高三英语语法讲座(六) 高三英语语法讲座(
Nonfinite Verbs(非谓语动词)
不定式 非谓语动词 过去分词 V.-ing 形式
? 一. 不定式 ?
  1.不定式的形式:to do 否定式:not to do (
  1)一般式:不定式的一般式所表示 的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生或发生在 谓语动作之后,例如 I’m glad to meet you. We plan to pay a visit. ? (
  2)进行时:不定式的进行时所表示的 动作与谓 ? 语动词动作同时发生,例如 ? The boy pretended to be working hard.
? (
  3) 完成式: 不定式的完成式表示的动 作发生在谓语动词动作之前, 例如: I regretted to have told a lie.He is pleased to have met his friend. ?
  2. 不定式的句法功能 不定式的句法功能: ? 主语 ,表语 ,宾语,宾语补足语,定 宾语,宾语补足语, 语,状语
? (
  1)作主语 To finish the work in ) ten minutes is very hard. To lose your heart means failure. ? ★ 动词不定式短语作主语时,常 用 it 作形式主语 ? ( 2 ) 作表语 作表语Her job is to clean the hall. ? He appears to have caught a cold.
? (
  3) 作宾语 ? 如果不定式后有宾语补足语,则 用作形式主语,真正的不定式宾语 后置,放在宾语补足语的后面,例 如Marx found it important to study the situation in Russia. ? 动词不定式也可充当介词宾语,如 I have no choice but to stay here.
? (
  4) 作宾语补足语 ? 在复合宾语中,动词不定式可充当宾语 补足语,下列动词常跟这种复合宾语: want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow, ? prepare, cause, force, wait for, invite. 此 外,介词有时也与这种复合宾语连用,如 With a lot of work to do, he didn’t go to the cinema. ? 有些动词如make, let, see, watch, hear, feel, have等与不带to 的不定式连用,但 该为被动语态时,不定式要加to.
? (
  5)作定语 ) ? 不定式作定语,放在所修饰的名词或代词 后,例如 I have a meeting to attend. 不定式为不及物动词时,修饰的名词如果是 ? 地点、工具等,应有必要的介词,例如He found a good house to live in. ? The child has nothing to worry about. ? 如果不定式修饰time, place, way, 可以省略 介词He has no place to live. ? This is the best way to work out the problem.
? (
  6)作状语 ) ? 不定式作状语可以表示目的,结果, 原因等,还可以作独立成分,如 ? To tell the truth, I don’t like the way he talked. ? 当一个句子中有两个并列的不定式时, 第二个不定式可省略to. 如 ? He wished to study medicine and become a doctor.
? 二. 动名词 ? 动名词既具有动词的一些特征,又 具有名词的句法功能 ?
  1.动名词的形式: doing 否定式: not doing ? (
  1)一般式 Seeing is believing. (
  2) 否定式I regret not following his advice. ? (
  3)完成式We remembered having seen the film.
? (
  4)被动式He came to the party without being invited. ? (
  5)完成被动式 He forgot having been taken to Guangzhou when he was five years old. ? (
  6)复合结构:物主代词(或名 )复合结构:物主代词( 词所有格)+动名词 词所有格) 动名词 ? He suggested our trying it again.His not knowing English troubled him a lot.
?
  2. 动名词的句法功能 ? (
  1)作主语 ) ? 朗读是很有好处的Reading aloud is very helpful. ? 当动名词短语作主语时常用作 it 形 式主语, 如It’s no use quarreling. ? (
  2)作表语 ) ? 在蚂蚁王国,蚁后的工作是产卵。In the ant city, the queen’s job is laying eggs.
? (
  3)作宾语 ) ? 我们必须阻止空气被污染We have to prevent the air from being polluted. ? 以下动词跟动名词作宾语: ? enjoy, finish, suggest, avoid, delay, imagine, keep, miss, consider, admit, deny, mind, permit, forbid, practise, risk, appreciate, be busy, be worth,
? feel like, can’t stand, Can’t help, think of, dream of, be fond of, prevent from, keep from,Stop from, protect from, set about, be engaged in, spend in, succeedIn, look forward to, pay attention to, insist on.
