说一说英语强调句 英语中强调的手段多种多样,可以通过语音、语调、词汇、语法、修辞、标点符号、字体变化等手段来实现。本文主要 从语法角度说一说英语表示强调的几种句式。 一、It is...who/that...句型 / 句型 利用这种句型可以强调除谓语动词外的大多数句子成分,通常为主语、宾语和状语。引导词 it 作形式主语置于句首, 后接动词 be,再加上强调的部分,再接 that-/who-从句,请看下面的例子。
  1. Anne had a severe heavy attack last night.(原句) It was Anne that (who) had a severe heart attack last night. (强调主语) It was a severe heart attack that Anne had last night. (强调宾语) It was last night that Anne had a severe heart attack. (强调状语) 注意:在被强调的部分后面,一般用 that 引出句子的其他部分,但是如果强调的部分是表示人的名词,也可以用 who, 如果被强调的是人称代词,该人称代词要用主格(如 I,he 等),非正式文体中多用宾格(如 me, him 等)。如: 二、倒装句 倒装是指把非主语成分置于句首,使之成为主位而加以强调。
  1、谓语动词前置以强调。 当谓语动词是由“情态动词+原形动词”构成时,可将主要动词(有时连同宾语)前置例装以强调动作。如:Go abroad I must.
  2、状语前置以强调。
  1)表示否定或基本否定的词与词组放在句首作状语: Rarely did John leave his lab those days.
  2)Only 引出的状语放在句首时: Only recently did he have a chance to visit his hometown.
  3) here,there,then,thus 等副词放在句首,并且谓语动词为 come, go, be, exist, follow 等表示位置移动的不及物 动词时: Here comes the bus Higher and higher flows the kite.风筝越飞越高。
  4)句首为 so, nor, neither 等副词,表明前句说明的情况也适用于本句,或者关联从属连词的 so ... that 中的 so 位于 句首时: So small are the electrons that no one can see them with naked eyes. 电子如此小,以致于人们无法用肉眼看见它们。
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三、祈使句 一般情况下,祈使句的主语 you 不出现。为了强调,可以点明主语 you。例如: You stand up! 你站起来!(强) 四、主从复合句 运用主从复合句.可以使几个并列的句子变成主从关系,从而突出其中的主句,起到强调的作用。试比较: I returned home late. My supper was cold. Mother had cooked it. a. My supper, which Mother had cooled, was cold when I returned home late. (强调“我的晚饭已经凉了”这一点) b. I returned home late to find my supper cold although Mother had cooked it. (强调 “我回家晚了”这件事。) c. Mother cooked supper, which was cold by the time I returned home. (强调“ 是母亲做的晚饭” ) 五、感叹句 感叹句由 how 或 what 等感叹词加被强调的部分以及陈述句的其他部分构成。这也是一种十分常见的表示强调的句 式。例如:
  1.How hard you study!
  2.What a pity he lost the game! 在课堂教学中,许多英语教师都按照下面的句型去施教。即:It is / was …that /who…用来强 强调句型的教法 调一个句子中除谓语以外的任何句子成分。例如: I bought this car in that shop last month.(原始句) It was I who/that bought this car in that shop last month. (强调主语) It was this car that I bought in that shop last month.(强调宾语) It was in that shop that I bought this car last month.(强调地点状语) It was last month that I bought this car in that shop.(强调时间状语) 就这样,再举几个例子,让学生练练,该语法讲解到此结束。可是,高考并不单纯考查这样一些基本的句式,下面几 点还有待于老师去延伸讲解。
  1. 一般疑问句的强调: (
  1) Did you meet your brother at Mc Donald ? Was it your brother that you met at Mc Donald?(强调宾语) (
  2) Has Tom borrowed your money recently? Is it Tom that has borrowed your money recently? (强调主语) 2 . 特殊疑问句的强调: (
  1) Where did you see her cellphone yesterday ? Where was it that you saw her cellphone yesterday?(强调特殊疑问词 where) (
  2) How will you go to visit her tomorrow? How is it that you will go to visit her tomorrow?
2
(强调特殊疑问词 how)
  3.从句的强调: (
  1)I came home late because it was raining hard. It was because it was raining hard that I came home late.(强调状语从句) (
  2) What you said really made us sad. It was what you said that really made us sad.(强调主语从句)
  4.not until 结构的强调: We did not get off the bus until it stopped . It was not until it stopped that we got off the bus.(注意:强调该结构时 not until 不能分开)
  5.强调时间状语和地点状语时与定语从句的区别: (
  1) It was in 1921 that our Party was founded.(强调句式) (
