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高一英语下学期知识要点复习 高一英语下学期知识要点复习 英语 知识要点
Unit13 Healthy eating 英语小窍门 句型与句子结构(句型层次表 句型层次表) 句型与句子结构 句型层次表 第一层 第二层 例句 简单句 主 谓 I am coming. 主 谓 宾 I like cats. 主 谓 宾 宾 I bought you a book. I bought a book for you. 主 谓 宾 补 I seldom see him do morning exercises. 主 谓 表 I am a teacher. He is very tall. 并列句 主谓 + 主谓 (and, or, but, for) I phoned him but there was no answer. 复合句 主语从句 名词性从句 What he told me yesterday is true. 宾语从句 I know that he is an American. 表语从句 This is how he broke the door. 同位语从句 His suggestion that we set off now has been accepted. 定语从句 This is the room where he was born. 状语从句 Before he came here, he had learnt Chinese for years. 重点词汇解析
  1. stomach n. 肚子,胃,复数为 stomachs。肚子疼:stomachache 构成短语有: have a pain in the stomach 胃(腹)疼 lie on one’s stomach 俯卧 have the stomach for… 对……有兴趣 turn one’s stomach 使……恶心 on an empty/a full stomach 空着肚子/吃饱
  2. bar n. (
  1)条状物;棒 a bar of soap 一条肥皂 a bar of chocolate 一条巧克力 a bar of gold 一根金条 (
  2)酒吧 a coffee bar (
  3)固定短语:behind bars 在狱中
  3. diet n. (
  1)正常饮食 a balanced diet 均衡的饮食 a diet of potatoes 土豆食品 (
  2)饮食限制 go on a diet=be on a diet 节食, 节食 No sugar in my coffee; I’m dieting.
  4. disease n. 疾病 a serious disease of the liver 严重的肝病 diseased adj. 有病的 a diseased plant 病态的植物 辨析: 辨析:illness, disease illness:很少指具体疾病,只表示抽象的疾病和生病的状态。 disease: 指可以染上和传染他人的疾病。 e. g. Several children are away from school because of illness.几个孩子因生病没上学。 He has a rare heart disease.他得了一种罕见的心脏病。
  5. probably 与 possibly 比较
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(
  1)probably 极有可能, 有几分根据的猜测; 比 possibly 所指的可能性大些。 e. g. He is working hard and clever as well many people can help him. He will probably win.他工作努力,人 也聪明;很多人愿意帮助他。他极有可能取胜。 (
  2)possibly 可能地。 表示客观上潜在的可能性, 可能性比 probably 小, 经常与情态动词 can 或 may 连 用。 e. g. She may possibly be the greatest writer of her generation. 她或许是她那一代人中最伟大的作家。
  6. promise v. &n. 允诺;答应 动词用法:后接名词或代词、不定式、that 从句 (
  1)They promised an immediate reply. 他们答应立刻回复。 (
  2)He promised me to be here at six o’clock.=He promised me that he would be here at six o’clock.. 他答应 我他将在六点在这里等我。 (
  3)I promised you not to say that. 我答应你不说那件事。 (
  4)It promises to be warm this afternoon. 今天下午有望转暖。 (
  5)He is a promising boy. 他是一个有前途的男孩。 名词用法: 名词用法: make a promise 许下诺言 give a promise 许下诺言 keep a promise 信守诺言 carry out a promise 履行诺言 break a promise 违背诺言
  7. brain n. (
  1)用作不可数名词,大脑 The brain is the centre of higher nervous activity.大脑是高等神经活动的中枢。 (
  2)用作可数名词 brains,智力,头脑 She has a good brain. =She has good brains.她很聪明。
  8. advise, suggest 用法 (
  1)advise sb. to do sth. 建议某人做某事 advise doing sth. 建议做某事。 advise that…(should) + 动词原形 I advise you to leave now. 我建议你现在就离开。 I advise waiting till the proper time. 我建议等到适当时机(才行动)。 We advise that steps (should) be taken at once. 我们建议立即采取措施。 (
  2)suggest 建议,其句型为 suggest doing sth. 建议做某事 suggest one’s doing sth. =suggest sb. doing 建议某人去做某事 suggest that…(should) + 动词原形 We suggested that the old museum(should)be rebuilt as soon as possible. 我们建议那座旧博物馆应该尽早重修。
  9.diet 与 food 的区别: 的区别: . diet 指的是习惯的食物或规定的食物,特指维持健康的定量或定质的食物。 food 指能吃喝的具有营养的东西。例如: The doctor has ordered me a special diet.医生给我安排了特殊的饮食。 I like a simple diet best.我最喜欢粗茶淡饭。 We must have food to eat and clothes to wear.我们必须有食物吃,有衣服穿。
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The patient must not go without food, but he must have a diet without sugar. 这个病人不可不吃东西,但要吃不含糖的饮食。 重点词组解析
  1. plenty of 充分的,大量的,既可修可数名词又可修不可数名词,只用于陈述句, 在疑问句中一般用 enough,在否定句中用 many 或 much。 注意:plenty of 前面没有冠词 a, 不可误记成 a plenty of。 注意 Make sure there is plenty of food for everyone. We have plenty of chairs here. in plenty 充足地 There is food in plenty. =There is plenty of food.