? (
  4) 作定语 ? 你们学校有游泳池吗?Is there a swimming pool in your school? ? (
  5)作同位语 ) ? 他收听收音机新闻的习惯仍没有改 变。 ? His habit, listening to the news on the radio remains unchanged.
? 三. 现在分词 ? 现在分词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有 形容词和副词的句法功能。 ?
  1. 现在分词的形式 ? 否定式:not + 现在分词 否定式: ? (
  1)现在分词的主动语态:现在分词的 主动语态的一般式 ? 表示与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生, 完成式表示的动作在谓语动词所表示的动 作之前发生, They went to the park, singing and dancing.
? 做完作业,他开始打篮球。Having done his homework, he played basketball. ? (
  2)现在分词的被动语态:一般式表示与 谓语动词同时发生的被动动作,完成式表 示发生在谓语动词之前的被动的动作。例 如正在被讨论的问题很重要The problem being discussed is very important. ? 被告诉了好几遍,这个淘气的孩子又犯了 同一个错误 ? Having been told many times, the naughty boy made the same mistake.
?
  2. 现在分词的句法功能 ? (
  1)作定语 ) ? 现在分词作定语,当分词单独作定语时, 放在所 修饰名词前;如果是分词短语作 定语则放在名词后,并且现在分词作定 语相当于一个定语从句的句法功能。 ? The man speaking to the teacher is our monitor’s father.The man who is speaking to the teacher ……
? (
  2)作表语 ) ? 当前的形式鼓舞人心The present situation is inspiring. ? be + doing 既可以表示正在进行时, 也可能是现在分词作表语,区别在于 表进行的动作是进行时,而表特征时 是系动词与现在分词构成系表结构。
? (
  3)作宾语补足语 ) ? 如下动词可以跟现在分词作宾语补足 语: ? see, watch, hear, feel, find, get, keep, notice, observe, listen to, look at, leave, catch 等。例如 ? He kept the car waiting at the gate.Can you hear her singing in the next room ?
? (
  4)作状语 ) ? 作时间状语Working in the factory, he was an advanced worker. ? 作原因状语Being a League member, he is always helping others. ? 作方式状语,表伴随He stayed at home, cleaning and washing. ? 作条件状语Playing all day, you will waste your valuable time.
? 作结果状语He dropped the glass, breaking it into pieces. ? 作让步状语Though raining heavily, it cleared up very soon. ? 与逻辑主语构成独立主格Time permitting, we’ll do another two exercises. ? 有时用with (without) + 名词 / 代词宾格+ 分词形式 ? With the light burning, he fell asleep.
? 四. 过去分词: 过去分词: ? 过去分词的句法功能: 过去分词的句法功能: ?
  1. 过去分词作定语:Our class 过去分词作定语: went on an organized trip last Monday. ? 当过去分词是单词时,一般用于名 词前,如果是过去分词短语,就放 在名词后面。过去分词短语相当于 一个被动语态的定语从句。
?
  2. 过去分词作表语 窗户破了The window is broken. ? 他们对眼前悲惨的景象感到很害怕。 ? They were frightened at the sad sight. ? be + 过去分词,如果表示状态是系表 结构,如果表示被动的动作是被动语 态。例如 ? The window is broken.(系表)The window is broken by the boy. ( 被动 )
? 有些过去分词是不及物动词构成的, 不表示被动,只表示完成。如: ? 开水 boiled water落叶 fallen leaves新到的货 newly arrived goods ? 升起的太阳 the risen sun改变了 的世界 the changed world
?
  3. 过去分词作宾语补足语 ? I heard the song sing several times last week.With the work done, they went out to play. ?
  4. 过去分词作状语 ? 表原因 Praised by the neighbours, he became the pride of His parents. ? 表时间Once seen, it can never be forgotten.
? 表条件Given more time, I’ll be able to do it better. ? 表让步 Though told of the danger, he still risked his life ? to save the boy.
