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动词不定式
一、不定式结构作主语
To see one time is better than to hear a hundred times times. To persevere means victory! 注①:在很多情况下,特别是在口语中,常采用先行 代替主语, 在很多情况下,特别是在口语中,常采用先行it代替主语 代替主语, 而把不定式后置: 而把不定式后置: It’s a great pleasure to be here. here It is not an easy thing to master a language. language 注②:这种后置不定式的结构也适用于某些谓语动词不是系动词 的句子, 的句子,如: there. It took us five hours to get there It made us very angry to hear him talk like that. that
注③:不定式结构的逻辑主语通常可在特定的上下文或情景 中看出,也可以由“ 名词词组” 来表示, 中看出,也可以由“ for + 名词词组” 来表示,如: It is not hard for one to do a bit of good. It was difficult for me to do the work. 注④:某些形容词在上述结构中作表语时,常在不定式之前 某些形容词在上述结构中作表语时, 名词词组” 来说明不定式所指的是谁的情况, 加上 “of + 名词词组” 来说明不定式所指的是谁的情况, 如: It’s kind of you to think so much of us. It’s very nice of you to be so considerate. It’s unwise of them to turn down the proposal. It was careless of her to make such a mistake.
二、不定式结构作表语
  1.主语和表语都是不定式 ( 其含义往往一是条件, 一是结果) , . 主语和表语都是不定式(其含义往往一是条件,一是结果) 如: To be kind to the enemy is to be cruel to the people. To do that would be to cut the foot to fit the shoe.
  2.主语是以 .主语是以aim, duty, hope, idea, intention, mistake, plan, proposal, job, suggestion 等为中心词的名词词组,或以 what 引导的名词性从 等为中心词的名词词组, 句表示,后面的不定式说明其内容, 句表示,后面的不定式说明其内容,如: My idea is to climb the mountain from the north north. Your mistake was not to write that letter. letter once. My suggestion is to start work at once What I would suggest is to start work at once once. 在某些句型中, 注:在某些句型中,当主语部分有动作动词do 时,作表语的不定 式可以省略符号 “to”,如: , All we have to do is push the button button. The only thing I can do now is go on by myself myself. telegram. All I could do was send him a telegram
三、不定式结构作动词宾语
  1.“动词 + 带 to 的不定式结构”。这类动词常见的有:afford, . 的不定式结构” 这类动词常见的有: agree, arrange, ask, choose, decide, demand, desire, expect, hope, learn, manage, offer, pretend, promise, refuse, want, wish, like, hate, prefer, continue, try, start, forget, mean, intend, begin, 等,例如: 例如: I’ve arranged to meet him at ten o’clock. o’clock here. I didn’t expect to find you here
  2.“动词 + 疑问词 + 带 to 的不定式结构”。(这种不定式结构接 的不定式结构” . 动词 近一个名词从句) 这类动词常见的有: 近一个名词从句)。这类动词常见的有:tell, advise, show, teach, find out, decide, discuss, learn, forget, inquire, know, explain, remember, see, understand, wonder 等。 疑问词(也称连接代/副词 副词) 疑问词(也称连接代 副词)有:what, where, who(m), when, how, whether, which(why 除外),如: 除外) ( I don’t know what to do / where to go / who(m) to ask / when to stop / how to get there. I haven’t decided whether to sell it or not. We must find out what to do next / where to put it.
如果作宾语的不定式结构有自己的补语, 注① :如果作宾语的不定式结构有自己的补语,则应使用先行 it, , 把不定式后置,例如: 把不定式后置,例如: I find it difficult to understand him. We thought it wrong not to help her. They found it impossible to get everything ready in time. 不定式结构一般不可作介词宾语, 只有在个别场合, 注② :不定式结构一般不可作介词宾语 只有在个别场合 即在含有 的结构中才能这样用, 否定意义的带有介词 except 或 but (=except) 的结构中才能这样用, 例如: 例如: He seldom comes except to look at my pictures. pictures The child did nothing except weep weep. She can do anything but sing sing. He will do anything for you except lend you money. money arrive. They could do nothing but wait for the doctors to arrive 注意不定式符号的省略问题! 注意不定式符号的省略问题!