  2) It was 1921 when our Party was founded.(定语从句) 即:强调时间或地点时有介词置于其前时,则连接词用 that。其前面应有介词而被省去时,则用连接词 when(时间)或 where(地点)。又如: (
  3) It was on the farm that we practised planting crops. (
  4) It was the farm where we learned a lot . 但是应注意,有些表示时间或地点的词汇及短语本身不需要在其前面加介词,故其连词也只能是 that,而不是 when 或 where。再如: (
  5) It was yesterday that we chatted a lot on line. (
  6) It was there that Mike was drowned yesterday. 由此看来,教师不能只着眼句型教学,该延 伸时必须从多处着手。只有这样,我们所叫的学生才能把知识运用自如。 练习:
  1. It was last year you tought me how to drive. A. when B.that C. where D. which
  2.It was he said disappointed me. A.that/what B.what/that C.what/what D.that/that
  3.It was in the factory produced TV sets our friend was murdered. A. which / which B. that / which C. that / that D. where / that
  4. find my wallet ,Tom ? A. Where did you that B. Where was it you B. Where have you D.Where was it that you
  5.It was not until 1920 regular radio broadcast began. (NMET
  95) A. while B. which C. that D. since
  6.It is the ability to do the job matters, not where you came from or what you are. (MET
  01) A. one B. it C. what D. that BBCDCD 直接引语间接引语的区别 直接引语:直接引述别人的话(句子中有“”。 ) 间接引语:用自己的话转述别人的话,叫“间接引语” (句子中一般无“” ) 二.直接引语变间接引语
3
A.一般不表示请求或祈使的句子改为一个宾语从句
  1.连词 若直接引语引号里的内容是陈述句,那么改为间接时,要用连词 that (可以省略) ……………….一般疑问句,…….,要用连词 if/whether (不可以省略) ……………….特殊疑问句,…….,要用连词 wh- 即特殊疑问词本身(不可省)
  2.变化 (
  1)主句动词的变化 一般说来,主句谓语动词常为 said 或 said to,变为间接引语时,当直接引语是陈述句时,said 不变。当直接引语是一般 疑问句和特殊疑问句时,则要把 said 或 said to 变为 asked / asked sb. (
  2)从句人称的变化 由直接引语变间接引语时,从句的主语人称要遵循一主、二宾、三不变的原则。①直接引语的主语是第一人称变为间接 引语时要和主句的主语保持一致。②如果直接引语的主语是第二人称变为间接引语时要与主句的宾语保持一致。③如果 直接引语的主语是第三人称变为间接引语时,人称不变。例如: ①They said, “We will go there by bus.” →They said they would go there by bus. ②She said to me, “Are you interested in science?” →She asked me if I was interested in science. ③His mother said to me, “He can't go to school.” →His mother told me that he couldn't go to school. (
  3) 、从句动词时态的变化 a. 如果主句的时态是一般过去时,从句的时态则应是与主句时态相应的过去时态。①一般现在时→一般过去时;②一般 过去时→过去完成时;③现在进行时→过去进行时;④现在完成时→过去完成时;⑤过去完成时→过去完成时(不变) ; ⑥一般将来时→过去将来时。例如: The girl said, “I'm sorry for being late for class.” →The girl said that she was sorry for being late for class. b. 直接引语变为间接引语时,如果主句中的谓语动词是一般现在时或一般将来时,则间接引语从句的时态保持不变。例 如: He says, “I have finished my homework.” →He says that he has finished his homework. She will say, “I'll do it tomorrow.” →She will say that she'll do it the next day. c. 直接引语如果是客观事实或真理,变为间接引语时,从句时态不变。例如: The teacher said, “The earth moves around the sun.” →The teacher said that the earth moves around the sun. (
  4) 、指示代词、时间状语、地点状语和动词的变化 直接引语变为间接引语时,指示代词的变化为 this→that, these→those 等;时间状语的变化为 now→then, today→ that day, yesterday→the day before, tomorrow→the next day 等; 地点状语的变化为 here→there; 动词的变化为 come
4
→go(go 不要变 come) 。例如:
  1. She said, “I will come this evening.” →She said that she would go that evening.
  2. He said, “My sister was here three days ago, but she is not here now.” →He said that his sister had been there three days before, but she was not there then. B.表示请求或祈使的句子改为句型 tell/ask/order sb (not) to do sth 当直接引语引号里的内容表示要求时用 tell sb (not) to do sth 当直接引语引号里的内容表示请求时用 ask sb (not) to do sth 当直接引语引号里的内容表示强制要求时用 order sb (not) to do sth Exercise