? 不定式的作用 ? [例1] NMET 2000 第19题 ? I’ve work with children before, so I know what in my job. ? A. expected B. to expect C. to be expecting D. expects ? 该题考查疑问+不定式在句中做宾语的 用法。英语中有一些动词 后可以跟一 个疑问词的不定式做宾语,如: ? tell, discuss, know, show, learn, decide, wonder, explain…
? 不定式的作用 ? [例2] NMET 1999 第21题 ? The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, it more difficult. ? A. not make B. not to make C. not making D. do not make. ? 因为主语是the purpose,在 (purpose, wish, promise, plan)后常 跟不定式,故表语要用不定式,to不能 省略,因此构成the purpose is to…not to…do 句型,故选B 。
? 不定式的时态和语态 ? [例3] NMET 1997第12题 ? I would love to the party last night but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. A. to go B. having gone C. going D. to have gone ? 该题考查动词不定式做宾语的 用法。 would love(like) to 是固定搭配,因此B、 C、不合题意。Would love +不定式一般 式,表示“想,希望”,而接不定式完成 式则表示“原本希望而未曾实现”的意思。
? [例4] NMET 2002 第14题 ? Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains whether they will enjoy it. (20
  02) ? A. to see B. to be seen ? C. seeing D. seen ? 不定式的语态取决于它和主语以及被它 修饰的词的逻辑关系,被动关系用被动. 例如:The question to be discussed at the next meeting will be rather difficult.
? 不定式的否定形式 ? [例5] NMET 1996年 ? The patient was warned oily food after the operation. ? A. to eat not B. eating not ? C. not to eat D. not eat
?
  1.作状语 作状语 ? 过去分词主要考查其在句中作状语、 定语、表语和补语的用法。 ? [例1] NMET1996第23题 ? in thought,he almost ran into the car in front ? of him.A. Losing B. Having lost C. Lost D. To lose
?
  2.作定语 作定语 ? [例2] NMET1997第17题 ? The Olympic Games, in 776 B.C.did not include women players until 19
  12. ? A. first played B. to be first played C. first playing D. to be first playing ? ①过去 分词做定语与其修饰词之间是动宾 关系且过去分词表示的动作以完成。 ? ② 现在分词作定语表示动作正在发生,与 修饰词是主谓关系。 ? ③不定式作定语表示将要发生的动作。
?
  3.作表语 作表语 ? [例3] NMET1998第23题 ? Cleaning women in big cities usually get by the hour. ? A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay ? 该题考查分词作表语的用法。“to pay sb. by the hour” 计时给某人报酬。此 题被动结构作表语。类似的有:get burnt, get hurt , get wounded.
?
  4.作补语 作补语 ? [例4] NMET2000第22题 ? The managers discussed the plan that they would like to see the next year. ? carry out B. carrying out ? C. carried out D. to carry out
? European football is played in 80 countries, it the most popular sport in the world. ? A. making B. makes C. made D. to make ? Making it the popular sport in the world为 现在分词短语作结果状语,这类分词短语 常放在句子的后面,ing表示顺其自然,不 定式表示突然,出乎意料。如: ? His parents died, leaving him an orphan. ? He rushed to the post office only to find it was closed
?
  1. Friendship is like money: easier made than ? A. kept B. to be kept ? C. keeping D. being kept
?
  2. the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement. ? A. The president will attend ? B. The president to attend ? C. The president attended ? D. The president's attending
?
  3. Unless to speak,you should remain silent at the conference. ? A. invited ? B. inviting ? C. being invited ? D. having invited
?
  4. She will tell us why she feels so strongly that each of us has a role in making the earth a better place to live. ? A. to have played ? B. to play ? C. to be played ? D. to be playing
?
  5. How about the two of us a walk down the garden? ? A. to take B. take ? C. taking D. to be taking ?
  6. down the radio the baby’s asleep in the next room. ? A. Turning B. To turn ? C. Turned D. Turn
?
  7. Charles Babbage is generally considered the first computer. ? A. to invent B. inventing C. to have invented D. having invented ?
  8. I must apologize for ahead of time. That’s all right. ? A. letting you not know ? B. not letting you know ? C. letting you know not ? D. letting not you know
?
  9.Rather than on a crowded bus, he always prefers a bicycle. ? A. ride; ride B. riding; ride ? C. ride; to ride D. to ride; riding ?
  10. The missing boys were
 

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