四、不定式结构作定语
  1.不定式作定语通常只能放在被修饰的名词之后,如: .不定式作定语通常只能放在被修饰的名词之后, It’s time to go to bed bed. difficulties. He is not a man to bow before difficulties Have you anything to declare declare? She usually has a lot of meetings to attend in the evening. I want to get something to read during the vocation.
  2.能带不定式结构作宾语的动词 , 转化成名词时往往也能带不定 . 能带不定式结构作宾语的动词, 式结构作定语, 式结构作定语,如: I don’t wish to quarrel with you. →I have no wish to quarrel with you. They will attempt to cross the river tonight. → They will make another attempt to cross the river tonight. She promised not to do that again. → She made a promise not to do that again.

  3.某些能带不定式结构作状语的形容词 , 转化成名词时, 也能带 . 某些能带不定式结构作状语的形容词,转化成名词时, 不定式结构作定语, 不定式结构作定语,如: He was obviously anxious to go. → His anxiety to go was obvious.
  4.不定式结构与所修饰的名词 , 有时意义上有着主谓关系或动宾 . 不定式结构与所修饰的名词, 关系, 关系,如: He has a large family to support (= that he must support). 处于动宾关系的情况下, 注:处于动宾关系的情况下,如果不定式是不及物动词,它后面应 加上必要的介词,如: She has a lot of things to attend to to. after. The nurse has five children to look after Let’s first find a room to put the things in. in
  5.有时为了明确不定式结构的逻辑关系 , 可以在不定式之前加上 . 有时为了明确不定式结构的逻辑关系, for + 名词词组,如: 名词词组, Here’s a book for you to read. He gave orders for the visitors to be shown in.
五、不定式结构作状语
不定式结构可以作状语,修饰动词、形容词、副词等,表示目 不定式结构可以作状语,修饰动词、形容词、副词等,表示目 原因、结果、条件等 的、原因、结果、条件等。
  1.表示目的: 表示目的: They ran over to welcome the delegates. delegates He bought a bicycle to go to town more quickly quickly. He went home to see his mother mother. 不定式结构表示目的时, 注①:不定式结构表示目的时,通常句子的主语就是它的逻辑主语 (参见以上三句 ,但也有例外的情况,例如: 参见以上三句), 参见以上三句 但也有例外的情况,例如: I stopped for him to speak to me. He opened the door for the children to come in. He brought a porter to carry the boxes / bags. They sent a man to mend the window. He stood up to be seen better.
注②:为了强调表示目的的不定式结构,特别是在不定式结构前有 为了强调表示目的的不定式结构, 否定词 not 时,通常可以在不定式符号 to 之前加上 in order 或 so as,如: , He came here in order to see Charlie. He shouted and waved so as to be noticed. He went early in order not to miss the train. I turned the radio down so as not to disturb him. 注③:表示目的的不定式可以置于句首,这也是区别于其他功能的 表示目的的不定式可以置于句首, 之前可以加上in 标志之一 。 但是 , 置于句首表示目的 的不定式 之前可以加上 order,但却不可以加上so as ,如: ,但却不可以加上 To draw maps properly, you need a special pen. (In order to draw maps properly, you need a special pen.) pen. To get the best results, use clean water.

  2. 表示结果: 表示结果: What have I said to make you so angry? He came round to find himself in hospital.
