英语必修四 模块总结

Unit
  10. Money
Lesson
  1. A Material World
Ⅰ Word
determine. enjoyable. second-hand. concern. hardworking. dormitory. pleased. aware. businessman. stove. drunk. journalist. greedy. popcorn. cigarette. resolution. rude. armchair. carpet. vase
Ⅱ Phrase
give away 赠送给;泄露(秘密) drop out 退出,退学 be determined to 决心去做 dream up 空想 achieve one's goal 实现目标 be concerned about 关心,挂念 turn one's back on 不理睬,拒绝;背弃,抛弃 be tired of 厌烦
Ⅲ Grammar
①some/any/no; a lot of/many/much some, any ,no a lot of 是数量词,用在可数或不可数名词前面.通常 some 用于肯定 句,any 用于否定句. much 用于不可数名词前.many 用于可数复数名词前. much 和 many 主要用于否定句. 【拓展】修饰可数名词:a number of, a few 修饰不可数名词:an(a large) amount of, a great deal, a little many a + 单数名词/谓语动词:不止一个=more than one 【例】Don't travel with large amounts of money. ②all/none; both/neither all, none, both, neither 是限定词.all 用于复数名词和不可数名词前,表示人或物中 的每一个或全部,整体. none of 用于复数名词或 the+集合名词前.和 none 连用的动词可以是单数或复数,但 总是用肯定行形式. 表达两人或两物时,用 both of 和 neither of. all, none:三者以上 both/neither:双方 【例】Both my parents get angry with me, especially my dad. Neither of my parents give me money. She ate all(of) her rice. ③another, other, the other, the second another, other, the other, second 是限定词. another:三者以上数目中的"另一个" ,用于单数可数名词前,表示"又一个"或" (不 同类的)另一个,其他一种" other:+n. 单复数均可,表示"另外的""更多的" , the other:两者中的"另一个" the second:指第二位的
【例】Some people are greedy, other people are generous. I don't like this pen. I'm going to buy another one. Give me the other one; not this one.
Ⅳ Sentence

  1. A lot of people are determined to become a millionaire.
  2. But there are people who have turned their backs on their millions and found different ways to be happy on their lives.
  3. They spend half of their time dreaming up ways of getting rich, and the rest of their time thinking about all the enjoyable things they would do once they get rich.
  4. He was pleased to give up the lifestyle of a rich man.
  5. He was tired of being a person who had everything in a world where many people had nothing.
  6. Therefore he gave away all his money to charities.
  7. He decided to drop out and has discovered that having only a little money makes you free.
Lesson
  2. The Right Price
Ⅰ Word
bargain. cash. product. fax. scarf. necklace. enthusiastic. ashamed. firm. aggressive. groceries. clothing. annoy. salesgirl. salesman. blouse. boot. leather. vest. comment.
Lesson
  3. Your Money
Ⅰ Word
amusement. cookie. appeal. approximately. soil. contain. balance. remove. importance. crop. economy. puzzle. valley. homeland. motherland. behave. advance. diamond. soft
Ⅱ Phrase
appeal to 使喜欢,吸引 be puzzled by 困惑于
Grammar-Infinitives(不定式) Ⅲ Grammar-Infinitives(不定式)
不定式(to do)在句中可用作主语,表语,宾语,宾语补足语,定语和状语. 【例】The soil contains materials to keep the natural balance of the area.
定语
It is a huge job to control Yellow River erosion.
主语
This helps to develop local economies.
宾语
On land with rich soil, local farmers can grow crops to make a living.
状语
He is to go home.
表语
This has forced many local farmers to move to other areas.
宾语补足语
Ⅳ Sentence

  1. Well, if buying a bag of candies or cookies doesn't appeal to you, how about buying a tree instead?
  2. You may agree with this point of view.
  3. What is more, the success of the programme has greatly improved the lives of the local people.
Lesson
  4. Advertisements
Ⅰ Word
practical. mobile. useless. headphone. wire. bath. signal. freedom. photography. credit card. automatic. focus. flash. noisy. customer. cleaner. refrigeration. electric. kettle
11 Unit
  11. The Media
Lesson
  1. World News
Ⅰ Word
agenda. nation. political. widespread. poverty. electricity. AIDS. sex. administration. reform. demand. debt. belief. painful. host. announce. committee. distinction. pub. delighted. publish. incident. evidence. explanation
Ⅱ Phrase
be formed by 由……构成 in detail 详细地 demand reform 要求改革 have the distinction of 有……的殊荣 come down to 归结为 stand for 代表,支持 look forward to (高兴地)盼望,期待 be responsible for 为……负责
GrammarPassive(被动语态) Ⅲ Grammar-The Passive(被动语态)
①用法 不知道或不需要强调动作执行者时. 动作的执行者很明确时. 要强调动作本身而不是强调谁做的这件事时. 有时,要强调动作执行者时(人或物) ,通常在句末用"by+名词"来表示. ②形式 一般现在时:am/is/are done 一般过去时:was/were done 现在进行时:am/is/are being done 过去进行时:was/were being done 现在完成时:has/have been done 过去完成时:had been done 一般将来时:will be done / be going to be done 情态动词 can:can be done
Ⅳ Sentence

