情态动词的运用是高考英语单项选择几 乎每年必考的要点。 乎每年必考的要点。根据近几年对全国 部分高考题的分析, 部分高考题的分析,主要归纳为以下几 个考查热点: 个考查热点:
  1.情态动词表示推测 情态动词表示推测; 情态动词表示推测
  2.情态动词 + have done 结构; 结构; 情态动词
  3.特定的语气 特定的语气; 特定的语气
  4.情态动词基本用法 情态动词基本用法. 情态动词基本用法
2
一.情态动词表示推测的用法
情态动词可用来表示推测,语气从强到弱的顺序是: 情态动词可用来表示推测 语气从强到弱的顺序是: 语气从强到弱的顺序是 must,should,can,may,could,might。 , , , , , 。 所表示的可能性最大, 1.must所表示的可能性最大,最有把握, 所表示的可能性最大 最有把握, 意为“一定” 意为“一定”。
2.can和could主要用于否定句和疑问句中 和 主要用于否定句和疑问句中 can’t或couldn’t 表示“不可能” 表示“不可能” 或
和 might表示现在或将来可能发生的动作 表示现在或将来可能发生的动作 或情况,主要用于肯定句中, 相对于may 或情况,主要用于肯定句中,might相对于 相对于 来说,表示的可能性更小一些。 来说,表示的可能性更小一些。
3.may
3
She may not be at home. She can’t be at home. They should be there right now. 情态动词+do doing。 情态动词 情态动词+be 情态动词 。 表示对现在或将来的情况的推测 表示对正在进行的情况的推测 At this moment, our teacher must be correcting our exam papers.
4
The road is wet. It must have rained last night. There is nobody here. They must have all gone home. must/may/might + have done
肯定,可能,也许已经…) 表示对过去情况推测 (肯定,可能,也许已经
5

  1.--Are you coming to Jeff’s party?
--I’m not sure. I go to the concert D instead.(NMET20
  00) A. must B. would C. should D. might
  2.Mary B __be in Paris,for I saw her in
the town only a few minutes ago. A.mustn't B.can't C.shouldn't D.may not
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A
  3.--the news be true? ?No, itbe true. A. Can, can’t B. May, can’t C. May, may not D. Must, mustn’t
注意:may和might都不用于疑问句中。 和 都不用于疑问句中。 注意 都不用于疑问句中 (正)Can /Could it be cloudy tomorrow ? (误)May /Might it be cloudy tomorrow ?
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拓展
are You can’t be serious, you? The children must have watered didn’t the tomatoes yesterday, they? The minister must have hasn’t arrived in Shanghai, hehe?
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情态动词+have done 二.情态动词 情态动词
表示对过去所发生事情的推测或带有某 表示对过去所发生事情的推测或带有某 所发生事情的 种语气. 种语气
  1. I didn’t hear the phone. I must have been asleep. must have done (过去 肯定 一定 过去)肯定 一定… 过去 肯定/一定 (用于肯定句中 用于肯定句中) 用于肯定句中
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  2. *? There were already five people in the car, but they managed to take me as well. ?It couldn’t have been a comfortable journey.
can’t/couldn’t have done(过去 不可能 过去)不可能 过去 不可能…
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  3. ● He may not have finished the exercises, I’m afraid. may/might have done(过去 或许 可能做 过去) 过去 或许/可能做 …(用于肯定或否定句中 用于肯定或否定句中) 用于肯定或否定句中
  4. You could have done better, but you didn’t try your best. could have done (过去 本能够做 过去) 过去 (用于肯定或否定句中 带有责备、劝告之意 用于肯定或否定句中,带有责备 用于肯定或否定句中 带有责备、劝告之意)
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  5. ●When we got to the cinema, the film hadn’t started, so we needn’t have worried. needn’t have done (过去 本来不必做 过去)本来不必做 过去 本来不必做… ●?Mary didn’t turn up last night, did she? ?No, she didn’t need to come. We had changed our plan. (没有必要做而实际上也没做 没有必要做而实际上也没做). 没有必要做而实际上也没做
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  6.She shouldn’t have taken away my tape, for I wanted to use it.
should /ought to have done (过去 本应该做 而实际上未做 用于否定句 过去)本应该做 而实际上未做),用于否定句 过去 本应该做(而实际上未做 时则表示过去不该做的事反而做了 (带有后悔、埋怨或责备的语气)。 带有后悔、 带有后悔 埋怨或责备的语气)。
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14
(06陕西) As you worked late yesterday, you A have come this morning. A. needn’t B. may not C. can’t D. mustn’t
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A ◆(04全国 Mr. White at 8:30 for the 全国) 全国 meeting, but he didn’t show up. A. should have arrived B. should arrive C. should had arrived D. should be arriving 福建) ◆(04福建 ?I’ll tell Marry about her new 福建 job tomorrow. ?You her last week. D A. ought to tell B. could have told D. should have told C. must tell
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(05福建) ?Catherine, I have cleaned the room for you. B ?Thanks. You it. I could manage it myself. A. needn’t do B. needn’t have done C. mustn’t do D. shouldn’t have done
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(NMET
  05)
B He have completed his work; otherwise, he wouldn’t be enjoying himself by the seaside. B. must A. should C. wouldn’t D. can’t
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(00 上海)
My sister met him at the Grand A Theatre yesterday, so he your lecture. A. couldn’t have attended B. needn’t have attended C. mustn’t have attended D. shouldn’t have attended
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三.几个情态动词的特定语气 几个情态动词的特定语气
Shall

