高三英语总复习语法
句子成分 和
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基本句型
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什么是句子? 什么是句子?
句子是由词按照一定的语法结构组成的, 句子是由词按照一定的语法结构组成的,是 能表达一个完整概念的语言单位. 能表达一个完整概念的语言单位.句子的第 一个字母必须大写,结尾要有.?

I am a teacher. Are you a student? How beautiful the girl is !
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句子包括哪些成分? 句子包括哪些成分?
现代汉语里一般的句子成分有六种,即主语、谓语、宾语、定语、 状语和补语。英语的基本成分有七种:主语(subject)、谓语 (predicate)、表语(predicative)、宾语(object)、定语 (attribute)、状语(adverbial) 和补语(complement)。 英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、 省略或倒装。掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基 础。
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1.主语:主语是在句子中说明全句中心主题的 主语: 部分.一般由名词,代词,不定式, 部分.一般由名词,代词,不定式,动名词或从 句充当.它的位置一般在句首. 句充当.它的位置一般在句首. The girl is pretty. Reading is useful. To see is to believe. They are good friends.
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谓语: 谓语:
谓语说明主语做什么,是什么,怎么样,由 谓语说明主语做什么,是什么,怎么样, 简单动词或者动词短语构成. 简单动词或者动词短语构成. They are teachers. She looks well. He studies hard. He laughed at his classmates. He can speak English.
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表语: 表语:
表语说明主语是什么,或者怎么样,由名词, 表语说明主语是什么,或者怎么样,由名词, 形容词,副词,介词短语,不定式,动名词, 形容词,副词,介词短语,不定式,动名词, 短语,或者从句充当.表语位于系动词后面. 短语,或者从句充当.表语位于系动词后面. I am a teacher. She is happy. Everybody is here. They are at home now. My job is to teach English. Seeing is believing.
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宾语
宾语是动作,行为的对象,由名词,代词,短 宾语是动作,行为的对象,由名词,代词, 不定式,动名词,从句充当. 语,不定式,动名词,从句充当.它和及物动 词一起说明主语做了什么,在谓语之后. 词一起说明主语做了什么,在谓语之后. She plays the piano. He often helps me. I like watching TV. She likes to go to shop this afternoon.
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I think that he is good guy.
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在英语中,有些句子只有宾语并不能表达完整的意思, 在英语中,有些句子只有宾语并不能表达完整的意思, 还必须在宾语后面家上宾语补足语才能表达完整的意 它起补充说明宾语干什么,怎么样的作用. 思.它起补充说明宾语干什么,怎么样的作用. 它可以由名词,形容词,副词,介词短语,不定式,现 它可以由名词,形容词,副词,介词短语,不定式, 在分词和过去分词充当. 在分词和过去分词充当. If you let me go, I’ll make you king. Leave the door open. We found John out when we arrived. Make yourself at home. I saw him enter the hall. The boss keeps them working all day. I heard my name called.
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宾语补足语
状语
状语用来修饰动词,形容词或副词.它表示行为发 状语用来修饰动词,形容词或副词. 生的时间,地点,目的,方式,程度.一般由副词, 生的时间,地点,目的,方式,程度.一般由副词, 介词短语,不定式或相当于副词的词或短语充当, 介词短语,不定式或相当于副词的词或短语充当, 也可由从句来充当. 也可由从句来充当.
He did it carefully. Without his help, we couldn’t work it out. In order to catch up with my classmates, I must study hard. I was born on June 9th 1982 in Guangxi. He is writing with a pen. 2010-8-24
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定语
定语用来修饰名词或代词.形容词,代词,数 定语用来修饰名词或代词.形容词,代词, 名词,介词短语,不定式,动名词,分词, 词,名词,介词短语,不定式,动名词,分词, 从句都可以充当定语. 从句都可以充当定语. The black bike is mine. What’s your name? A broken vase. I have 5 books. A sleeping boy. They made paper flowers. The boy in the room is Jack. I have something to do. It is a swimming pool.
