B. A Beautiful Hotel in Xi'an D. An American Achieving His Aims
C.Moarco Polo and the Silk Road
(
  3)逻辑推理题需要考生理解字面的概念,又要掌握主要情节之间的逻辑关系,既需 要依据语篇的信息去分析推断,又需要结合地理,人文,科普等常识去分析判断.逻辑推理 题要求考生根据作者的写作脉络,对未发生或已发生的动作给予判断推测.解题时应考虑原 因与结果之间的联系,人际之间的各种关系,事件发展的可能与归宿以及英美社会风情与民 族的心态.例如:天津卷第71题,这是一道逻辑推理题.根据短文的陈述,A,B项与短文 基本内容不符.短文对航空运输的现状作了详细阐述后,在最后一节特别强调飞行员与地勤 人员的沟通必须引起重视. 应该说, 此题选D项在情理之中. 又如: Emma hart Willard was an American pioneer educator . In her time colleges and universities were men , and women were not permitted to attend . Emma received advanced education at home from her father and became a school teacher at twenty . She continued to teach at school for several years after her marriage , and began offering college lessons in her home to women students . Later she founded a school in New York State , which was the first school of higher education in the U.S A. for women . Emma Willard also tried to persuade New York State to pass a law to allow women to attend public colleges and universities , though that did not come about until after her death . Some years later people remembered her for her life-long efforts and elected her to the U.S.A. Hall of Fame in 19
  05. During Emma Willard's lifetime , women in the USA . A. B. C. D. were not allowed to receive higher education Went to separate colleges and universities Started to enjoy equal rights to education Began to right for the right to higher education
答案: D . 这是一篇人物传记, 记述Emma是在家里接受她父亲的教育,数年后她创造美国第 一所 女子高等学校,而后又一直争取让妇女得到与男人同在校接受高等教育的权利.通过 这些事实说明当时的美国妇女开始为争取与男子享受高等教育的权利而斗争,因此,答案D 正确.
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(
  4)标题判断题目的在于考查考生略读文章,领会文章大意及高度抽象概括能力. 文章的标题往往可用很少的几个词加以概括,考生逾越文章的细节与段落,以语篇的 中心内涵为依托构成了标题选择的独特视角. 这种题型的提问方式有: The title that
  1. best expresses the idea of the passage is ;
  2. The paragragh could be entitled ;
  3. Which of the following titles best sums up the whole passage ?
  4. A good
title for this passage would be ;
  5. A suitable title for this passage would be . 以下是一个标题判断题的例子. Shu Pulong has helped at least 1,000 people bitten by snake . " It was seeing people with snake bites that led me to this areer , " he said . In 1963 , after his army service , Shu entered a medical school and later became a doctor of Chinese medicine . As part of his studies he had to work in the mountains . there he often heard pf people who had their arms and legs cut off after a snake bite in order to save their lives . " I was greatly upset by the story of an ole farmer I met . It was a very hot afternoon . The old man was pulling grass in his fields then he felt a pain in his left hand . He at once realized his had been bitten by a poisonous snake . In no time he wrapped a cloth tightly around his arm to stop the poison spreading to his heart . Rushing home he shouted ' Bring me the knife !' Minutes later the man lost his arm forever." " The sad story touched me so much that I decided to devote myself to helping people bitten by snakes , " Shu said . The best title for this newspaper article is . A. Astonishing Medicine C. Dangerous Bites B. Farmer Loses Arm
D. Snake Doctor
(
  5)作者意图题是指考查考生对作者言外之意的理解,这通常不在文中明确表达出 来,而是含在文章之中.请看下面的例子: Like alcohol and drugs , TV can be enormously destructive to personal relationships . Look at our society , you do not need to be a psychiatrist (精神病医生)to know that TV has played an important role in the increase of violent crimes in our country . Many people will disagree with what I have written and pint out that TV is a wonderful tool for education and does a super job of reporting news , and they have a point . But it's very difficult to use the TV wisely . How can you get your children away from the set when their father can find nothing better to do ? It seems as if he has no control over his
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own environment because TV comes before everything . What is the writer's attitude towards TV ? A. Positive (肯定的) C. Indefinite (不定的) B. Indifferent ( 中立的) D. Negative (否定的)
通过阅读文章,可以看出作者并非全部否定电视的益处,其态度是辨证的, 虽然电 视带来好多弊端,但它也有好多益处.所以选择B. (
  6)客观题的信息可以从文章的字面上获得,文章中的信息表述有时不与考题提供的信 息表述不同,有时正话反说,有时利用不同表达方式.考生应从细节上加以判断,实际上, 这种题又叫细节判断题.如天津卷第56小题,原文第一节中"…they migrate-all the way to California or Mexico and back",以及原文第二节"Every year in the late summer…Those heading for Mexico go first for the Louisiana-Mississippi area, then fly across the Gulf of Mexico into Texas. Once in Mexico, they settle themselves in one of about fifteen places… Each place provides a winter home for millions of monarchs. "中,可以得知,选项A,B,D所指的地点均 为monarchs南迁中途径的地区.而文中One in Mexico, they settle themselves….Each place provides a winter home for…,则表明C是正确选项.又如第 57小题,原文最后一小节: "Scientists learn about monarchs' migration by catching and making marks on the insects. By re-catching (=catch again) a monarch with such a mark and noticing where it came from (=examining its routing),the next scientist can get to know things like the butterfly's age and its outing."十分清楚地表明黑脉金斑蝶迁飞路线是通过给它们身上所作的记号中得知. 显然A项 是惟一正确的答案.
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