高一人教新课标版必修三
Unit 4 Astronomy: the science of the stars
Learning about language
Grammar
Noun clauses as the subject
主语从句
主语从句是在复合句中充当主语的从句, 主语从句是在复合句中充当主语的从句 通常 放在主句谓语动词之前或由形式主语it代替 放在主句谓语动词之前或由形式主语 代替, 代替 而本身放在句子末尾. 而本身放在句子末尾. How the book will sell depends on its author. That he is the best student in the class is obvious.
引导主语从句的关联词有三类: 引导主语从句的关联词有三类:
  1) 从属连词that.如: That they were true sisters was 从属连词 . clear from the facial resemblance between them.
  2) 从属连词 从属连词whether.如: . Whether he'll come here isn't clear.
  3) 连接代词 连接代词who, whom, whose, what, which, whoever, whatever, whichever, 连接副词 where, when, how, why. . What she did is not yet known. How this happened is not clear to anyone. Whoever comes is welcome.
主语从句三要素
How he became a great scientist is known to us all. Is what you told me really true? 不 能 省 略 关 联 词 谓 语 动 词 用 单 数 从 句 用 陈 述 语 序 Notice: What we need most are books.
在主语从句中, 谓语一般用单数. 在主语从句中 谓语一般用单数.
无论他说什么都不重要. 无论他说什么都不重要. Whatever he says is of no importance Whoever says that is wrong. . 但谓语动词用单数还是复数, 但谓语动词用单数还是复数 不可 一概而论, 而要视句子的意义而定. 一概而论 而要视句子的意义而定. What I need is money. What I need are books.
what 与that 在引导主语从句时的区别 what 引导主语从句时在句时在从句中充当 句子成分, 如主语,宾语,表语, 则不然. 句子成分 如主语,宾语,表语 而that 则不然.
  1) What you said yesterday is right.

  2) That she is still alive is a consolation.
Whatever and whoever
Whatever=anything that Whoever=anyone who Whoever breaks the law should be punished.=Anyone who breaks the law . should be punished.
whether 与 if
都可以和or 连用, ① whether 和if都可以和 not连用 但是 都可以和 连用 whether之后可以直接跟 not, 而if则不能 之后可以直接跟or 则不能, 之后可以直接跟 则不能 I don't care whether or not your car breaks down. I don't know whether or not he's coming. 但是不可以说: 但是不可以说: I don't care if or not your car breaks down.
② whether引导的从句一般不可以为否定结构 引导的从句一般不可以为否定结构 (选择问句的后一部分除外 而if则可以跟 选择问句的后一部分除外); 选择问句的后一部分除外 则可以跟 否定结构, 否定结构 如: I don't care if she doesn't come. I don't care if it doesn't rain. 但是, 在某些动词或形容词之后, 但是 在某些动词或形容词之后 则可以用 whether引导一个否定结构的句子 这种 引导一个否定结构的句子, 引导一个否定结构的句子 结构往往表示肯定的含义, 结构往往表示肯定的含义 如: I wonder whether he doesn't think too much of himself. =I think he does think too much of himself.
在个别动词之后, ③ 在个别动词之后 如discuss 等, 只跟用 whether引导的宾语从句 如: 引导的宾语从句, 引导的宾语从句 They discussed whether they should close the shop. We discussed whether Mary could join us. 可以引导从句作介词的宾语, ④ whether 可以引导从句作介词的宾语 则不能, 而if则不能 如: 则不能 I'm not interested in whether they'll go or not.
可以直接跟动词不定式连用, ⑤ whether可以直接跟动词不定式连用 可以直接跟动词不定式连用 则不能, 而if则不能 如: 则不能 I didn't know whether to laugh or to cry. She hasn't decided whether to go or not. 引导主语从句 (包括从句在句首的位置 应当 包括从句在句首的位置) 包括从句在句首的位置 不用if, 用whether, 不用 如: Whether it is true remains a problem. Whether he will come, I am not sure.
引导表语从句用whether, 不用 如: 不用if, 引导表语从句用 The question is whether you should accept it. The question is whether he will speak at the meeting. 引导同位语从句用whether,不用 如: 不用if, 引导同位语从句用 不用 The question whether he'll attend the meeting is essential. I am in doubt whether I should agree to the plan.
不可省略的连词: 不可省略的连词:

  1.引导主语 同位语 表语从句的连词不可省略. 引导主语, 同位语, 表语从句的连词不可省略. 引导主语
  2. it作形式宾语的宾语从句 作形式宾语的宾语从句
  3. 并列宾语从句中, 后面的从句引导词. 并列宾语从句中, 后面的从句引导词. That she was chosen made us very happy. We heard the news that our team had won. The reason is that he is too careless. I think it necessary that you should read aloud. He told (that) his father had died and that he had to make a living by himself.
(NMET 19
  96)
  1. we'll go camping Whether tomorrow depends on the weather.
  2. I have just discuss we should whether give him enough help.
  3. They had no idea or not they whether could achieve their goals.
作形式主语的结构(
  1) 用it 作形式主语的结构 (
  1) It is + 名词 + 从句 It is a fact that … 事实是… 事实是 It is an honor that …非常荣幸 非常荣幸 It is common knowledge that …是常识 是常识 (
  2) It is + 形容词 + 从句 It is natural that… It is strange that… 很自然… 很自然 奇怪的是… 奇怪的是
作形式主语的结构(
  2) 用it 作形式主语的结构 (
  3) It is + 不及物动词 + 从句 It seems that… It happened that… It appears that… (
  4) It + 过去分词 + 从句 It is reported that… It has been proved that… It is said that… 据报道… 据报道 已证实… 已证实 据说… 据说 似乎… 似乎 碰巧… 碰巧 似乎… 似乎
【即学即练】 即学即练】
  1. he referred to in his article was B unknown to the general reader. A. That B. What C. Whether D. Where
  2. I have will be yours sooner or later. C A. No matter what B. No matter whatever C. Whatever D. That

  3. we will hold the sports meet in time D depends on it will be fine. A. If; if C. Whether; if B. If; whether D. Whether; whether
A
  4. worries us a lot that so many students drop out of school in the poor mountainous areas. A. It B. That C. One D. What

  5. wants to run a business in this B district must get a permit from the government first. A. Who C. No matter who B. Whoever D. Those who
真题详解
  1. --Are you still thinking about yesterday's game? --Oh, that's . A A. what makes me feel excited B. whatever I feel excited about C. how I feel about it D. when I feel excited
解析: 这是由what 引导的一个表语从句 在从句 引导的一个表语从句, 解析 这是由 中充当主语, 这句话的意思为: 中充当主语 这句话的意思为 那是使我感到兴奋 的事.故答案为A. 的事.故答案为 .

  2. --I drove to Zhuhai for the air show last week. --Is that you had a few days off? A A. why B. when C. what D. where 解析: 这是一个由why引导的表语从句 引导的表语从句, 解析 这是一个由 引导的表语从句 表示原因.这句话的意思是" 表示原因.这句话的意思是"这就是 你离开的原因吗?", 故答案为 . 故答案为A. 你离开的原因吗

  3. Perseverance is a kind of quality and that's it takes to do anything well. A A. what B. that C. which D. why 解析: what在表语从句中作 在表语从句中作takes的宾语 的宾语, 解析 在表语从句中作 的宾语 构成It 的句型. 构成 takes sth. to do sth.的句型. 的句型 答案为A. 答案为 .

