主谓一致
主谓一致问题就是要求谓语在人称和数的方面必须和主语保持一致的问题,要遵循的原则 一般归纳为三个原则: 意义一致,语法一致和临近一致,有的语法书上也叫意义一致,形式一 致和就近原则.对于这种说法,大家都很熟悉,我也就不多说.在此,我从另一方面简化此问题, 归纳为一个问题三个原则. 一个问题指的是单数问题,即什么时候谓语动词用单数形式.谓语动词用单数形式多限于 一般现在时,过去时,现在进行时,一般将来时等类型的句子,这类句子的主语成分多为以下 几种形式:
  1.第三人称单数名词或代词;
  2.不可数名词;
  3.可数名词单数;
  4.数词;
  5.不定 式;
  6.动名词;及动名词短语;
  7.主语从句;
  8.分词短语. 三个原则是就近原则,就远原则和灵活原则. 就近原则指的是句子的主语成分有下面的短语连接时,谓语动词的单复数形式有最近的主 语决定, not…but; not only…but also; either…or; neither…nor; 这些多为“一带一” 型, 即“not+成分”, “but +成分”.此外还有 there be 句型. 就 远 原 则 是 指 句 子 的 成 分 有 短 语 …with…;…together with…;…except…;…but…;…as well as…;…as much as…连接, 这些多为“一带二” 型, 谓语动词的单复数与离它较远的主语决定. 灵活原则是指句子的主语成分多为集体名词如 family, class 等充当,若表示所有成员就 用复数,表示集体则用单数.还有 the+adj.有时候为单数,有时为复数,要看具体情况来定。 具体来说有下列一些情况: ★I. 谓语动词既可以用单数也可以用复数;
  1. 分数/百分数/half / all / most / some / the rest / lots/ a lot +of +n./ pron. 做主语时,谓语动词根据后面的名词或代词意义来决定其单复数形式. 90% of our body is water. Most of the Ss in our school are boys.
  2. who, what, which, any, most, all, what-clause 做主语,谓语动词可视语境来其 单复数形式. Which is your book? Which are your books? What we need is time. What we need are doctors.
  3. each, any, none, neither, either+ of + 复数可数名词或代词做主语,正式文体用 单数,非正式文体中除 each of 外都可用复数. (注: none of + u.n. 谓语用单数.) Each of them has a piece of paper in his hand. Neither of us has/have anything to say. None of my Ss is/are stupid. None of bread is left for you.
  4. club, class, team, family, group, army, government, enemy, population, crowd 等名词指集体时用单数,指个体时用复数.
  5. 以 one of +复数名词/代词+定语从句,从句中谓语动词用复数,但若加了 the, the only, the very, the right, the just 等修饰时,从句位于动词用单数.定语从句谓语动词 的单复数形式取决于先行词的形式,而不是关系代词的形式. Jack is one of the Ss who/that come to classroom very early every day. Jack is the only one of the Ss that comes to classroom very early every day.
  6. adj. 前加 the 指一类人时, 且做主语, 谓语动词用复数, 但若表示抽象概念或指某 个人时, 谓语动词用单数.
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The rich are against the plan. (某一类人) The wounded is my friend. (某一个人)
  7. deer, sheep, means, works, Chinese, Japanese 等单复数同形的名词做主语,位于 动词看情况而定. Every means has been tried. All the means have been tried.
  8. boots, glasses, gloves, clothes, shoes, trousers 等表示复数,但被 a pair of, the/ this/ that pair pf 等词修饰时,谓语动词用单数,修饰词为复数,谓语用复数. His glasses are broken. A pair of glasses is on the desk.
  9. 名词性物主代词 mine, yours, his, hers, its, ours, theirs 等做主语,谓语动词 的单复数形式取决于该动词后面的形式. His is a new watch, but theirs are old ones.
  10. 当主语为表示度,量,衡,时间,距离,金钱,重量,容量等的名词时,若是把它看成是一 个整体,即 “总量,总和” 时,.谓语动词用单数,若是把他看成一个个的个体,则用复数. Three thousand Yuan is a large number for me. There are fifteen minutes left. Ten minutes is enough.
  11. 在数学运算中,动词形式可用单数也可用复数,但多用单数. Five plus nine is/are fourteen.
  12. 倒装句要找准主语,在确定其单复数形式. Such is Tom, one who likes helping others. Such were his words. ★ II 谓语动词只用单数的情况.
  1. 专有名词,报刊名,书名,格言,主语从句(除 what/which--clause 外),不定式以及-ing 形式做主语,谓语用单数.
  2. 主语为单数,后面有 with…, as well as…, no less than…, rather than…, like…, together with…, along with…, except…, but…, accompanied by…等词组修饰时, 谓语仍然用单数. He together with his parents has gone to see the film.
  3. 以-S 结尾但是为单数概念的名词,如学科名词 politics, maths, 以及 news, the United States, James 等, 谓语用单数.
  4. 用 some, any, no, every, many a, more than one 等修饰的单数名词或由 somebody, someone, nobody, no one, everybody, every one, anybody, anyone, everything, each, the other, the number of 做主语时,谓语动词用单数. More than one person is going to lose his job.
