你身边的高考专家
动词不定式
一、不定式结构作主语
To see one time is better than to hear a hundred times times. To persevere means victory! 注①:在很多情况下,特别是在口语中,常采用先行 代替主语, 在很多情况下,特别是在口语中,常采用先行it代替主语 代替主语, 而把不定式后置: 而把不定式后置: It’s a great pleasure to be here. here It is not an easy thing to master a language. language 注②:这种后置不定式的结构也适用于某些谓语动词不是系动词 的句子, 的句子,如: there. It took us five hours to get there It made us very angry to hear him talk like that. that
注③:不定式结构的逻辑主语通常可在特定的上下文或情景 中看出,也可以由“ 名词词组” 来表示, 中看出,也可以由“ for + 名词词组” 来表示,如: It is not hard for one to do a bit of good. It was difficult for me to do the work. 注④:某些形容词在上述结构中作表语时,常在不定式之前 某些形容词在上述结构中作表语时, 名词词组” 来说明不定式所指的是谁的情况, 加上 “of + 名词词组” 来说明不定式所指的是谁的情况, 如: It’s kind of you to think so much of us. It’s very nice of you to be so considerate. It’s unwise of them to turn down the proposal. It was careless of her to make such a mistake.
二、不定式结构作表语
  1.主语和表语都是不定式 ( 其含义往往一是条件, 一是结果) , . 主语和表语都是不定式(其含义往往一是条件,一是结果) 如: To be kind to the enemy is to be cruel to the people. To do that would be to cut the foot to fit the shoe.
  2.主语是以 .主语是以aim, duty, hope, idea, intention, mistake, plan, proposal, job, suggestion 等为中心词的名词词组,或以 what 引导的名词性从 等为中心词的名词词组, 句表示,后面的不定式说明其内容, 句表示,后面的不定式说明其内容,如: My idea is to climb the mountain from the north north. Your mistake was not to write that letter. letter once. My suggestion is to start work at once What I would suggest is to start work at once once. 在某些句型中, 注:在某些句型中,当主语部分有动作动词do 时,作表语的不定 式可以省略符号 “to”,如: , All we have to do is push the button button. The only thing I can do now is go on by myself myself. telegram. All I could do was send him a telegram
三、不定式结构作动词宾语
  1.“动词 + 带 to 的不定式结构”。这类动词常见的有:afford, . 的不定式结构” 这类动词常见的有: agree, arrange, ask, choose, decide, demand, desire, expect, hope, learn, manage, offer, pretend, promise, refuse, want, wish, like, hate, prefer, continue, try, start, forget, mean, intend, begin, 等,例如: 例如: I’ve arranged to meet him at ten o’clock. o’clock here. I didn’t expect to find you here
  2.“动词 + 疑问词 + 带 to 的不定式结构”。(这种不定式结构接 的不定式结构” . 动词 近一个名词从句) 这类动词常见的有: 近一个名词从句)。这类动词常见的有:tell, advise, show, teach, find out, decide, discuss, learn, forget, inquire, know, explain, remember, see, understand, wonder 等。 疑问词(也称连接代/副词 副词) 疑问词(也称连接代 副词)有:what, where, who(m), when, how, whether, which(why 除外),如: 除外) ( I don’t know what to do / where to go / who(m) to ask / when to stop / how to get there. I haven’t decided whether to sell it or not. We must find out what to do next / where to put it.
如果作宾语的不定式结构有自己的补语, 注① :如果作宾语的不定式结构有自己的补语,则应使用先行 it, , 把不定式后置,例如: 把不定式后置,例如: I find it difficult to understand him. We thought it wrong not to help her. They found it impossible to get everything ready in time. 不定式结构一般不可作介词宾语, 只有在个别场合, 注② :不定式结构一般不可作介词宾语 只有在个别场合 即在含有 的结构中才能这样用, 否定意义的带有介词 except 或 but (=except) 的结构中才能这样用, 例如: 例如: He seldom comes except to look at my pictures. pictures The child did nothing except weep weep. She can do anything but sing sing. He will do anything for you except lend you money. money arrive. They could do nothing but wait for the doctors to arrive 注意不定式符号的省略问题! 注意不定式符号的省略问题!
四、不定式结构作定语
  1.不定式作定语通常只能放在被修饰的名词之后,如: .不定式作定语通常只能放在被修饰的名词之后, It’s time to go to bed bed. difficulties. He is not a man to bow before difficulties Have you anything to declare declare? She usually has a lot of meetings to attend in the evening. I want to get something to read during the vocation.
  2.能带不定式结构作宾语的动词 , 转化成名词时往往也能带不定 . 能带不定式结构作宾语的动词, 式结构作定语, 式结构作定语,如: I don’t wish to quarrel with you. →I have no wish to quarrel with you. They will attempt to cross the river tonight. → They will make another attempt to cross the river tonight. She promised not to do that again. → She made a promise not to do that again.

