用现在进行时表示将来 意为:"意图","打算","安排",常用于人.常用词为 come, go, start, arrive, leave, stay 等. I'm leaving tomorrow. Are you staying here till next week? 比较过去时与现在完成时
  1)过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时为过去 发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响.
  2)过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用,或无时间 状语. 一般过去时的时间状语: yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, in October, just now, 具体的时间状语 共同的时间状语: this morning, tonight,this April, now, once,before, already, recently,lately 现在完成时的时间状语 for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till / until, up to now, in past years, always, 不确定的时间状语
  3)现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的,如 live, teach, learn, work, study, know. 过去时常用的非持续性动词有 come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married 等. 举例: I saw this film yesterday. (强调看的动作发生过了. ) I have seen this film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了. ) Why did you get up so early? (强调起床的动作已发生过了. ) Who hasn't handed in his paper? (强调有卷子,可能为不公平竞争. ) She has returned from Paris. 她已从巴黎回来了. She returned yesterday. 她是昨天回来了. He has been in the League for three years. (在团内的状态可延续) He has been a League member for three years. (是团员的状态可持续)
He joined the League three years ago. ( 三年前入团,joined 为短暂行为.) I have finished my homework now. Will somebody go and get Dr. White? He's already been sent for. 句子中如有过去时的时间副词 (如 yesterday, last, week, in 19
  60) 不能使用现在完成时, 时, 要用过去时. (错)Tom has written a letter to his parents last night. (对)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night. since 的四种用法
  1) since +过去一个时间点 (如具体的年,月,日期,钟点,1980, last month, half past six). I have been here since 19
  89.
  2) since +一段时间+ ago I have been here since five months ago.
  3) since +从句 Great changes have taken place since you left. Considerable time has elapsed since we have been here.
  4) It is +一段时间+ since 从句 It is two years since I became a postgraduate student. 延续动词与瞬间动词
  1) 用于完成时的区别 延续动词表示经验,经历; 瞬间动词表示行为的结 果,不能与表示段的时间状语连用. He has completed the work. 他已完成了那项工作. (表结果) I've known him since then. 我从那时起就认识他了.(表经历)
  2) 用于 till / until 从句的差异 延续动词用于肯定句,表示"做……直到……" 瞬间动词用于否定句,表示"到……, 才……" He didn't come back until ten o'clock. 他到 10 点才回来. He slept until ten o'clock. 他一直睡到 10 点. 典型例题
  1. You don't need to describe her. I her several times. A. had met B. have met C. met D. meet 答案 B. 首先本题后句强调对现在的影响, 我知道她的模样, 你不用描述. 再次, several times 告知为反复发生的动作,因此用现在完成时.

  2.I'm sorry to keep you waiting. Oh, not at all. I here only a few minutes. A. have been B. had been C. was D. will be 答案 A. 等待的动作由过去开始,持续到现在,应用现在完成时. 用一般过去时代替完成时
  1) 两个动作如按顺序发生,又不强调先后,或用 then,and,but 等连词时,多用一般过去 时. When she saw the mouse,she screamed. My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it. 2 ) 两个动作相继发生, 可用一般过去时; 如第一个动作需要若干时间完成, 用过去完成时. When I heard the news, I was very excited.
  3) 叙述历史事实,可不用过去完成时,而只用一般过去时. Our teacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 14
  92. 不用进行时的动词
  1) 事实状态的动词 have, belong, possess, cost, owe, exist, include, contain, matter, weigh, measure, continue I have two brothers. This house belongs to my sister.
  2) 心理状态的动词 Know, realize, think see, believe, suppose, imagine, agree, recognize, remember, want, need, forget, prefer, mean, understand, love, hate I need your help. He loves her very much. 3 ) 瞬间动词 accept, receive, complete, finish, give, allow, decide, refuse. I accept your advice.
  4) 系动词 seem, remain, lie, see, hear, smell, feel, taste, get, become, turn You seem a little tired. 虚拟语气
  1) 概念 虚拟语气用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想,所说的是一个条件,不一定是事实,或与事实
相反.
  2) 在条件句中的应用 条件句可分为两类,一类为真实条件句,一类为非真实条件句.非真实条件句表示的是假设 的或实际可能性不大的情况,故采用虚拟语气.
真实条件句 真实条件句用于陈述语气,假设的情况可能发生,其中 if 是如果的意思. 时态关系 句型: 条件从句 主句 一般现在时 shall/will + 动词原形 If he comes, he will bring his violin. 典型例题 The volleyball match will be put off if it . A. will rain B. rains C. rained D. is rained 答案 B.真实条件句主句为将来时,从句用一般现在时. 注意:
  1) 在真实条件句中,主句不能用 be going to 表示将来,该用 shall, will. (错) If you leave now, you are never going to regret it. (对) If you leave now, you will never regret it.
  2) 表示真理时,主句谓语动词便不用 shall (will) +动词原形,而直接用一般现在时的动词 形式.
非真实条件句
  1)时态:可以表示过去,现在和将来的情况.它的基本特点是时态退后. a. 同现在事实相反的假设. 句型 : 条件从句 主句 一般过去时 should( would) +动词原形 If they were here, they would help you. b. 表示于过去事实相反的假设. 句型: 条件从句 主句 过去完成时 should(would) have+ 过去分词 If she had worked harder, she would have succeeded. The rice would not have been burnt if you had been more careful. If my lawyer had been here last Saturday, he would have prevented me from going.
