高中英语阅读训练系列讲座( 高中英语阅读训练系列讲座(三) 提高理解句子的能力
句子是按照一定的语法规则组织起来的,表达完整思想的基本语言单位,也是构成文章 的基本语言单位.要表达完整意义,句子必须符合语法规则.要准确地理解篇章,首先要准 确理解句子.而要准确地理解句子,就必须提高理解符合语法规则的句子的能力,这样我们 就必须对英语的基本句型,以及对这些基本句型的扩展和句子与句子间的照应关系有清楚的 认识与了解.首先我们来看一下英语的基本句型.

  1. 英语基本句型 英语基本句型(basic sentence types)
一般来说英语中主要有六种基本句型,这六类句子也叫核心句(kernel sentences),它们可 以被转换为多种多样的句子.
  1.Subject + Verb(S + V) 主语 + 谓语 (In 19
  73) some strangers arrived.(SB1,L
  18) Disney's success (as a cartoon maker)had begun.(SB2,L
  2) (and soon)the game started.(SB3,L
  90)
  2.Subject + Verb + Object(S + V + O)主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 Some of my friends drink beer.(SB1,L
  2) Lakes also have some problems.(SB2,L
  34) His strong will doubled his efforts.(SB3,L
  31)
  3.Subject + Verb + Indirect object + Object (S + V + IO + O)主语 + 谓语 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语 They took the English language with them.(SB1,L
  10) Finally Hank and his friend gave each other their addresses.(SB2,L
  70)
  4.Subject + Verb + Object + Object complement(S + V + O + OC)主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语 We can see them flying along the river.(SB1,L
  14)
During a second trip,an important film director saw Chaplain acting a very funny part in a play.(SB2,L
  16) You'll find nothing grow there at all.(SB3,L
  94)
  5.Subject + Linking Verb + Noun(S + LV + N)主语 + 系词 + 名词 (Right now)it's the summer vacation.(SB1,L
  2) One of Charlie Chaplain's most famous films was "The Gold Rush".(SB2,L
  19) It was a Saturday afternoon.(SB3,L
  82)
  6.Subject + Linking Verb + Adjective(S + LV + A)主语 + 系词 + 形容词 The mixture tasted terrible.(SB1,L
  6) The Tomorrow Land is very interesting.(SB2,L
  3) It was usually very quiet.(SB3,L
  14) 现在我们对英语中的六种基本句型,即英语中的核心句子已经有了一个基本了解,下面 再来看一看这些基本句型的扩展.
2 基本句型的扩展 (expansion of sentence patterns)
基本句型的扩展是指通过语法手段(grammatical devices)把基本句型转换成变化多样,结 构复杂的句子,以表达不同的思想,概念与语义关系.常见的扩展句子的方法有三种:修饰 扩展,替代扩展和并列扩展.这三种方法是最重要的语言结构形式,对它们的把握直接影响 着一个人的阅读能力的提高.阅读时,注意句子的扩展方式,可以帮助我们把握词,短语和 句子之间的结构关系和语义上的逻辑关系,从而正确理解句子的意思.