  3.某些能带不定式结构作状语的形容词 , 转化成名词时, 也能带 . 某些能带不定式结构作状语的形容词,转化成名词时, 不定式结构作定语, 不定式结构作定语,如: He was obviously anxious to go. → His anxiety to go was obvious.
  4.不定式结构与所修饰的名词 , 有时意义上有着主谓关系或动宾 . 不定式结构与所修饰的名词, 关系, 关系,如: He has a large family to support (= that he must support). 处于动宾关系的情况下, 注:处于动宾关系的情况下,如果不定式是不及物动词,它后面应 加上必要的介词,如: She has a lot of things to attend to to. after. The nurse has five children to look after Let’s first find a room to put the things in. in
  5.有时为了明确不定式结构的逻辑关系 , 可以在不定式之前加上 . 有时为了明确不定式结构的逻辑关系, for + 名词词组,如: 名词词组, Here’s a book for you to read. He gave orders for the visitors to be shown in.
五、不定式结构作状语
不定式结构可以作状语,修饰动词、形容词、副词等,表示目 不定式结构可以作状语,修饰动词、形容词、副词等,表示目 原因、结果、条件等 的、原因、结果、条件等。
  1.表示目的: 表示目的: They ran over to welcome the delegates. delegates He bought a bicycle to go to town more quickly quickly. He went home to see his mother mother. 不定式结构表示目的时, 注①:不定式结构表示目的时,通常句子的主语就是它的逻辑主语 (参见以上三句 ,但也有例外的情况,例如: 参见以上三句), 参见以上三句 但也有例外的情况,例如: I stopped for him to speak to me. He opened the door for the children to come in. He brought a porter to carry the boxes / bags. They sent a man to mend the window. He stood up to be seen better.
注②:为了强调表示目的的不定式结构,特别是在不定式结构前有 为了强调表示目的的不定式结构, 否定词 not 时,通常可以在不定式符号 to 之前加上 in order 或 so as,如: , He came here in order to see Charlie. He shouted and waved so as to be noticed. He went early in order not to miss the train. I turned the radio down so as not to disturb him. 注③:表示目的的不定式可以置于句首,这也是区别于其他功能的 表示目的的不定式可以置于句首, 之前可以加上in 标志之一 。 但是 , 置于句首表示目的 的不定式 之前可以加上 order,但却不可以加上so as ,如: ,但却不可以加上 To draw maps properly, you need a special pen. (In order to draw maps properly, you need a special pen.) pen. To get the best results, use clean water.