  4. When you answer questions in a job interview, please remember the golden rule: Always give the monkey exactly he wants . A A. what B. which C. when D. that 解析: 这是一个宾语从句, 解析 这是一个宾语从句 wants后面缺少 后面缺少 宾语, 宾语 Always give the monkey exactly what he wants. 是一句谚语 意思是永远 是一句谚语, 给予他人他确实想要的东西.故答案为A. 给予他人他确实想要的东西.故答案为 .
单项选择

  1. Go and get your coat. It's you left it. B A. there B. where C. there were D. where there B
  2. The problem is he has enough time. A. if B. whether C. / D. that
  3. He made a promise he would C help me. A. what B. when C. that D. which

  4. I remember this used to be B a quiet village. A. how B. when C. where D. what
  5. It is generally considered unwise to give a child he or she wants. B A. however B. whatever C. whichever D. wherever

  6. Can you make sure the gold rings? C A. where she had put B. where had she put C. where she has put D. where has she put
  7. The reason that has been such a success C he never gives up. A. is B. is because C. is that D. is what
  8. breaks the law should be punished. A A. Whoever B. No matter who C. anyone. D. who

  9. That is I had to take the risk of being A washed away. A. why B. reason why C. how D. what D
  10. Do you think is right difficulties you may have. A. what ;however B. that ;whatever C. whatever ; whoever D. what; whatever
  11. The workers considered it important the A boss would agree to give them a rise. A. whether B. how C. where D. which

  12. Along with the letter was his promise he B would visit me this coming Christmas. A. which B. that C. what D. whether D
  13. Difficulty lies we have no money. A. that C. in the fact B. in that D. in the fact that

  14. I don't think the question of B they are ' old or young is important. A. which B. whether C. how D. why

  15. The news Lincoln was murdered filled C the American people's hearts with deep sorrow. ' A. which B. when C. that D. how A
  16. he said at the meeting astonished everyone present. A. What B. That C. The fact D. The matter
  17. I don't trust his promise he will buy me ' D a new car. A. which B. what C. when D. that

  18. She received the message he would A come by plane. A. that B. which C. what D. when
  19. Energy is makes things work. A A. what B. something C. anything D. that
  20. Our city has changed a lot, and now it is quite different from a few years ago. A A. what it used to be C.which it used to be B. that it used to be D. what was it
D
  21. We all know the truth there are air, water and sunlight,there are living things. A. wherever B. where C. that D. that wherever
  22.The true value of life is not in , but. C A. how you get; that you give B.which you get; what you give C.what you get; what you give D. what do you get; what do you give
  23. is a fact that English is being accepted D as an international language. A. There B. This C. That D. It
Discovering useful structures

  1. His discovery has not yet been proved.
Ex. 2
What . has not yet been proved is his discovery
  2. Do the other astronomers accept his ideas? It remains a question. Whether other astronomers accepts his ideas remains a question .
  3. The first appearance of life on earth is still a mystery to scientists. How life first appeared on earth is still a mystery to scientists .

  4. Why is the earth becoming warmer? It is an important topic for research. Why the earth is becoming warmer is an important topic for research .
  5. Stephen Hawking at 65 experienced zero gravity during a flight. It amazed everybody. It amazed everybody that Stephen Hawking at 65 experienced zero gravity during a flight. .
  6. Pluto is no longer considered a planet in our solar system. What a surprise! It is a surprise that Pluto is no longer considered a planet in our solar system .
Answer key for exercise 3 on page 29 143526
Workbook: Using words and expressions
Answer key for exercise 1 on page 63
hang out give out break out watch out sell out bock out

  1. Please move that curtain as it is blocking out the light.
  2. I was with my friend when a fight broke out between the fans of the two football teams. gave out
  3. I the tickets for the concert to my friends because my brother was playing in it.
  4. I waited in line to buy a copy of the new book sold out but they had when it was my turn. watch out
  5. "If you don't , you will hurt yourself," said my mother. hang out
  6. She took the wet clothes to on the wasting line.
Answer key for exercise 2 on page 63

  1. Buddhism is one of the world religions and one of its most famous religious buildings in China is the Potala Palace in Tibet. (religions; religious)
  2. This girl looked very much her like mother. However, the girls of her unlike age, she dreamed of becoming a physicist. (like; unlike)

  3. Some dinosaurs were very large but also very . Young dinosaurs
 

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