  2.1 修饰扩展(expansion by modification) . 修饰扩展 修饰扩展作为扩展基本句型的一种基本方法,指的是给基本句型中的词语提供一些额外 信息,以修饰,描述或限制那个词语的意义.修饰语可以是一个词,短语或者一个完整的句 子.
  1.增加形容词修饰语(adjective modifiers) .增加形容词修饰语 We are having a wonderful time.(SB1,L
  14) The next day,he had a very red face.(SB2,L
  43) In 1898,she discovered the first of these new radioactive minerals.(SB3,L
  2)
  2.增加副词修饰语 .增加副词修饰语(adverb modifiers)
My friend Paul will never forget his first chemistry teacher.(SB1,L
  6) A yellow car passed me and suddenly stopped.(SB2,L
  71) He learnt to read and write and was particularly good at mathematics.(SB3,L
  6)
  3.增加介词短语修饰语(prepositional phrase modifiers) .增加介词短语修饰语
  1)修饰名词 He was a little man with thick glasses,... (SB1,L
  6) Woods and forests in the southeast were completely destroyed.(SB2,L
  43) …and so Olympic gymnastics medals are usually won by men between the ages of nineteen and twenty-five.(SB3,L
  34)
  2)修饰动词 We can't travel through the forest by road.(SB1,L
  14) We looked at each other for a moment in great surprise... (SB2,L
  71)
After the first World War Madame Curie traveled to the USA... (SB3,L
  3)
  3)修饰形容词 Scotland has many lakes and mountains,and is famous for its beautiful countryside.(SB1, L
  86) It was also popular with students of English.(SB2,L
  15) They became experienced at finding underground springs.(SB3,L
  10)
  4.增加不定式或不定式短语修饰语 .增加不定式或不定式短语修饰语(infinitive and infinitive phrase modifiers) It is the competition between countries to hold the Olympics.(SB1,L
  36) Many of the streets in Disneyland are built to look like streets in the 1890s.(SB2,L
  3) Radioactive matter is dangerous to work with because it has a bad effect on the blood.(SB3, L
  3)
  5.增加分词或分词短语修饰语(participle or participle phrase modifiers) .增加分词或分词短语修饰语
  1)现在分词及其短语修饰语(present participle of present participle modifiers) "That's funny!" said Dr.Baker to himself,looking at the invitation.(SB1,L
  98) They had come from England, having heard the strange news that Dr. Manette, Lucie's father, was alive and was living in Paris.(SB2,L
  86) The expedition passed close by the island of Java and then returned by the southern point of Africa,arriving back in England in July 17
  71.(SB3,L
  7)
  2)过去分词及其短语修饰语(past participle or past participle modifiers)
Polluted rivers and lakes have also been a cause of death.(SB2,L
  35) There are very few skilled workers left after the war years.(SB3,L
  26)
  6.增加分句修饰语(clause modifiers) .增加分句修饰语
  1)定语从句(attributive clauses) The lake that has been made by the dam is about 500 kilometers long.(SB1,L
  90) I was shown into the interview room and introduced to the three people who were going to interview me.(SB2,L
  71) They found Australia to be an astonishing land where the soil was red,bears climbed trees, birds ran but... (SB3,L
  7)
  2)状语从句(adverbial clauses) They hated Lincoln because he fought for the freedom of all people.(SB1,L
  50) She wanted to cook some vegetables quickly for lunch before the baby woke up. If fewer cash crops were grown, more food could be produced and... (SB3,L
  15) (SB2,L
  46)