不定式结构表示结果更常见于下列句型: 不定式结构表示结果更常见于下列句型:
① so …as to … Would you be so kind as to lend me your bicycle / tell me the time? ② such (…) as to … I’m not such a fool as to believe that. ③ enough to … The boy is old enough to go to school. ④ too … to … His eyesight is too poor to read such small letters. 注意:下列句子中的不表示结果,也无否定含义: 注意:下列句子中的不表示结果,也无否定含义: I’m only too glad to go. (= I’m very glad to go.) I shall be only too pleased to get home. (= I shall be very pleased to get home.) (adv. 非常; 〖 only too (adv.) 极; 非常; 太;很 〗
☆☆有时,不定式结构还能表示一个随后发生的动作,相当于一 ☆☆有时,不定式结构还能表示一个随后发生的动作, 有时 个并列限定动词词组,这种不定式结构也表示结果, 个并列限定动词词组,这种不定式结构也表示结果,如: raining. She woke early to find it was raining He got home to learn that his father was ill ill. 这种表示结果的不定式结构具有下列几个特点: 这种表示结果的不定式结构具有下列几个特点: 不定式所表示的动作是随后发生的,相当于一个限定动词词组, ① 不定式所表示的动作是随后发生的 , 相当于一个限定动词词组 , 如: He arrived late to find the others had gone home. He arrived late and found the others had gone home. home. 不定式根据是否需要停顿而决定与主句是否用逗号隔开。 ② 不定式根据是否需要停顿而决定与主句是否用逗号隔开。 He left his native country (,) never to return. He returned home (,) to find his father lying sick in bed. 不定式所表示的结果往往含有“令人意想不到”的意味, ③ 不定式所表示的结果往往含有 “ 令人意想不到 ” 的意味 , 其中 使人不愉快的结果”较为常见。 有时也可以表示令人愉快、 以“使人不愉快的结果”较为常见。(有时也可以表示令人愉快、 惊喜的结果) 惊喜的结果),如: He went home to find his old friend George waiting for him him.
不定式之前有时可以加上only或but only,以加强语气,如: ④ 不定式之前有时可以加上 或 ,以加强语气, He got to the station only to be told the train had gone. They lifted a rock only to drop it on their own feet. 不定式结构表示结果或表示目的,往往形式相似,这时, 注:不定式结构表示结果或表示目的,往往形式相似,这时,须根 据词汇意义认真加以区别,试比较: 据词汇意义认真加以区别,试比较: He arrived late to find the others had gone home. ( = He arrived late and found the others had gone home.) He arrived late to avoid meeting Robert. ( = He arrived late in order to avoid meeting Robert.) He got to the station only to be told the train had gone. He went to the station to inquire about the times of trains. ( = He went to the station in order to inquire about the times of trains.)
  3. 表示原因:(不定式所表示的动作先于谓语动词的动作) 表示原因: 不定式所表示的动作先于谓语动词的动作) She wept to hear the news. I pretend to be happy to know him. He laughed to see such fun. She seemed surprised to meet us.
六、不定式结构作宾语补足语 Don’t force yourself to write when you have nothing to say. globe. He believed the earth to be a globe Did you see a young man enter the house house?
  1.只能用不定式结构作宾语补足语的动词: 只能用不定式结构作宾语补足语的动词: ① 表示“ 希望”“ 愿望” 等心理状态的动词, 如 : wish, desire, 表示 “ 希望 ”“愿望 ” 等心理状态的动词 , ”“ 愿望 expect, love, prefer, encourage, trust 等。 What do you desire me to do do? The director preferred her to act the old lady lady. 含有“ ”“允许”“促使”“致使 等祈使意义的动词, 允许”“促使”“致使” ② 含有“让”“允许”“促使”“致使”等祈使意义的动词,如: let, allow, permit, decide, mean, lead, bring, put, hurry, cause, 等。 We mustn’t let this happen again again. His father put him to mind the sheep. sheep 带有“ 请求”“ 恳求” 等感情色彩的动词, ”“恳求 ③ 带有 “ 请求 ”“ 恳求 ” 等感情色彩的动词 , 如 : ask, desire, invite, beg, request, worry 等。 it He begged me not to tell his father about it. She was always worrying her father to take her to Paris Paris.
含有“ 建议”“ 劝告” 等意义的动词, ”“劝告 ④ 含有 “ 建议 ”“ 劝告 ” 等意义的动词 , 如 : advise, persuade, call on,
 

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