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种类 类型
第1 种
S+V
表语/宾 主语 谓语 表语 宾 S 动词 语 v p We work He We
宾语 0
宾补 oc
S+V+0 第2 S+V+0 种 第3 S+v+p 种
plays violin.
are gave student s me a pen. laugh
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第4 S+v+IO+DO she 种 第5 S+V+O+OC He 种 2010-8-24
made me
基本句型 一: S V P (主+系+表)
V(是系动词 S │V(是系动词)│ P V(是系动词)

  1. This │is │an English-Chinese dictionary. 这是本英汉辞典。
  2. The dinner │smells │good. 午餐的气味很好。
  3. He │fell │in love. 他堕入了情网。
  4. Everything │looks │different. 一切看来都不同了。
  5. He │is growing │tall and strong. 他长得又高又壮
  6. The trouble│is │that they are short of money. 麻烦的是他们缺少钱。
  7. Our well │has gone │dry. 我们井干枯了。
  8. His face │turned │red. 他的脸红了。
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系动词词义不完整, 系动词词义不完整,在句中不能单独使 除省略句外),后面必须接有表语, ),后面必须接有表语 用(除省略句外),后面必须接有表语, 系动词和表语一起构成合成谓语。 系动词和表语一起构成合成谓语。
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一、系动词的分类: 系动词的分类: 常见的系动词大致可分为三类。 常见的系动词大致可分为三类。
第一类:表示特征或状态的 , 有 be , look , 第一类 : 表示特征或状态的, be, look, feel , seem , appear , smell , taste , sound, out(结果是、证明是) sound, turn out(结果是、证明是)等。 You’ You’ll be all right soon. soon. You don’t look very well. don’ well. I feel rather cold. cold.
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He seems to be ill. ill. It appears that he is unhappy. unhappy. The roses smell sweet. sweet. The mixture tasted horrible. horrible. How sweet the music sounds! The day turned out (to be) a fine one. one. 17
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第二类:表示从一种状态到另一种状态的 第二类: 变化, become, get, grow, turn, 变化 , 有 become , get, grow, turn, fall, go, come, run等 fall, go, come, run等。 He became a world-famous scientist. worldscientist. It is getting warmer and warmer. warmer. It grew dark. dark. The food has turned bad. bad.
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Yesterday he suddenly fell ill. ill. Mary’ Mary’s face went red. red. His dream has come true. true. The boy’s blood ran cold. boy’ cold.
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第三类: 表示保持状态的 , 有 keep , remain , 第三类 : 表示保持状态的, keep, remain, continue,stay等 continue,stay等。
Keep quiet, children! The weather continued fine for a long time. time. It remains to be proved. proved.
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系动词后的表语可以是名词、 代词、 数词、 系动词后的表语可以是名词 、 代词 、 数词 、 形容 分词、 动名词、 不定式、 副词、 介词短语、 词 、 分词 、 动名词 、 不定式 、 副词 、 介词短语 、 词组、从句,系动词be可用于上述所有情况。 be可用于上述所有情况 词组、从句,系动词be可用于上述所有情况。 The news was surprising.(分词) surprising.(分词) His job is teaching English.(动名词) English.(动名词) The only method is to give the child more help. 不定式) (不定式) I must be off now.(副词) now.(副词) The bridge is under construction.(介词短语) construction.(介词短语) That would be a great weight off my mind. 词组) (词组) This is why he was late.(从句) late.(从句)
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所有的系动词都可接形容词作表语, 所有的系动词都可接形容词作表语,此处略举数 例。 Our future will be beautiful. She looks unhappy today. Do you feel cold? cold? You seem/appear ill. The food tastes delicious. The weather is turning/ growing/ becoming/ getting cold. He often went hungry.
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  3.能用不定式作表语的系动词有:appear, seem 能用不定式作表语的系动词有:appear, get, prove, remain, out等 , get, prove, remain, turn out等。 young. She appears/ seems to be very young. He appears/ seems to have caught cold. cold. They got to be friends。 friends。 The meeting turned out to be successful. successful. The theory proved to be right. right.
