现在分词: 现在分词 表示动作是主动的和正在进行 过去分词: 过去分词 表示动作是被动的和完成 现在分词 形式
一般式 完成式 doing having done
过去分词 形式
done having been done
分词在句中可以作表语、定语、 分词在句中可以作表语、定语、宾语补足 表语 语和状语。 语和状语。
I. Past participle used as attributes (定语) 定语)

  1.位置 单个分词位于名词前,短语则在名词后 位置: 单个分词位于名词前,短语则在名词后, 位置 被过去分词所修饰的名词, 被过去分词所修饰的名词,就是该分词的逻辑 主语。 主语。 The stolen car was found by the police last week. The speaker answered all the questions raised by the audience.

  2.作用 相当于一个定语从句 作用相当于一个定语从句 作用 (
  1)Is there anything planned for tonight ? ) =Is there anything that has been planned for tonight? (
  2)The book, written in1957, tells the struggle of ) the miners. =The book, which was written in 1957, tells the struggle of the miners. 注:The problem (discussed yesterday) has ) something to do with daily life. (表示完成) 表示完成) The problem (being discussed now) has ) nothing to do with daily life. (表示正在进行) 表示正在进行)
II. Past participles used as predictive(表语) 表语)

  1. 过去分词作表语,表示主语所处的状态, 过去分词作表语,表示主语所处的状态, 其逻辑主语就是句子的主语。 其逻辑主语就是句子的主语。 The window is broken. The inner gate was locked. She was greatly excited.
  2. 与现在分词作表语的区别。 与现在分词作表语的区别。 现在分词:主语的特征或性质, 令人…”,有主动意 现在分词:主语的特征或性质,“令人 , 思。 e.g. How disappointing the election is! 过去分词:主语的感受, 感到 过去分词:主语的感受,“感到…”,有被动意思。 ,有被动意思。 e.g. They feel disappointed at the election.
常见的这类此有: 常见的这类此有: interesting ? interested encouraging ? encouraged delighting?delighted disappointing?disappointed pleasing?pleased puzzling?puzzled satisfying?satisfied surprising?surprised worrying--worried
III. Past participle used as the Object Complement (宾语补足语)
  1. 表“希望,要求”的动词: 希望,要求”的动词: want, wish, expect, wish, like, order + (to be) done 表示“希望 要求某人或某事被 表示“希望/要求某人或某事被 要求某人或某事被…” e.g. I want the work (to be) finished by Sunday. Jim ordered the room (to be) cleaned.
感觉, 心理状态”的动词:
  2. 表“感觉, 心理状态”的动词: see, hear, find, feel, think, watch, notice + object(宾语 + p.p. 宾语) 宾语 e.g. We saw the thief caught by the police. People found the water polluted. Have you heard a pop song sung in Japanese?
过去分词, 不定式, 过去分词 不定式 现在分词作宾补的 区别:三者与宾语逻辑上都是主谓关系 三者与宾语逻辑上都是主谓关系, 区别 三者与宾语逻辑上都是主谓关系, 但过去分词强调他们之间的被动关系, 但过去分词强调他们之间的被动关系, 不带to的不定式强调动作发生的全过程 的不定式强调动作发生的全过程, 不带 的不定式强调动作发生的全过程, 现在分词强调他们之间的主动关系, 现在分词强调他们之间的主动关系,正在 进行。 进行。 I saw her come into the classroom. I saw her coming into the classroom. I saw her taken out of the classroom.
使役动词:
  3. 使役动词: make, get, have, keep ,leave, etc. e.g. We must get the table cloth washed. = We must ask somebody to wash the table cloth. He had his watch repaired.
  4.在“with / without+宾语+宾补 过去分 在 +宾语+宾补(过去分 这一结构中, 词)”这一结构中,过去分词与宾语之间是动 这一结构中 宾关系。 宾关系。 e.g. Do you know the man with his hair tied back?
IV. Past participle used as the Adverbial(状语 状语) 状语 过去分词作状语相当于状语从句。 过去分词作状语相当于状语从句。 e.g.
  1. Asked why he didn’t do it, he began to cry. 过去分词作时间状语相当于时间状语从句 过去分词作时间状语相当于时间状语从句 时间状语 (When he was) asked why he didn’t do it, he began to cry.
e.g.
  2. Given more time, I’ll catch up with you. 过去分词作条件状语 条件状语相当于条件状语从句 过去分词作条件状语相当于条件状语从句 (If I am) given more time, I’ll catch up with you. e.g.
  3. Born and brought up in the village, he knows a lot of people there. 原因状语相当于原因状语从句 过去分词作原因状语 过去分词作原因状语相当于原因状语从句 (Because he was) born and brought up in the village, he knows a lot of people there.
e.g.
  4. Defeated many times, they continue to fight. 过去分词作让步状语 让步状语相当于让步状语从句 过去分词作让步状语相当于让步状语从句 (Although they had been) defeated many times, they continued to fight. e.g.
  5. The teacher entered the classroom, followed by a group of students.
表示方式和伴随情况时可以转换为一个并列的谓语 表示方式和伴随情况时可以转换为一个并列的谓语 成分。 成分。
The teacher entered the classroom (and he was followed) by a group of student.
过去分词作状语时, 为了使意义更加明确,也可以在 也可以在pp. 过去分词作状语时 为了使意义更加明确 也可以在 前加上对应的连词when, as, if 等等 等等. 前加上对应的连词