  1.“I am good at English ,” Lucy said. Lucy said she was good at English
  2.“Li Lei is reading a book,” Peter said to Lucy Peter told Lucy that Li Lei was reading a book.
  3.“We will have a football match ,”he told his mother. He told his mother they would have a football match tomorrow
  4.“They go to school everyday except Saturday and Sunday ,”the boy said. The boy said they went to school everyday except Saturday and Sunday
  5. Cousin Sue said, “I’m sorry I didn’t have time to come over and visit last Saturday.” Cousin Sue said she was sorry she hadn’t had time to come over and visit the previous Saturday.
Direct Speech
She She She She She She She She She She said, “ I like singing. ” said, “ I a m wa iting fo r a bus.” sa id, “ I have never met an Ame rican.” said, “ I v isite d Euro pe last year.” said, “ I will see yo u next week.”
Indirect Speech
said said said said said she she she she she like d sing ing. was waiting fo r a bus. ha d never met a n Ame rican. ha d v isite d Euro pe the yea r befo re. wo uld see me the ne xt week.
5
特殊: 特殊:时态不变

  1. 直接引语为客观真理,一般现在时不变 直接引语为客观真理, The teacher said, “The sun is bigger than the earth.” The teache r said that the sun is bigge r than the earth.
  2. 直接引语中有明确的表示过去时间的时间 状语, 状语,一般过去时不变 “I joined the Party in 20
  06.” Li Ming said. Li Ming said that he joined the Party in 20
  06.
其 他 变 化
直接引语
this, these no w, today this week yesterday last week four days ago the day before yesterday tomo rro w next mo nth here come, bring
间接引语
that, those then, tha t day that week the day befo re the week before four days befo re two days befo re the next/follo wing day the next/follo wing month there go, take
6
直接引语 句式 结构 陈述句 一般疑问句 特殊疑问句 祈使句 疑问句
  1.主句为现在时态 主句为现在时态
  2.主句为过去时态 主句为过去时态 第一人称 第二人称 第三人称 ……
间接引语
语 that引导 引导 从 if/whether 引导 句 原疑问词引导 ask / told sb to do sth.
陈述句语 时态不变 往前推一个时态

语 时态 人称
与主句主语人称一致 与主句宾语人称一致 不变
其他
解题步骤: 解题步骤 :

  1.陈述句
  1. 陈述句
“I went shopping yeste rda y.” Sandy sa id to he r friends. Sandy said to he r f riends that I went sho pping
yesterday.
said
the day before.
she
had gone shopping
Sandy said to he r friends t hat she gone sho pping the day befo re.



间接引语

  1. “ I’m leaving for London next week.” my sister said to me.
  2. John said, “Mr . Smith has come here.”
  3. She said, “Do you want me to help you?”
  4. “How many people are there in your family?” he asked the boy.
  5. “Don’t worry.” the mother said to the children.
  6. He said, “Please give me a book.”
7
把下列句子变成直接引语: 二 、 把下列句子变成直接引语:

  1. She told us to stop wr iting and listening to her.
  2. She asked me which one I liked the best.
  3. He asked whether I had watched TV the night before.
  4. J im asked me if I was busy that day.
  5. The old worker told us not to forget the past.
  6. Pick said that he would
 

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