  1. The G8 is made up of political leaders from…
  2. In the end, it came down to a choice between Paris and London.
Lesson
  2. The Paparazzi
Ⅰ Word
analyse. arise. blame. willing. self-employed. legal. attempt. defend. argument. process. profit. analysis. encouragement. onto. attitude. dislike. pretend. hire. bush. respect. disagreement. channel
Ⅱ Phrase
in favour of 支持,赞同
Lesson
  3. The Advertising Game
Ⅰ Word
advertise. classic. certain. sew. beer. corporation. brand. suitable. advertiser. budget. visually. boom. visual. concept. approach. humour. contemporary. contribution. citizen. niece. nephew
Ⅱ Phrase
consist of 由……组成 stand out 突出,显眼 be likely to 可能 be used to 习惯于 in direct competition with 与……直接竞争 make contribution to society 贡献社会 participate in 参加,参与,分享 the concept of freedom "自由"的概念
Grammar-Gerunds(动名词) Ⅲ Grammar-Gerunds(动名词)
动名词(-ing 形式)在句中起名词的作用,可用作主语,表语,定语和宾语(用在动词 或介词后) 【例】Smoking is terrible habit.
主语
His hobby is collecting stamps.
表语
Where is the publishing house?
定语
We are tired from working all day.
宾语
注:注意不要混淆介词 to 和不定时的符号 to(do).动名词用语介词后. 【例】I'm looking forward to getting your early reply.
Ⅳ Sentence

  1. Some advertisements consist of pictures or the words of experts to show people how good the products are.
  2. Modern advertisements must stand out in a world full of competition by combining the highest standards of design with ideas linked to the products to make them more attractive.
  3. By doing this, they hope to make people forget that someone is trying to sell them something!
  4. There are public advertisements which encourage citizens to participate in improving their neighbourhood, protecting the environment, and helping other people.
Lesson
  4. What is in the Papers?
Ⅰ Word
consideration. conclude. innocent. astronomer. sightseeing. trolleybus.
southwest. fog. tyre. muddy. ankle. spokesman. scene. ambulance. strawberry. load. bravery. fiction. ex-husband. district
Ⅱ Phrase
as long as 只要 a certain amount of 一定量的 crash to 撞在 get stock in 卡在…… in the way of 关于……方面 make a distinction between 对……加以区别
VocabularyAdjectives(复合形容词) Ⅲ Vocabulary-Compound Adjectives(复合形容词)
well-known. 31-year. ex-husband. 3000-mile…
Ⅳ Sentence