  1. 在疑问句中,用于第
  1、3人称 表示征 疑问句中 用于 用于第 、 人称 表示征 人称,表示 求对方意见. 例如: 求对方意见 例如 Shall the driver wait outside ?
  2. 在肯定句中,用于第
  2、3人称 表示警 肯定句中 用于 用于第 、 人称 表示警 人称,表示 允诺、命令或威胁. 例如: 告、允诺、命令或威胁 例如
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You shall answer for it if you go on behaving like that. If you work well, you shall have a rise. He shall be punished Nobody shall throw away rubbish everywhere.
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* Churchill warned Hitler “ If you dare
to invade Britain, you shall pay for it with great loss. *(04湖南) ?Excuse me, but I want to use your computer to type a report. ?You shan’t have my computer if you don’t take care of it.
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  3.用在法律、条约、规定时。 用在法律、条约、规定时。 用在法律 上海) * (02上海 It has been announced that 上海 candidates shall remain in their seats until all the papers have been collected. 重庆)“The interest shall be divided *(04重庆 重庆 into five parts, according to the agreement made by both sides” declared the judge. *The sign says all payments shall be made in cash.
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Should
  1.据经验或事实来表达合理的推断。 据经验或事实来表达合理的推断 合理的推断。

  1)Mary took dancing classes for years; she should be an excellent dancer.
  2)It’s nearly seven o’clock. Jack should be here at any moment.
  3)It’s said that there are plenty of hotels in that town. There should not be any difficulty for you to find somewhere to stay.
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  2. 表惊讶、惋惜、不满等情绪 常译为 表惊讶、惋惜、不满等情绪,常译为 竟然” “竟然”. * (01上海 You can’t imagine that a 上海) 上海
well-behaved gentleman should be so rude. *I’m surprised that you should have done such a thing. *Never did he expect that the conditions should be so terrible.
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  3. Should + 动词原形表虚拟 可省略 动词原形表虚拟 可省略. 虚拟,
* 在表建议、要求、命令、主张等动 在表建议、要求、命令、
常见的动词有: 词的宾语从句中 。常见的动词有 insist, order, command; suggest, advice, propose; demand, request, require, and ask and so on. 例如 例如: Mike insisted that she didn’t steal anything and (should) not be scolded.
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* 用于 It is suggested /proposed/
desired /strange /necessary /important /essential /natural /a pity 等的主语从句中. 等的主语从句中 用于表示建议、命令、主张、愿望、 * 用于表示建议、命令、主张、愿望、目 的等名词后的表语从句和同位语从句中 的等名词后的表语从句和同位语从句中。 如advice, suggestion, proposal, order, request, requirement, wish, desire, idea, aim等。例如; 等 例如;
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(06江苏) ? I think I’ll give Bob a ring. D ?You . You haven’t been in touch with him for ages. A. will B. may C. have to D. should
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Must
偏要, 偏要,硬要。
(2005全国 Ⅱ、Ⅲ) 全国 John, look at the time. Must you play the piano at such a late hour? (2004天津) 天津) 天津 ?Who is the girl standing over there? ?Well, if you must know, her name is Marry.
29
(06浙江) 浙江) 浙江 ?Can I have a word with you, mum? B ?Oh, dear, if you . A. can B. must C. may D. should (06山东) 山东) 山东 ?May I smoke here? D ?If you , choose a seat in the smoking section. A. should B. could C. may D. must
30
D Why you always leave your
dirty clothes in the bedroom? A. need B. can C. may D. must
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四.情态动词基本用法 情态动词基本用法