If he had come yesterday, I should / would have told him about it. 含义:He did not come yesterday, so I did not tell him about it. If he had not been ill and missed many classes, he would have made greater progress. 含义: He was ill and missed many lessons, so he did not make greater progress. c. 表示对将来的假想 句型: 条件从句 主句 一般过去时 should+ 动词原形 were+ 不定式 would + 动词原形 should+ 动词原形 If you succeeded, everything would be all right. If you should succeed, everything would be all right. If you were to succeed, everything would be all right. 混合条件句 主句与从句的动作发生在不同的时间, 这时主, 从句谓语动词的虚拟语气形式因时间不同而 不同,这叫做混合条件句. If you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now. (从句与过去事实相反,主句与现在事实相反. ) If it had rained last night (过去), it would be very cold today (现在).
虚拟条件句的倒装 虚拟条件句的从句部分如果含有 were, should, 或 had, 可将 if 省略, 再把 were, should 或 had 移到从句句首,实行倒装. Were they here now, they could help us. =If they were here now, they could help us. Had you come earlier, you would have met him =If you had come earlier, you would have met him. Should it rain, the crops would be saved. =Were it to rain, the crops would be saved. 注意: 在虚拟语气的从句中,动词'be'的过去时态一律用"were",不用 was, 即在从句中 be 用 were 代替. If I were you, I would go to look for him. 如果我是你,就会去找他. If he were here, everything would be all right. 如果他在这儿,一切都会好的.
典型例题 to do the work, I should do it some other day. A. If were I B. I were C. Were I D. Was I 答案 C. 在虚拟条件状语中如果有 were, should, had 这三个词, 通常将 if 省略, 主语提前, 变 成 were, should, had +主语的形式.但要注意,在虚拟条件状语从句中,省略连词的倒装形 式的句首不能用动词的缩略形式.如我们可说 Were I not to do., 而不能说 Weren't I to do.
特殊的虚拟语气词:should
  1) It is demanded / necessary / a pity + that…结构中的主语从句的谓语动词要用 should 加动 词原形, should 可省略. 句型: (
  1)suggested It is (
  2)important that…+ (should) do (
  3) a pity (
  1)suggested, ordered, proposed, required, demanded, requested, insisted; + (should) do (
  2)important, necessary, natural, strange a pity, a shame, no wonder (
  3)It is suggested that we (should) hold a meeting next week. It is necessary that he (should) come to our meeting tomorrow.
  2)在宾语从句中的应用 在表示命令,建议,要求等一类动词后面的从句中. order, suggest, propose, require, demand, request, insist, command, insist + (should) do I suggest that we (should) hold a meeting next week. He insisted that he (should ) be sent there. 注意: 如 suggest, insist 不表示"建议" 或"坚持要某人做某事时", 即它们用于其本意"暗示, 表明","坚持认为"时,宾语从句用陈述语气. The guard at gate insisted that everybody obey the rules. 判断改错: (错) You pale face suggests that you (should) be ill. (对) Your pale face suggests that you are ill. (错) I insisted that you ( should) be wrong. (对) I insisted that you were wrong.
  3)在表语从句,同位语从句中的应用 在 suggestion, proposal, idea, plan, order, advice 等名词后面的表语从句, 同位语从句中要用虚 拟语气,即(should)+动词原形.
My idea is that we (should) get more people to attend the conference. I make a proposal that we (should) hold a meeting next week. 比较 if only 与 only if only if 表示"只有";if only 则表示"如果……就好了".If only 也可用于陈述语气. I wake up only if the alarm clock rings. 只有闹钟响了,我才会醒. If only the alarm clock had rung. 当时闹钟响了,就好了. If only he comes early. 但愿他早点回来.
关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语,宾语,定语等成分. 关系代词在定语从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致.
  1)who, whom, that 这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下: Is he the man who/that wants to see you? 他就是你想见的人吗?(who/that 在从句中作主语) He is the man whom/ that I saw yesterday. 他就是我昨天见的那个人. (whom/that 在从句中作宾语)
  2) Whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同 of which 互换), 例如: They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙. Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 请递给我那本绿皮的书.
  3)which, that 它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语,宾语等,例如: A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现了前所 未有的繁荣. (which / that 在句中作宾语) The package (which / that) you are carrying is about to come unwrapped. 你拿的包快散了. (which / that 在句中作宾语) 关系副词可代替的先行词是时间,地点或理由的名词,在从句中作状语.
  1)when, where, why 关系副词 when, where, why 的含义相当于"介词+ which"结构, 因此常常和"介词+ which"结构 交替使用,例如: There are occasions when (on which) one must yield. 任何人都有不得不屈服的时候. Beijing is the place where (in which) I was born. 北京是我的出生地. Is this the reason why (for which) he refused our offer? 这就是他拒绝我们帮助他的理由吗?
  2)that 代替关系副词 that 可以用于表示时间,地点,方式,理由的名词后取代 when, where, why 和"介词+ which" 引导的定语从句,在口语中 that 常被省略,例如: His father died the year (that / when / in which) he was born. 他父亲在他出生那年逝世了. He is unlikely to find the place (that / where / in which) he lived forty years ago. 他不大可能找
到他四十年前居住过的地方.
方法一:用关系代词,还是关系副词完全取决于从句中的谓语动词.及物动词后面无宾语, 就必须要求用关系代词;而不及物动词则要求用关系副词.例如: This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you. 判断改错(注:先显示题,再显示答案,横线;用不同的颜色表示出. ) (错) This is the mountain village where I visited last year. (错) I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. (对) This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year. (对) I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside. 习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when 联系在一起. 此两题错在关系词的 误用上. 方法二: 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主,谓,宾,定,状),也能正确选择出关 系代词/关系副词. 例
  1. Is this museum you visited a
 

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