  2.2 .
替代扩展(Expansion by substitution) 替代扩展
替代扩展指的是用句子,短语或分词来替代基本句型中的名词,从而把基本句型转换成 结构复杂的句子,以表达比较复杂的思想和概念.
  1.不定式或不定式短语代替名词 .
  1)替代主语(替代主语的动词不定式或动词不定式短语常常放在句末) It is dangerous to swim in the river.(SB1,L
  14) In most places it is not safe to eat the fish.(SB2,L
  34) To become a top gymnast,it is important to start when young.(SB3,L
  34)
  2)替代表语 Disney's greatest wish was to be a famous artist!(SB2,L
  2)
  3)替代宾语 In the 1870s,when Marx was already in his fifties, situation in Russia,so he began to learn Russian.(SB1,L
  82) He found it hard to get along with the other boys.(SB2,L
  50)
  2.动名词或动名词短语代替名词 . 动名词或动名词短语代替名词
  1)替代主语(替代主语的动名词或动名词短语也可以放在句末) By the first century the making of paper in part of China had been well developed and had he found it important to study the
become more common.(SB1,L
  78)
Using body language in a correct way will help communicate with people and make the stay in a foreign country easy and comfortable.(SB2,L
  11) Advertising is a highly developed twentieth-century industry. (SB3,L
  18)
  2)替代宾语 Spain started making paper in 1150 and Russia started in 15
  67.(SB1,L
  78) I enjoy learning about new things from politics to sports and music.(SB2,L
  15) Solon started talking to one of them and soon they were getting on well together.(SB3,L
  35)
  3.分句代替名词 .
  1)替代主语(替代主语的分句常常放在句末) At all these centers it is hoped that one day they will have enough animals to set them free and let them live in the wild again.(SB1,L
  66) It is thought that between the years 1550 and 1950 an average of one kind of living thing died out each year,(SB2,L
  35) It is possible that the first people crossed into Australia from Asia on a great land bridge when the water level of the oceans was lower.(SB3,L
  10)
  2)替代表语 The result is that many of them become fat.(SB1,L
  58) The problem with tobacco is that it contains a drug called nicotine.(SB2,L
  7) The reason for this was that Antonio had many times scolded Shylock publicly for being greedy and cruel.(SB3,L
  41)
  3)替代宾语 We think that our schools will become even better.(SB1,L
  22) In Britain,70% of smokers say that they would like to stop smoking,…(SB2,L
  7) Scientists soon discovered that it could be used as a cure for cancer.(SB3,L
  3) As the captain passed me,I asked him whether there was any hope of saving the ship. (SB3,L
  31)

  2.3 并列扩展 . 并列扩展(expansion by coordination)
并列扩展指把两个或两个以上具有相同内容和相同语法形式的语言成分并列起来,使句 子平衡,对称,紧凑,使语义符合逻辑,连贯,简洁. 例如: As a boy,he enjoyed basketball,tennis and especially football.(SB2,L
  74)(词与词的并列) Cook then sailed west to Australia.Other sailors had already charted parts of the west and north coasts of Australia and the island of Tasmania in the south, (SB3, ... L
  7)(短语与短语的并列) We entered the fifth store and(句子与句子的并列)the boy walked straight up to the counter and(短语与短语的并列)told the bookseller just what he wanted and(从句与从句的并列)how much money he had.(SB3,L
  30) 从上面的例子可以看出,并列结构可以把词与词,短语与短语,从句与从句,句子与句 子连接在一起.基本连接词有 and,but,or,nor,yet,so,for 等,它们有时单独,有时则 与其他的词搭配表示引申,增补,转折,选择,对比,因果等关系. 下面列举的是并列扩展的连接词及其作用. 引申与增补:and,both...and,not only...but also 选择:or,either...or,whether...or 转折:but,yet,still 对比:but,while,whereas,rather than 因果:for,so 请看下面的例子: They eat too much fat and sugar and don't take enough exercise.(SB1,L
  58)(增补) I'll let you have the new geography book and you may pay me the rest Of the money when you can,or I can let you have a secondhand book for fifty cents.(SB3,L
  30)(选择) The Arab who is friendly will stand close to his friend,but the English man will come back in order to keep a certain distance away.(SB2,L
  11)(转折) These provide milk , meat , and wool , yet this does not take land away from food production.(SB3,L
  15)(转折) Nodding the head means agreement,while shaking it means disagreement.(SB2,L
  10)(对比) The words "gymnastics" and "gym" come from the Greek language, it was in Greece for that Olympic competitions started.(SB3,L
  34)(因果) Learning new words and useful expressions is very important for me , so I read it everyday. (SB2,L
  15)(因果)
有的平行结构有上述连接词连接,也有些并列或平行结构则不用并列连词,而只用标点 符号,一般为分号(;)或逗号(,)如: Everyone obeys the rules;anybody who breaks the rules is punished.(SB1,L
  18)(转折) These foods should contain some fat,some fibber,a little fat and so on.(SB1,L
  58)(并列)
In old stories,the squirrel was usually described as a good animal;it saved something for the future.(SB3,L
  46)(因果)
 

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