  2. 表示结果: 表示结果: What have I said to make you so angry? He came round to find himself in hospital.
不定式结构表示结果更常见于下列句型: 不定式结构表示结果更常见于下列句型:
① so …as to … Would you be so kind as to lend me your bicycle / tell me the time? ② such (…) as to … I’m not such a fool as to believe that. ③ enough to … The boy is old enough to go to school. ④ too … to … His eyesight is too poor to read such small letters. 注意:下列句子中的不表示结果,也无否定含义: 注意:下列句子中的不表示结果,也无否定含义: I’m only too glad to go. (= I’m very glad to go.) I shall be only too pleased to get home. (= I shall be very pleased to get home.) (adv. 非常; 〖 only too (adv.) 极; 非常; 太;很 〗
☆☆有时,不定式结构还能表示一个随后发生的动作,相当于一 ☆☆有时,不定式结构还能表示一个随后发生的动作, 有时 个并列限定动词词组,这种不定式结构也表示结果, 个并列限定动词词组,这种不定式结构也表示结果,如: raining. She woke early to find it was raining He got home to learn that his father was ill ill. 这种表示结果的不定式结构具有下列几个特点: 这种表示结果的不定式结构具有下列几个特点: 不定式所表示的动作是随后发生的,相当于一个限定动词词组, ① 不定式所表示的动作是随后发生的 , 相当于一个限定动词词组 , 如: He arrived late to find the others had gone home. He arrived late and found the others had gone home. home. 不定式根据是否需要停顿而决定与主句是否用逗号隔开。 ② 不定式根据是否需要停顿而决定与主句是否用逗号隔开。 He left his native country (,) never to return. He returned home (,) to find his father lying sick in bed. 不定式所表示的结果往往含有“令人意想不到”的意味, ③ 不定式所表示的结果往往含有 “ 令人意想不到 ” 的意味 , 其中 使人不愉快的结果”较为常见。 有时也可以表示令人愉快、 以“使人不愉快的结果”较为常见。(有时也可以表示令人愉快、 惊喜的结果) 惊喜的结果),如: He went home to find his old friend George waiting for him him.
不定式之前有时可以加上only或but only,以加强语气,如: ④ 不定式之前有时可以加上 或 ,以加强语气, He got to the station only to be told the train had gone. They lifted a rock only to drop it on their own feet. 不定式结构表示结果或表示目的,往往形式相似,这时, 注:不定式结构表示结果或表示目的,往往形式相似,这时,须根 据词汇意义认真加以区别,试比较: 据词汇意义认真加以区别,试比较: He arrived late to find the others had gone home. ( = He arrived late and found the others had gone home.) He arrived late to avoid meeting Robert. ( = He arrived late in order to avoid meeting Robert.) He got to the station only to be told the train had gone. He went to the station to inquire about the times of trains. ( = He went to the station in order to inquire about the times of trains.)
  3. 表示原因:(不定式所表示的动作先于谓语动词的动作) 表示原因: 不定式所表示的动作先于谓语动词的动作) She wept to hear the news. I pretend to be happy to know him. He laughed to see such fun. She seemed surprised to meet us.
六、不定式结构作宾语补足语 Don’t force yourself to write when you have nothing to say. globe. He believed the earth to be a globe Did you see a young man enter the house house?
  1.只能用不定式结构作宾语补足语的动词: 只能用不定式结构作宾语补足语的动词: ① 表示“ 希望”“ 愿望” 等心理状态的动词, 如 : wish, desire, 表示 “ 希望 ”“愿望 ” 等心理状态的动词 , ”“ 愿望 expect, love, prefer, encourage, trust 等。 What do you desire me to do do? The director preferred her to act the old lady lady. 含有“ ”“允许”“促使”“致使 等祈使意义的动词, 允许”“促使”“致使” ② 含有“让”“允许”“促使”“致使”等祈使意义的动词,如: let, allow, permit, decide, mean, lead, bring, put, hurry, cause, 等。 We mustn’t let this happen again again. His father put him to mind the sheep. sheep 带有“ 请求”“ 恳求” 等感情色彩的动词, ”“恳求 ③ 带有 “ 请求 ”“ 恳求 ” 等感情色彩的动词 , 如 : ask, desire, invite, beg, request, worry 等。 it He begged me not to tell his father about it. She was always worrying her father to take her to Paris Paris.
含有“ 建议”“ 劝告” 等意义的动词, ”“劝告 ④ 含有 “ 建议 ”“ 劝告 ” 等意义的动词 , 如 : advise, persuade, call on,
 

相关内容

初三英语复习《动词不定式》PPT课件

   动词不定式 动词不定式的结构 肯定: 肯定: to + V.原 或者 (to)+ V.原 否定:not/never + (to) + V.原 否定: 1) He likes to read novels. 2) I saw him come. 3) We decided not to buy that house. 4) It is interesting to fly a kite. 5) Please let him not go there. 作主语 To hear your voic ...