Must 必须 (04 上海)
Children under 12 years of age in that country must be under adult supervision when in a public library.
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Can/Could
用在否定句、疑问句、 用在否定句、疑问句、感叹句中常表推 怀疑、不相信的语气: 测、惊讶、怀疑、不相信的语气:
  1)? Who can it be? ) ? It can’t be him. He has gone to Xi’an.
  2)How can you be so careless? ) What can he possibly mean?
33
(03上海)
A How you say that you really understand the whole story if you have covered only part of the article. A. can B. must C. need D. may
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(04全国卷 全国卷II) 全国卷 C You be tired ? you’ve only been working for an hour. A. must not B. won’t C. can’t D. may not (06全国卷 全国卷I) 全国卷 A There is no light on ? They at home. A. can’t B. mustn’t C. needn’t D. shouldn’t
35
(06福建) If it weren’t for the fact that she sing, I would invite her to the party. A. couldn’t B. shouldn’t C. can’t D. might not (06四川) 四川) 四川 ?Is Jack on duty today? ?It be him. It’s his turn tomorrow. A. mustn’t B. won’t C. can’t D. needn’t
36
Can 在肯定句中使用表示
  1)有时候的可能性: ● The World Wide Web is sometimes jokingly called the World Wide Wait because it can be slow.(05浙江). ●He can be friendly at times.
37

  2) 理论上的可能性,并不涉及具体某事是否真 会发生,主要是说明人和事物的特征 主要是说明人和事物的特征: 主要是说明人和事物的特征
  1.Even expert drivers can make mistakes.
  2.(20
  03) A left-luggage office is a place where bags can be left for a short time, especially at a railway station.
  3. Training by yourself in a gym can be highly dangerous.
  4. Bird Flu can be dangerous.
38
C Making choices difficult, especially when there is no one to turn to for advice. A. might B. should D. must
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但是在表达具体某事实际发生的可能性 但是在表达具体某事实际发生的可能性 具体某事实际发生 时不可用can, 用may/might/could. 时不可用
  1) He may /might / could be in the library.
  2)A snowstorm can be exciting, but too much snow can cause trouble.
  3) This storm may/might/could last several days.
40
Could 表可能性 语气较弱 表请求 较委婉。 表可能性,语气较弱 表请求,较委婉 语气较弱; 较委婉。 ?Could you lend me some money? ?Yes , I can. (98 上海 上海) “ Could I call you by your first name?” C “ Yes, you . A. will B. could C. may D. might
41
was able to 和 could 的区别 The fire spread through the hotel very quickly, but every one was able to get out. (强调经过一番努力后成功 做到某事. 做到某事 *He didn’t agree with me at first, but I was able to persuade him. *She could sing when she was young. (一般能力 一般能力) 一般能力
42
Can的惯用语 的惯用语
  1.can’t (help/choose) but + v (不得不) 不得不) 不得不 I can’t help but admire your bravery.
  2. can’t help doing.区别 /can’t help (to) do. 区别
  3. can’t help it. “ Why are you crying?” “ I just can’t help it.
  4. can’t/ couldn’t 与too, enough连用 连用. 连用 You can’t be too careful. 再…也不过分 也不过分 I can’t thank you too much.
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Will/Would
意志、愿望和决心。 意志、愿望和决心。
  1)I will never do that again.
  2)If you will wait over for a long time, Mr. Smith, I will tell our manager you’ve arrived. 习惯、倾向,多用于第三人称。 习惯、倾向,多用于第三人称。 He will sit there hour after hour doing nothing. Boys will be boys.
44
坚决拒绝。 坚决拒绝。 I won’t listen to your nonsense. The dog wouldn’t stop barking. 表临时的决定 “ You forgot to post my letter.” “ Sorry, I will post it .
45
Used to do /would do
  1) She is
 

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