语法系列之-- 语法系列之--
英语句法( 英语句法(一)
英语句子的基本成分有8 英语句子的基本成分有8种:
主语 (subject) 谓语 (predicate) 宾语 (object) 定语 (attribute) 状语 (adverbial) 补语 (complement) 表语 (predicative) 同位语(Appositive) 同位语(Appositive)
主语: 主语:
可以作主语的有名词、代词、数词、不定 可以作主语的有名词、代词、数词、 动名词、从句等.主语一般在句首。 式、动名词、从句等.主语一般在句首。
  1) Mr. Chen is a well-known scientist. well
  2) He reads newspapers everyday.
  3) Two and six is eight.
  4) Smoking is harmful to health.
  5) To swim in Kunming Lake is a great pleasure.
  6) What we shall do next is not yet decided.
Find out the subject in each sentence

  1) We won the game.
  2) That the earth runs round the sun is well known.(=It’s well known that the earth runs round the sun.)

  3) Whether he’ll come is not known.
  4) How we can help the twins will be discussed at the meeting.
  5)When they’ll start the project has not been decided yet.
谓语: 说明主语的动作,状态或特征。 谓语: 说明主语的动作,状态或特征。 做谓语的词类是动词. 做谓语的词类是动词.
  1) The new term begins on the 1st of September.
  2) She seemed tired.
  3) What have you been doing? doing?
  4) What have you done? done?
  5) He was often laughed at for this.
  6) I’d rather he didn’t come tomorrow.
宾语:宾语通常在及物动词和介词的后面. 宾语:宾语通常在及物动词和介词的后面.
. 可以做宾语的词类是名词.代词.数词. 可以做宾语的词类是名词.代词.数词. 不定式.动名词. 不定式.动名词.从句等
  1) I think it right to help her.
  2) My little sister always likes to ask questions.
  3) Would you mind coming earlier tomorrow?
  4) He asked me what I was going to do in summer.
Find out the object

  1) He knows the secret.
  2) The student has improved his way of learning.
  3) Every one eats a piece of cake.

  4) They don’t know what they should do.
  5) I just want to understand why you can’t remember English words.
  6) We don’t know whether they are right.
  1)be seem appear
  2) look sound taste smell feel 感官类
  3) get turn grow become go 变化类
  4) stay remain keep continue 维持类
表语:表语通常在系动词后。 表语:表语通常在系动词后。

  1) My uncle is a professor.
  2) He looked tired.
  3) The basketball match is on.
  4) All the pupils are on the playground now.
  5) Our aim was to win more medals. medals.
  6) His work is teaching French. French.
  7) The question is who can really repair the machines.

  1)What she said is not ) true.
  2)She still looks young though she is over
  3.My problem is that we are short of hands.

  4.The weather turned out to be good.
  5.The food in the dish has gone bad.
  6.My problem is whether we go there by train.
定语: 是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、 定语: 是对名词或代词起修饰、限定作用的词、
短语或句子. 短语或句子. 注意:单个词常置被修饰词前,短语.从句置后. 注意:单个词常置被修饰词前,短语.从句置后.
The girl in the classroom needs a pen of yours. yours. The boy needs a coffee cup. The best boy here is Tom. There is nothing to do today. The smiling boy needs a pen bought by his mother. This is the new dictionary which I bought yesterday.
状语:状语修饰动词、形容词、 状语:状语修饰动词、形容词、副词及其相应的
短语或从句.句子,说明方式、因果、条件、 短语或从句.句子,说明方式、因果、条件、时间 地点、让步、 程度、目的等。位置较灵活. 地点、让步、 伴随、程度、目的等。位置较灵活.
  1) She sings quite well.
  2) On Sundays, there is no student in the Sundays, classroom.
  3) He sits there, asking for a pen. pen.
  4) The boy needs a pen to do his homework.
  5) If I have some spare time, I will take up time, German.
同位语:是在名词或代词之后, 同位语:是在名词或代词之后,重复指代并进
一步说明名词或代词的成分。常置被修饰词语后. 一步说明名词或代词的成分。常置被修饰词语后. 可以做同位语的词类有名词.代词.从句等. 可以做同位语的词类有名词.代词.从句等. We students should study hard. We all are students. Bush, President of the United States, will States, visit China next month. The suggestion that a new bridge be built here was accepted. We were overjoyed at the news that our team had won.
其后常用同位语从句的名词主要是抽 象名词, 象名词,如:belief, doubt, fact,hope,idea,news,problem, thought,message,possibility ,suggestion,advice等等 等等。 ,suggestion,advice等等。
同位语从句的引导词常用 同位语从句的引导词常用that, wh-, how等。 语从句的引导词常用that, wh- how等 when he will be back. e.g. how he can get the treasure. where the concert will be hold. who can finish the work. why it happened. I have no idea which pen is mine. what we should do next. whom they are talking about. whether it’ll rain tomorrow. that our football team won the game.

  1. They expressed the hope that they would visit our school again.
  2. The news that he will come tomorrow makes us surprised.
补语: 补充说明主语或宾语. 补语: 补充说明主语或宾语.做“宾补”时在宾语后 宾补”
做“主补”时在谓语后. 主补”时在谓语后. 可以做补语的词类与可以做表语的词类相同. 可以做补语的词类与可以做表语的词类相同.
  1) The government appointed(任命) her appointed(任命) chief delegate(代表) to the conference. delegate(代表)
  2) I don’t believe the story true. don’ true.
  3) You should put your things in order. order.
  4) The doctor advised her to stay in bed for a week.
  5) We saw the pupils playing basketball.
  6) She was elected monitor of Class



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