  1. According to the research published by Leeds University yesterday, people don't mind bad language on television as long as it is not used in programmes watched by children.
  2. People were asked to comment on scenes from films…
  3. He praised the bravery of the astronomers who were helped out of the windows of the trolleybus by firemen.
12 Unit
  12. Culture Shock
Lesson
  1. Visiting Britain
Ⅰ Word
tipping. owe. apology. absorb. brief. expectation. bacon. slice. toast. waiter. waitress. exchange. cheque. wander. mushroom. tasty. foggy. laughter. majority. anyhow. reasonable. mosquito. northeast. physician. book
Ⅱ Phrase
get used to 习惯于 afford to 担负得起 refuse to 拒绝 expect to 期待 avoid doing 避免 suggest doing 建议 advise sb. to 建议某人 consider doing 考虑 enjoy doing 享受 risk doing 冒险
GrammarInfinitive( Ⅲ Grammar-Verb Followed by ?ing Form or Infinitive(跟动名词或不定 式作宾语的动词) 式作宾语的动词)
①跟不定式作宾语的动词: decide. refuse. learn. ask. tell. fail. choose. promise. expect. wish. intend(想 要 , 打 算 ) . manage. pretend. agree. help. arrange. afford. plan. would like/love/prefer. persuade. seem. appear. offer. attempt ②跟动名词作宾语的动词: can't help. dislike. avoid. consider. finish. suggest. deny(否认,拒绝). give up. imagine. put off. risk. mind. keep. miss. enjoy. can't stand. fancy. admit. delay (延迟,耽搁) ③既可跟不定式,又可跟动名词作宾语的动词: begin, start, continue, intend 这些动词后跟不定式或动名词意义上区别不大,可通用. 【拓展】begin/start doing 意指天气等的变化 hate, like, love, prefer 大部分表示"喜欢"或"不喜欢"的动词常可跟动名词作宾语,也可跟不定式作宾语, 但有时在含义上略有区别.
【拓展】+ doing 表示经常性的,+ to 表示临时性的 【例】I like singing.(我一直喜欢唱歌) I like to sing.(现在我愿意去唱歌) remember, forget, regret, mean, try, stop, need/want 这些动词后用不定式还是动名词作宾语,含义不同 remember to do 记得要去做 doing 记得曾经做过 regret to do 做此事前,感觉遗憾 doing 做了此事后,感到后悔 【例】I regret to say that the meeting wasn't successful. 我要很遗憾地说,会议没有成功. stop to do 停下正在做的事,去做另外一件事 doing 停止正在做的事 try to do 努力,尽力做某事 doing 试着做某事,看是否可以达到预期的效果 【例】I'll try baking bread tonight. 我今晚会试着烤烤面包. I tried to study harder. 我努力好学. 【拓展】need to do 需要做某事 doing ……需要被…… 【例】The computer needs repairing. 这个电脑该修了. (电脑被修)
Ⅳ Sentence

  1. Do you know that almost every town in Britain has at least one Chinese restaurant?
  2. You're going to have to get used to bacon and eggs with a few slices of toast for breakfast over here.
  3. To avoid getting confused about the Britain tipping system…
  4. If it isn't, I suggest leaving 10% of the bill for the waiter or waitress…
  5. I think we should consider staying in the English countryside for a few nights as I know you enjoy hiking.
  6. I have learnt which ones are tasty and safe to eat so we won't risk getting sick.
Lesson
  2. Mind Your Manners
Ⅰ Word
manners. modest. indicate. eastern. curiously. movement. lemon. informal. bowling. flashlight. cave. cosy. novel. circus. schoolmate. headmaster. jeep. blanket. sheet. request. parcel. handkerchief. canteen. mailbox. twin. courtyard
Ⅱ Phrase
give…a lift 给……搭便车
Lesson
  3. Living Abroad
Ⅰ Word
familiar. arrival. aspect. splendid. cocoa. outgoing. cautious. dessert. stare. whisper. custom. appetite. yummy. spoken. fur. conduct. band. burglar. bark.
injure. educator. erupt. dinosaur. detective. partner. earthquake
Ⅱ Phrase
see…off 给(某人)送行 stare at 凝视,盯住
GrammarParticiples(现在分词) Ⅲ Grammar-Present Participles(现在分词)
现在分词,即动词-ing 形式,在句中起形容词或副词的作用,可用作定语,状语,表语 和宾语补足语. 【例】The crying child had a cut on his knee.
定语
He stood there, wondering what to do.
状语
The game was exciting.
表语
I heard two people arguing.
宾语补足语
有时,现在分词短语可以代替定语或状语从句.现在分词短语还可以代替 and 或 but 连 接两个并列句. 【例】Arriving at the school, the children found it was closed. (When they arrived at the school, the children…) Have you met the boss managing the company? (…the boss who manages the company.) The car ran through the city, heading for the mountain area. (…and headed for the mountain area.) 注:现在分词短语作状语时,其逻辑主语也必须使句子的主语. 【例】Carrying a large and heavy box, she tripped on a step and fell. Carrying a large and heavy box, her foot tripped on a step and fell.
Ⅳ Sentence

  1. When I first arrived in San Francisco, I had a difficult time understanding certain aspects of the American ways of doing things.
  2. She said that to some American people, it sounded like I was shouting.
  3. He insisted on walking me to the bus station to see me off.
Lesson
  4. The New Australians
Ⅰ Word
acre. belong. attach. birthplace. chef. vast. export. fond. outdoors. literature. contrary. broad. bear. minority. unfair. forgive. preview. dusk. multi-cultural. spot
Ⅱ Phrase
loads of 大量,许多
Ⅲ Sentence

  1. They are loads of great places to see in Australia.
 

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