  2.be careful 用法归纳 . (
  1)be careful 单独使用,当心 Be careful!The pan is hot! 当心!锅很热。 (
  2)be careful about…对……谨慎 I hope you’ll be careful in future about the things you say.我希望你将来对所说事谨慎。 (
  3)be careful of…留神…… We have to be careful of what they are doing.我们得留神他们做的什么。 (
  4)be careful with…注意…… You must be more careful with your work.你们需注意你们的工作。 有时 be careful 表示吝啬。 He’s too careful with his money; he never buys a drink for anyone. 他太吝啬了,他从不给别人买杯水。 (
  5)be careful not to do sth. 小心不要做…… We want to be careful not to break anything.我们要小心不要打破任何东西。 (
  6)be careful+从句 加以小心 Be careful what you do. 小心你做的一切。
  3.keep up with 跟上(防止落后) 跟上(防止落后) . keep up with the class 跟上班级(不掉队) keep up with the development of society 适应社会的发展 keep up with the going on 跟上时尚 注意: 已经落后) 注意:catch up with (已经落后)赶上
  4.Be +adj +to 短语 . (
  1)be harmful to…对……有害 be +adj. +to sb. /sth. 指对某人或某物有……影响或态度如何。 be good to…=be kind to…对……态度好 be friendly to…对……友好 be cruel to…对……凶残 be bad to…对……态度不好 be polite/impolite to…对……有礼貌/无礼貌 be rude to…对……粗鲁
  5.cut 短语总结: 短语总结: . (
  1)cut into…把……切成 Vegetables should be cut into small pieces and dropped into the boiling water.
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蔬菜应切成小碎块放进开水里。 (
  2)cut up 切碎 Mom is cutting up the meat to make dumplings.妈妈正剁肉准备包饺子。 (
  3)cut down 砍倒;削减 If you cut down the trees, you will ruin the land.如果你砍伐树木,就会毁坏土地。 I have decided to cut down my smoking. 我决定戒烟。 (
  4)cut off 切断,停掉 Our water supply has been cut off again. 我们的供水再次中断。
  6.Short 短语 . (
  1)be short of 缺少 I’m short of money this week, can you lend me some?这星期我缺钱,你能借我一点? (
  2)run short 几乎用光 We’ve run short of oil. 我们已经用光油了。 The supply of oil is running short. 供应的油快要用光了。 重点句型解析
  1.It was a bit green. 它还有点生。 它还有点生。 .
  1)句中的 green 意为“没有成熟的” ,是 ripe 的反义词。例如: We don′t like to eat green fruit./ The apples are still too green to pick.
  2)a bit 作程度副词,与 a little 同义。例如: I′m a bit/ a little tired. / Could you drive a bit/ a little slower?
