Book 5

  1.
Unit 1
Great Scientists
With this extra evidence John Snow was able to announce with certainty that polluted water carried the virus.
with this extra evidence 有了这个额外的证据;with certainty 肯定地,有把握地 在句中作状语,相当于副词. that 引导宾语从句 polluted 过去分词作定语
  2. So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak. terrified 过去分词作定语 every time 短语充当连词 连词作用,还有 the moment/ minute /second; the first / second … last time; 连词 immediately/instantly/ directly eg: The first time I went abroad I could hardly understand what the foreigners said. The moment I saw him, I knew what had happened.
  3. It seemed that the water was to blame. be ?动词不定式,可以表示该做或不该做的事。 be to blame 应该负责;应受责备 eg: No one is to leave this building without the permission of the police. You are not to drop litter in this park. 公园里不许乱丢垃圾。 Who is to blame for the fire? Who is to be responsible for this?
  4. Only if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense. only ?加状语放于句首时,主句用部分倒装。 eg: Only a week later did I receive an answer from her. Only when you are forty and looking back will you realize that you haven’t done your best. 拓展:only if 可译为“只有” eg: Only if you study hard, will you pass the test. Make a call only if it is important.
  5. The first suggested that cholera multiplied in the air. To prevent this from happening again, John Snow suggested that the source of all the water supplies be examined. suggest 当暗示,表明时,从句用陈述语气。 当建议讲时,从句用虚拟语气 (should) ?do eg: I suggested that he give up smoking. 语法分析: 语法分析:过去分词作定语和表语 课文原句: 课文原句:
  1. He found that it came from the river polluted by the dirty water from London.
  2. But he became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera. 过去分词作定语: 过去分词作定语: 意义:过去分词含有被动和完成的意思,不及物动词的过去分词只表示完成。 意义:过去分词含有被动和完成的意思,不及物动词的过去分词只表示完成。 过去分词只表示完成 a broken heart a ploughed field a risen sun 已升起的太阳
位置:单个的过去分词作定语时,通常放在所修饰词前;过去分词短语作定语时,通常放在后面。 位置:单个的过去分词作定语时,通常放在所修饰词前;过去分词短语作定语时,通常放在后面。 polluted water death caused by the accident a broken glass a glass broken by the boy 特别提示: 特别提示: 有些词像 left 剩下的, given(所给的), concerned(有关的) 等,习惯上作后置定语,如 standing room left the people concerned 有关人士 the book given 所给的书籍 当所修饰的词是由 some/ any /nothing/nobody…所构成的不定代词或指示代词 those 等时,通常放在其后。如: There has been nothing changed since I left Harbin two years ago. 区别:过去分词作定语和现在分词作定语 区别: 语态不同:现在分词表示主动,过去分词表被动.
  1. 语态不同:现在分词表示主动,过去分词表被动. 如 surprising news surprised listeners an exciting movie excited children The teacher told his students a lot of interesting stories. She is interested in Chinese. 时间关系上不同:现在分词表动作正在进行;过去分词表动作已经完成。
  2. 时间关系上不同:现在分词表动作正在进行;过去分词表动作已经完成。如 the changing world 正在发生变化的世界 the changed world 已经改变了的世界 boiling water boiled water developing countries developed countries 过去分词作表语: 过去分词作表语: 意义:用在系动词后面,构成系表结构,表示主语所处的状态。 意义:用在系动词后面,构成系表结构,表示主语所处的状态。 如 she looked disappointed. we were encouraged at the news. 用于被动语态,表示主语所承受的动作。 用于被动语态,表示主语所承受的动作。如 the book is well written. the lake is badly polluted. 单词、 单词、短语突破
  1. Characteristic n.?adj. n.特征;特性 What characteristics distinguish the Americans and Canadians? 特有的, 特有的,典型的 With the Characteristic generosity, he offered to buy tickets for all of us.
  2. conclude vt. ?vi 结束;推论出;议定,决定 常用于以下结构: conclude with sth.用……结束某事 conclude sth. from sth.从……推断出 conclude to do sth.决定做某事 conclude that -clause 决定
拓展:conclusion draw a conclusion 得出结论 make a conclusion 得出结论 bring … to a conclusion 使结束;谈定买卖等 come to the conclusion that …所得到的结论 arrive at / come to / reach a conclusion 得出结论,告一段落 in conclusion = to conclude 最后,总之
  3. attend vt. 照顾,护理;出席;参加 I have to attend my sick son. will you attend the meeting tomorrow?
  4. expose vt. 显露;暴露;揭露 She exposed a set of perfect white teeth when she smiled. The soil was washed away by the flood, exposing the bare rock. expose … to … He exposed his skin to the sun.
  5. cure n. ?vt. 治愈;痊愈 n. there is still no cure for the common cold. 治疗;治愈 vt. Can you cure me of my cold? When I left hospital I was completely cured.
  6. absorb vt. 吸引;吸收;使专心 Black clothing absorbs light. The task absorbed all his energies. be absorbed in = absorb oneself in 全神贯注于 The old man was utterly absorbed in the book.
  7. instruct vt.命令,指示,教导 the manager instructed us about our duties on the first day. he doesn’t instruct us where to go. 派生词:instruction n.指导;指令 instructions n. 说明,操作指南
  8. link… to … 将……和……连接或联系起来(常用被动语态表示状态) The island is linked to the mainland by a new bridge. Heart disease can be linked to smoking. 拓展 join… to 把……和……连接起来 connect… with 将……和……连接
 

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