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Much remains to be done. done.
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  4. 能接从句的有:be, seem, appear, sound, 能接从句的有:be, seem, appear, sound, look等 look等。 That’ That’s why he fell ill. ill. him. My idea is that we should help him. It seems/ appears to me that something is wrong. wrong. It sounds to me as if someone were trying house. to get into the house. cold. Your voice sounds as if you had a cold. rain. It looks as if it is going to rain.
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  5. 能接介词短语的有:be, 能接介词短语的有:be, sound, taste,remain等 sound, taste,remain等。
feel, feel,
look, look,
be是特别活跃的系动词 be是特别活跃的系动词,其后可接很多介词 是特别活跃的系动词, 短语作表语。 短语作表语。 He is at home/ in the library/ on the holiday. way home/ on holiday. leave. They are on duty/ on strike/ on leave. The road is under repair. repair.
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其他系动词能和介词搭配的范围很小。 其他系动词能和介词搭配的范围很小。如: It feels like a rain. rain. rain. It looks like a rain. It sounds like a train going under my room. room. It tastes of apples.(这有苹果的味道。) apples. 这有苹果的味道。 The concert remains in my memory. memory.
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  6. 能接分词的系动词有:be, become, get, 能接分词的系动词有:be, become, get, grow, seem, appear等 grow, seem, appear等。 surprisi sing/ His report was surprising/ disappointing/delighting/moving/ astonishing… astonishing… The boy was moved/delighted/surprised/ disappointed/astonished。 disappointed/astonished。 He has become/ got/ grown/ interested physics。 in modern physics。 drunk。 He seems/ appears drunk。 系动词后还可接代词、数词、动名词、 系动词后还可接代词、数词、动名词、副 词及其词组,基本都是be的用法。 be的用法 词及其词组,基本都是be的用法。其他系动词几 乎不能这样用或很少这样用。 乎不能这样用或很少这样用。 2010-8-24 27
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一.纵观历年的高考题,对系动词的考查一直是高 纵观历年的高考题, 考中非常重要的热点之一, 考中非常重要的热点之一 , 对于考生来说也是难 点所在。 点所在。 高考对系动词考查的覆盖面广, 高考对系动词考查的覆盖面广 , 涉及的系动词较 多 , 重 点 考 查 的 是 get , 其 次 是 feel 和 考查的难度在逐年增大。 remain ,考查的难度在逐年增大。 二 . 对表示状态变化的系动词的考查 英语中常见的表示状态变化的系动词有 get , turn , turn out (结果是 结果是……), go , come ), 成为), (成为), fall , become 等。
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  1. 对 get 的考查 表示状态的改变,意为“变成,变得, get 表示状态的改变,意为“变成,变得,做 它后面可以接形容词、 形式、 成”,它后面可以接形容词、 v-ing 形式、过去 分词等。 分词等。 ① Sarah, hurry up. I'm afraid you won't up. party. have time to before the party. A. get changed B. get change C. get changing D. get to change
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② Be careful when you cross this very busy street, if not, you may run over by a car. car. A. have B. get C. become D. turn ③ As we joined the big crowd I got friends. from my friends. A. separated B. spared C. lost D. missed
分析: ①②③中考查的是“ 过去分词” 分析:例①②③中考查的是“ get +过去分词”构成 中考查的是 的系表结构。 意为“换衣服” 的系表结构。例① get changed 意为“换衣服”,例 意为“碾过,压过” ② get run over 意为“碾过,压过”,例③ get separated 意思是“冲散,分离”,所以正确答案分 意思是“冲散,分离” 2010-8-24 30 别是 A 、 B 、 B 。

  2. 对 go 的考查 的意义是“变成,成为” 系动词 go 的意义是“变成,成为”,后多跟 形 容 词 , 如 go bad, go mad, go wrong, go 例如: hungry, go sour 等。例如: On hearing the news of the accident in coal mine, she pale. pale. A. got B. changed C. w
 

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