Module 2 Unit 1
Grammar usage
Present perfect tense (
  1)
The form of the Present perfect tense
have / has + 过去分词
The uses of the present perfect tense
The disappearance of Justin has made (make) Kelly very unhappy. Note: We use the present perfect tense to talk about things that happened in the recent past, but are connected to the present.
I (not see) Justin since last have not seen Friday night. Note : We also use the present perfect tense to talk about something that started in the past, and is still happening now.

  1. We (study) English for have studied about five years.
  2. They (live) in the south have lived since their daughter was born.
  3. The student has finished (finish) her homework already.
Note: We use the present perfect tense when the exact time of an action is not clear or important. We use it with time expressions such as: already, ever, for, just, lately, never, recently, since, yet
already, yet, for, since We use already for affirmative statements and yet for negative statements. We use for + a period of time and since + a point in time.
He has just gone out. (= He is not here now.) I have just heard the news. (= Now I know the news.) Note: We use the present perfect tense to talk about actions that were completed only a short time ago. In this case, just is used. Pay attention to the position of just.
I have read (read) your article three times. It’s well written. Note: We can also use the present perfect tense for repeated actions, that is, we use the present perfect tense with the time expressions once / twice / three times…
The present perfect tense is normally used for an action which lasts throughout an incomplete period, but with the past simple tense, we use time expressions which is a fixed point in the past.
For a past action whose time is not definite and often has a result in the present.
  1. Tom has had a bad car crash. (He’s probably still in hospital now.) Tom had a bad car crash. (But he’s probably out of hospital now.)
  2. The lift has broken down. (We have to use the stairs.) The lift broke down. (But it’s probably working again now.)
We haven’t seen Justin for a week. (He is still missing.) Justin disappeared last week. (It may mean that this week Justin is here.) He has smoked since he left school. (He still smokes.) He smoked for six months. (It means that he stopped smoking then.)
Sometimes, however, the action finishes at the time of speaking. It has been very cold lately but it’s just beginning to get warmer. On meeting someone, you may say: I haven’t seen you for ages. (But I see you now.)
Tom has rung up three times this morning. (Now it is still morning.) Tom rang up three times this morning. (Now it is not morning.)
The present perfect tense and the past simple tense
  1. ‘ you my pen?’ Have seen ‘Yes, I it on your desk just now.’ (see) saw
  2. ‘ you dinner?’ Have had ‘Yes, I it with Mary.’ (have) had
  3. the postman yet this morning? Have come the postman this morning? (come) come Did

  1. that dress when I first saw you A at the station? A. Were you wearing B. Have you worn C. Did you wear D. Do you wear

  2. “Tell the students to stop shouting. We our essays .” C A. write C. are writing B. have been writing D. have written

  3. My uncle, Sam, manager of the firm. C A. has just made B. is just being made C. has just been made D. is just made
  4. This is the first time the students to A Hyde Park. A. have gone B. have been gone C. have been going D. are being gone
现在完成时用法 ① 表示到现在为止的这一段时间里所发生的动作 多次动作的总和)或情况(某种状态的延续): (多次动作的总和)或情况(某种状态的延续): We have learnt 500 English words this term. 本学期我们学了500个英语单词。(动作的总和 个英语单词。(动作的总和) 本学期我们学了 个英语单词。(动作的总和) They have built three bridges over the river since 19
  70. 1970年以来他们在这条河上架起了三座桥梁。 年以来他们在这条河上架起了三座桥梁。 年以来他们在这条河上架起了三座桥梁 (动作的总和) 动作的总和) Mr. White has worked here for ten years. 怀特先生在这里工作了10年。(状态的延续 状态的延续) 怀特先生在这里工作了 年。(状态的延续) My father has been sick for two weeks. 我父亲生病两个星期了。(状态的延续) 。(状态的延续 我父亲生病两个星期了。(状态的延续)
② 表示对现状有影响的某一已经发生的动作 强调这一动作对现在的影响): (强调这一动作对现在的影响): The professor have already gone to the laboratory. 教授已经到实验室去了。 教授已经到实验室去了。 (The professor is not here now.) She has already read the novel. 她已经读了这本小说。 她已经读了这本小说。 (She knows the novel.) I haven’t told him about the result. 我还没有告诉他这个结果。 我还没有告诉他这个结果。 (He doesn’t know the result.)
在现在完成时态中, ③ 在现在完成时态中,瞬间动词不可以与表示 一段时间的时间状语连用: 一段时间的时间状语连用: 电影已经开演30分钟了。 电影已经开演 分钟了。 分钟了 错误: 错误:The movie has begun for 30 minutes. 正确: 正确:The movie has been on for 30 minutes. 他的祖父已经去世三年了 错误: 错误:His grandpa has died for 3 years. 正确: 正确:His grandpa has been dead for 3 years. 他们回来已经有两天了。 他们回来已经有两天了。 错误: 错误:They have come back for two days. 正确: 正确:They have been back for two days.
在现在完成时中可表示一种经历: ④ be在现在完成时中可表示一种经历: 在现在完成时中可表示一种经历 The couple have been to Tibet three times. 这对夫妇到西藏去过两次。 这对夫妇到西藏去过两次。 比较: 比较:She has been to Beijing before. 她以前到北京去过。(一种经历) 。(一种经历 她以前到北京去过。(一种经历) She has gone to Beijing already. 她已经到北京去了。 她已经到北京去了。 (她不在此地 说明过去动作对现在的影响 她不在此地, 她不在此地 说明过去动作对现在的影响.)
B
  1. Great changes in the city, and a lot of factories in the last five years. A. have been taken place; have been set up B. have taken place; have been set up C. have taken place; have set up D. have been taking place; have set up
  2. Hello! I you in London. How D long have you been here? A. don’t know; were B. hadn’t known; are C. haven’t known; are D. didn’t know; were