  5. one and a half + c.n. (pl.); a + c.n. (single.) + and + a + half; 谓语用单数. One pear and a half is on the plate. ★ III 其他情况
  1. 关系代词在从句中做主语时,从句谓语动词与先行词一致, I, who am your teacher, will teach you everything I know.
  2. 用 or, either…or…, neither…nor…, not…but…, not only…but also…, 做主 语时, 或 there / here 引导的句子不止一个主语时, 用就近原则.
  3. cattle, people, police, youth 集体名词做主语,谓语动词常用复数.
  4. and, both…and…连接的并列主语,谓语用复数,但是 and 连接两个单数主语表示同一人,
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一物或者同一概念时谓语动词用单数; 由 each, every, no 修饰的单数名词并用 and 连 接多个主语时,谓语动词用单数; 当两种不同的的物质混为一体做主语,谓语动词用单数; 当两种不同的物件组成了一套一付用具或器皿做主语时,谓语动词用单数. Smoke and fog is often called smog. A cup and saucer was sent to men on Teachers’ Day. ★IV 主谓一致的测试热点
  1. many a / more than + c.n. (single.) 做主语时, 谓语用单数, 但是意义为复数.
  2. 分数和百分数+名词做主语时,谓语动词单复数取决于后面的名词.
  3.并列主语指同一个人同一物或同一概念,谓语动词用单数,此时 and 后面的名词没有冠词.
  4. a number of + c.n. (pl.) 复数 // the number of + c.n. (pl.) 单数
  5.成对的名词用 and 连接,表示单一概念,如 bread and butter (涂黄油的面包) , soda and water(汽水), aim and end(目的), coffee and milk(加牛奶的咖啡), salt and water(盐 水), knife and fork(刀叉), 做主语时,谓语动词用单数.
  6.and 连接的并列单数主语的前面分别有 each, every 或 no 修饰时,谓语动词用单数. No student and no teacher is invited to the party.
  7.主语为单数,其后跟有 together with, always with(与…一道), as well as(和,也), no less than(和…一样), rather than (而不), 以及 with, not, like, but, except, besides, including 等引起的短语时,谓语动词为单数,主语为复数,谓语动词为复数.
  8.定语从句中,主语是关系代词 who, that, which, 谓语动词的数与先行词的数一致.
  9.主语为一些复数形式的名词,如 clothes, trousers, glasses, scissors, shoes, socks, gloves 等,谓语用复数,但是这类表示成双的东西的名词前有 a pair of 修饰时,谓语动词 与 pair 的单复数保持一致.
  10.度,量,衡,价格,时间,金钱等名词做主语,一般看成一个整体,谓语动词用单数.
  11.主语是-ics 结尾的学科名词以及 news, works(工厂)等复数形式的名词,意义为单数,谓 语动词用单数.像一些单复数同形的名词如 sheep, means, deer 等做主语,谓语动词看具体 情况而定.
  12..主语是书名,剧名,报纸名,国名等复数名词,谓语动词用单数.
  13.主语为 family, team, group, crowd, class, committee, enemy 等集合名词,看具体情 况而定.
  14.定语从句前的先行词为复数名词且前有 one of 修饰,谓语动词用复数;如前又有 the /the only/ the very/ the just 修饰则用单数.
  15.主语为疑问代词 which, what, who&不定代词 all, more, most, any, none 等以及名 词前有 half, part, the rest 等,谓语动词看具体情况来定.
  16.主语为表示数量的 one and a half +复数名词,谓语用单数, one or two +复数名词,谓 语动词用复数.
  17. the + adj. /分词作主语, 视情况而定. 18,就近原则 not only…but also…, neither…nor…, etc.
  19.倒装句看情况来定单复数形式. there be…句型中, 用就近原则.
  20.people(人民)是集合名词,复数概念,people(民族)则是可数名词,单复数根据具体情况 来定.
  21.主语名词前有表示种类的词修饰,如 a/this/that kind of + n.,谓语形式用单数,但如 指的是多种则用复数。 This kind of cloth feels soft. There are different kinds of animals.
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  22.主语是 each of…, neither of…, either of…, one of…等, 谓语动词为单数。 Each of them has his own duty. 23 反意疑问句中.陈述部分用 everybody, everyone, sb, someone, anybody, anyone, nobody, no one 或 no + 复数名词等做主语时,反意部分用 they,而陈述部分用 anything, everything, sth, nothing 时,则反意部分用 it. Somebody is waiting for me, aren’t they? Everything is all right, isn’t it?
  24.-ing 形式以及不定式,谓语用单数.
  25.用引号的词语或话语做主语时,谓语为单数。 “I” is the ninth letter of the English Alphabet.
  26.强调句型中,被强调部分为主语,则 who/that 后谓语动词的人称和数应和主语保持一致.
  27.wish 后的宾语从句用虚拟语气,如表示与现在事实相反,无论主语为单还是复.系动词 be 用 were. I wish I were ten years younger.
  28. police, cattle 等集合名词做主语时,看情况而定,大多数谓语动词用复数.
  29.运算中,表示数目的主语常看作单数,其谓语形式用单数,也可用复数,但是少见.
  30.youth 作青年们解讲做主语时,谓语动词用复数. The youth of China today are doing their best to study modern science and technology.
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