中考英语总复习-动词不定式

   Lesson 31 The infinitive(2) 动词不定式( 动词不定式(二) 构成:to + do(动词原形) 用法: 用法: 1. 用作宾语 (v. + to do ) I want to buy a computer. She hopes to find a better job. I wish to go with you. need to do learn to do agree to do plan to do decide to do refuse to do begi ...

中考英语总复习-动词不定式

   The infinitive(2) 动词不定式( 动词不定式(二) 构成:to + do(动词原形) 用法: 用法: 1. 用作宾语 (v. + to do ) I want to buy a computer. She hopes to find a better job. I wish to go with you. need to do learn to do agree to do plan to do decide to do refuse to do begin to do st ...

初中英语语法总复习

   初 中 语 法 复 习 泾川县党原乡中学 初中语法复习 词类。 Ⅰ 词类。 词类 名词 冠词 代词 形容词 数词 动词 副词 介词 连词 感叹词 名词: (一) 名词: 专有名词:表示人名、月份、日期、地名等。如 China, John, London, the USA, Harbin . 个体名词:表示单个的人或事物。如 boat, chair, desk, apple . 集体名词:表示一群人或一些事物的总称。如 family, people, class, police . 可数名词 ...

中考英语语法复习-动词的功用

   中考英语语法复习- 中考英语语法复习-动词的功用 英语语法复习 动词在语言中是必不可少的一部分。它的语法现象也较多,但在初中范围主要 有以下几方面问题。① 时态:初中范围主要有一般现在时,一般过去时,现在 完成时,过去完成时,将来时与过去将来时六种时态。② 语态:主动语态与被 动语态。③ 助动词和情态动词。④ 非谓语动词,也就是不定式,动名词及现在 分词的用法。时态主要掌握以下几种时态的应用要点和习惯用法。  1  一般现在时:主要有以下三方面,① 用来表示状态,特征或不受时间限 制 ...

中考英语语法复习-动词的功用

   中考英语语法复习- 中考英语语法复习-动词的功用 英语语法复习 动词在语言中是必不可少的一部分.它的语法现象也较多,但在初中范围主要 有以下几方面问题.① 时态:初中范围主要有一般现在时,一般过去时,现在 完成时,过去完成时,将来时与过去将来时六种时态.② 语态:主动语态与被 动语态.③ 助动词和情态动词.④ 非谓语动词,也就是不定式,动名词及现在 分词的用法.时态主要掌握以下几种时态的应用要点和习惯用法. 1 一般现在时:主要有以下三方面,① 用来表示状态,特征或不受时间限 制的客观存在和 ...

高中英语语法总结大全之动词不定式

   本资料来源于大家网高考英语论坛 http://club.topsage.com/forum-136-1.html 高中英语语法总结大全之动词不定式 不定式作宾语 1) 动词+ 不定式 afford aim ap 高考资源网 pear agree arrange ask be decide bother care choose come dare demand desire determine expect elect endeavor hope fail happen help hesita ...

高中英语语法教案及配套练习---动词不定式

   7. 动词不定式 动词不定式由 to+动词原形构成。这里的 to 是不定式标志,没有词义。不定式具 有名词、形容词或副词的某些语法功能,又有动词的时态和语态的特点及作用。 常见的形式如表所示(以及物动词 do 为例) ,不及物动词没有被动语态。 时态\\语态 主动 被动 一般式 to do to be done 进行式 to be doing / 完成式 to have done to have been done 完成进行式 to have been doing / 7.1 有些动词可以用 ...