  1. When asked why he didn’t do it, he began to cry.
  2. If given more time, I’ll catch up with you.
  3. As / Because born and brought up in the village, he knows a lot of people there.
  4. Although defeated many times, they continue to fight.
注意:带有连词的过去分词结构相当于一个省略句 注意:带有连词的过去分词结构相当于一个省略句, 省略的部分为主语+be的相应变化形式 的相应变化形式. 省略的部分为主语 的相应变化形式
注意: 注意:
  1) 现在分词与过去分词作状语时的区别 )
选择现在分词还是过去分词, 选择现在分词还是过去分词,关键看主句的 主语。 如分词的动作是主句的主语发出, 主语。 如分词的动作是主句的主语发出,分 词就选用现在分词,反之就用过去分词。 词就选用现在分词,反之就用过去分词。 When visiting London (夜里参观伦敦 at 夜里参观伦敦) night, you are a bit like in a dream. (当有人夜里来访)at night , When visited you must make sure the visitor really your friend.
Having finished all my letters (写完了所有 写完了所有 的信之后), 的信之后 ,I had a drink and went out. Finished (信写完之后 ,the letter should 信写完之后), 信写完之后 be read to the one who asks you to write it. 从山顶看, 我们能看到一个美丽的公园。 从山顶看, 我们能看到一个美丽的公园。 Seeing from the top of the hill, we can see a beautiful park. 从山顶看, 公园很美丽。 从山顶看, 公园很美丽。 Seen from the top of the hill, the park is beautiful.

  2.系表结构表示主语所处的状态 系表结构表示主语所处的状态 Lost in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him. ( lose) Dressed in white, she looks more beautiful.( dress) 类似的还有: 类似的还有: be lost in; ; be interested in; ; be supposed to; ; be seated in; ; be determined to be dressed in; ; be devoted to; ; be caught in the rain; ; be prepared for; ;
有些固定用法: 有些固定用法: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? generally speaking一般说来 一般说来, 一般说来 given鉴于 鉴于, 鉴于 judging from/by根据 来看 根据…来看 根据 来看, judged by considering考虑到 考虑到, 考虑到 supposing that假如 假如, 假如 talking of说到 说到, 说到 seeing (that)鉴于,由于 鉴于, 鉴于
Exercise:

  1. The managers discussed the plan that they would like to seethe next year. A.carry out B.carrying out C.carried out D.to carry out
  2.Mrs. Brown was much disappointed to see the washing machine she had had went wrong again. A.it B. it repaired C.repaired D. to be repaired

  3.With a lot of difficult problems, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A.settled B.settling C.to settle D.being settled
  4.With trees,flowers and grass everywhere, my native town had taken anew look. A.planting B.planted C.to plant D.to be planted

  5. She was glad to see her child well care of. A. take B. to be taken C. taken D. taking
  6.The result of the entrance exams was not made to the public until last Thursday. A.knowing B. known C.to know D.to be known
  7. I can make you what I say,but you can’t make yourselfin English. A.understand; understand B.understand; understood C.to understand; understand D.understand; to be understood

  8.He found themat a table A.sat; to play chess B.sitting; to play chess C.seated; playing chess D.seat; play the chess
  9. John rushed out in a hurry, the door. A.leaving; unlocked B.leaving; unlocking C.left, unlocked D.to leave;unlocking

  10.We are pleased to see the problem so quickly. A .settled B .settling C.be settled D .having been settled
  11.I could feel the wind on my face from an open window. A .to blow B.blowing C.to be blowing D .blown
  12. in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him.(’
  96) A. Losing B. Having lost C. Lost D. To lose
  13. The computer center, last year, is very popular among the students in this school. (’
  94) A. open B. opening C. having opened D. opened

  14. The research is so designed that once nothing can be done to change it. (’
  02) A. Begins B. having begun C. beginning D. begun , the museum will be open to the public
  15. When next year .(’
  02) A. completed B. completing C. being completed D. to be completed
  16. The lecture will be given the day after tomorrow. A. has been talked about B. to talk about C. so much talked about D. so much talking of
  17. The flowers sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature. A. to smell B. smelling C. smelt D. to be smelt
 

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