  3)但是,not a bit= not at all,而 not a little=very/ much. 例如: I′m not a bit tired. 我一点不累 I′m not a little tired.我很累。
  2.While you are at school, or walking home, your body is burning up 100 calories an hour.你在学校上 . 你在学校上 课或步行回家时, 课或步行回家时,你体内每小时消耗 100 卡。
  1)burn up 意为“烧掉”“烧毁” 、 ,在本句中意为“消耗掉” 。例如: He burned up all the old letters. 他把过去的全部信件都烧掉了。 The house burned up before they got there.他们到达那儿之前,房子已烧毁了。
  2)up 与一些动词构成短语时,有“完结”“终结”的意思。如 eat up 吃光,drink up 喝光, tear up 、 撕碎,use up 用完,lock up 锁好。
  3. Eating habits become part of who we are.饮食习惯变成我们自身的一部分。 饮食习惯变成我们自身的一部分。 饮食习惯变成我们自身的一部分 who we are 为介词 of 的宾语从句。 eating habits 为动名词短语作句子的主语。动名词或不定式(短语)作主语时,谓语动词一般用单数。 Seeing is believing. 眼见为实 part of… ……的一部分 Part of the building was destroyed in the fire.大楼的一部分被火烧毁了。 a part of 指不足一半,意为“一小部分”。 We spent a part of our holiday in France.我们的一部分假期是在法国度过的。
  4.The Chinese eat less sugar than many other countries in the world.中国人吃的糖比世界上其它许多 . 中国人吃的糖比世界上其它许多 国家的人都少。 国家的人都少。
  1)the Chinese 指(全体)中国人。以-ese 结尾的表示国籍的词与定冠词连用时,表示整个国家 的人。 例如: Japanese(全体)日本人, Vietnamese(全体)越南人。 the the 但指该国单个的人时, 则是 a Chinese, a Japanese, a Vietnamese.
  5.They eat a lot of sugar in the form of cakes, soft drinks,sweets and so on.他们吃蛋糕、软饮料、糖果 他们吃蛋糕、 . 他们吃蛋糕 软饮料、
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等,其中含有大量的糖。 其中含有大量的糖。
  1)in the form of 意为“以……的形式” 。例如:He made the suggestion in the form of a question. 他 以提问题的形式提出建议。 He expressed his feelings in the form of letters.他用写信来表达自己的感情。 He wrote a novel in the form of a diary.他以日记的形式写了一本小说。
  6.In some parts of Britain, one person in ten, by the age of thirty, has no teeth left! 在英国有些地方, 在英国有些地方, . 十分之一的人年方三十,牙齿就都脱光了! 十分之一的人年方三十,牙齿就都脱光了!
  1)one person in ten 是“十个中有一个”的意思,也可说成 one person out of ten。 例如:One in every four children had bad teeth./ Nine in ten people agreed with us./
  2)by the age of 意“……岁之前” “到……岁时” the age of 意“在……岁时 ,at She had learned to play the piano by the age of ten.十岁之前,他就学会弹钢琴。 He died at the age of
  90.他九十岁去世。
  7.Scores of people went there in the first few days after its opening.开张后的头几天,许多人到那家餐 . 开张后的头几天, 开张后的头几天 馆去吃饭。 馆去吃饭。
  1)score 作“二十”解,和数字连用时,不可加 s,如 a score of eggs(20 个蛋),four score and seven years ago(87 年前)。但 scores of 则为固定词组,意为“许多” 。例如:A score or more attended the meeting.20 多 人出席会议。 I have been there scores of times.我到那儿去过多次了。
  2)first 后面跟复数名词时,意为“头几个”“头一批” 、 。例如: For the first few weeks, they didn′t talk to each other.头几个星期,他们彼此不曾讲过话。He was one of the first people to discover America.他是首批发现美洲的人之一。 语法精讲 情态动词 had better, should 及 ought to 的用法 (
  1)had better 最好 ①加动词原形 You’d better get some sleep. 你最好睡一会儿。 I’d better not disturb him. 我最好不打扰他了。 ②后接 be doing sth. 表示最好立即做某事 I think I’d better be going.我想我最好立刻走。 ③祈使句中 had 省略 Better not wait for them. 最好不等他们。 ④反义疑问句用 had You’d better put away your socks, hadn’t you? 你最好把你袜子收拾好,难道不行吗? You had better not follow her, had you?你最好不要跟她,不是吗? (
  2)should 与 ought to 应该 ①ought to 的口气比 should 稍重一些,更侧重于某件事责任、义务上该做的事情。should 表示某件事 宜于做。下列句子两个词不宜换用: You are his father. You ought to take care of him.你是他的父亲,就应该照顾他。 We should not
 

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