  3. Where the recorder? I can’t see it B anywhere. I it right here. But now it’s gone! A. did you put; have put B. have you put; put C. had you put; were putting D. were you putting; have put
  4. Do you know our town at all? No, this is the first time I here. B A. was B. have been C. came D. am coming
C
  5. I don’t really work here, I until the new secretary arrives. A. just help out B. have just helped out C. am just helping out D. will just help out A
  6. the sports meet might be put off. Yes, it all depends on the weather. A. I’ve been told B. I’ve told C. I’m told D. I told

  7. Hi, Tracy, you look tired. C I am tired. I the living-room all day. A. painted B. had painted C. have been painting D. have painted
  8. Hey, look where you are going! Oh, I’m terribly sorry. . B A. I’m not noticing B. I wasn’t noticing C. I haven’t noticed D. I don’t notice
A
  9. The reporter said that the UFO east to west when he saw it. A. was traveling B. traveled C. had been traveling D. was to travel
  10. Look, your shoes and trousers are wet through. ? D Watering the flowers in the garden. A. What did you B. What have you done C. What are you doing D. What have you been doing

  11. Prof. Wang in the lab for nearly six C hours. He must be very tired now. A. worked B. has worked C. has been working D. is working A
  12. Mrs. Peterson in this school the past ten years. A. has been teaching; for B. had been teaching; since C. would teach; for D. was teaching; since

  13. A: Miss Jones music at Eton School for 10 years. B: No wonder I often hear her singing in her garden. A. teaches B. used to teach C. is teaching D. has been teaching
  14. A: I think the waitress must have forgotten us. We here for over half an hour and nobody our order yet. A. have been waiting; has taken B. have been waiting; took C. have been waited; has taken D. have waited; took
D
A

  15. None of the students is allowed to leave the room until they the experiment. B A. finished B. have finished C. had finished D. will finish
  16. By now the Grade One students D about 2000 English words and phrases. A. are learning B. have been learning C. had learned D. have learned

  17. I my history lesson this time yesterday. Now I all the work for today. A. was reviewing; have done B. reviewed; have done C. was reviewing; had done D. reviewed; am doing
  18. A: Sorry to have kept you waiting so long! B: I here only for five minutes. A. have arrived B. have reached C. have got D. have been
A
D

  19. A: Where have you been? I you the whole day. B: I was in the library doing some reading all this afternoon. A. have been telephoning B. had telephoned C. telephoned D. had been telephoning
  20. A: How are you today? B: Oh, I this ill a long time. A. didn’t feel B. wasn’t feeling C. don’t feel D. haven’t felt
A
D

  21. Shirley and her brother a book about China last year but I don’t know whether they it nor not. A. had written; have finished B. were writing; have been finishing C. were writing; have finished D. wrote; have finished
  22. A: Hi, Tracy! You look tired. B: Yes, I’m feeling very tired. I the living-room all this afternoon. A. painted B. have painted C. have been painting D. was painting
C
C

  23. I don’t really work here. I until the C new secretary arrives. A. just help out B. have just helped out C. am just helping out D. will just helped out
  24. The price , but I am not sure whether C it will go up again tomorrow. A. went down B. will go down C. has gone down D. was going down
Homework for today: D1 and D2 on page 89 D2 is to be handed in on Friday morning.
 

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