初中英语动词不定式

   初中英语动词不定式的自述 我叫动词不定式,是在动词原形前加上不定式符号 to 构成的,这是我的一 般时主动态形式。人们喜欢用 to do (sth.)的形式表达我的这种形式,然而我 的英语名称是 infinitive,通常缩写成 inf.的形式。 在英语中, 我的用途最广, 任何词类在这一点上都无法和我相比。 在句子中, 我只是不能作谓语动词使用,其他所有句子成份都能由我来充当。所以人们赋于 我具有名词、形容词和副词的功能。在使用我的时候,这里边可有不少学问的, 下面就把我的用途一条一条地讲 ...

高二英语动词不定式的用法

   高中英语同步辅导 Book2A Unit1 动词不定式的用法 By Edison 动词不定式 1. 动词不定式的用法 1. 作主语 2. 作宾语 3. 作定语 4. 作表语 5. 作宾补 6. 作状语 2.动词不定式的时态和语态 3. 巩固练习 1. 动词不定式作主语 动词不定式作主语,谓语动词用第三人称单数。 动词不定式作主语,谓语动词用第三人称单数。 To get there by car will take a whole day. How to get enough money is ...

热门内容

专家解说宝宝英语学习

   专家解说宝宝英语学习 学习英语其实没想象中那么难 专家解说宝宝英语学习 Q 多大的孩子可以开始学习英语? 我家孩子快满周岁了,刚刚学会叫“爸爸”和“妈妈”,朋友说可以给她学习英语了。 可是我家孩子连基本的句子都不会说,会不会太早了?孩子学习英语应该从什么时候开始 呢? A 孩子学习英语越早效果越好。 研究发现,婴幼儿的大脑有一项特殊的功能,即自动屏蔽某些不必要的声音信息,而只 对那些经常接触的信息保持开放状态。并且,他们分辨语音的能力在 10 个月之后呈下降趋 势。因此,孩子越早接触某种语言 ...

1996-2000英语专业四级词汇语法真题及答案

   1996 41. You won't get a loan __ you can offer some security. [A] lest [B] in case [C] unless [D] other than 42. __ time, he'll make a flint-class tennis player. [A] Having [B] Given [C] Giving [D] Had 43. I __ the party much more ff there hadn't b ...

七年级英语新目标上Unit10学案

   Unit 10 Can you play the guitar? 北京市八一中学初一英语组 Unit 10 Can you play the guitar? 教学目标 通过对话,小组讨论,调查等合作式学习,使学生能够运用目标语言 使学生能够运用目标语言, 通过对话,小组讨论,调查等合作式学习 使学生能够运用目标语言 表 达自己在某一方面所具备的才能, 参加(成立)自己喜爱的各种俱乐部, 达自己在某一方面所具备的才能 参加(成立)自己喜爱的各种俱乐部 并能够充分调动综合各方面资源,制作宣传海报 ...

中考英语优秀作文

   徐汇区初三英语复习资料四 徐汇区初三英语复习资料四 初三英语复习资料 英语作文参考范文: 英语作文参考范文: 参考范文 1、2008年英语中考 、 年英语中考 Write at least 60 words about the topic "Love around me ". ( 以“我身边的爱 个词的短文,标点符号不占格。 “为题写一篇不少于 60 个词的短文,标点符号不占格。) Use the following points as a guide. (短文须包含下列 ...

英语佳句

   我的世界不允许你的消失,不管结局是否完美. 我的世界不允许你的消失,不管结局是否完美. No matter the ending is perfect or not, you cannot disappear from my world. 爱情是一个精心设计的谎言 Love is a carefully designed lie. 承诺常常很像蝴蝶, 承诺常常很像蝴蝶,美丽的飞盘旋然后不见 Promises are often like the butterfly, which disapp ...