UNIT 1
Introduction
Can you name some natural disasters? Flood drought fire landslide hurricane typhoon tornado lightning Thunderstorm volcano eruption earthquake tsunami
  1. What does “violence of nature” refer to? It refers to disasters of nature.
  2. Can you tell me some other disasters? Discussion Word study
  1. a lot of water in an area which is usually dry flood
  2. a very strong wind or storm hurricane
  3. a lot of rain falling quickly, with loud noises and flashes of light thunderstorm
  4. The flash of light which happens during a thunderstorm lightning
  5. a column of air that turns very quickly tornado
Everyday English?Matching
Which of the words indicates that the following sentence contains good news?
  2. Which indicates that the sentence contains bad news? luckily unfortunately thankfully hopefully sadly fortunately luckily 幸运地, 幸好 e.g. Luckily, no one was hurt. 幸好没有人受伤。 unfortunately 遗憾地; 可惜地; 不幸地 e.g. Unfortunately, he won’t be here tomorrow evening. 可惜的是他明晚不在这儿。 thankfully 感谢地; 感激地 hopefully 怀希望地; 抱希望地; (多用来修饰全句) 但愿 e.g. Hopefully, we will be there by six.但愿我们能在六点之前赶到那儿。 sadly 可惜, 不幸 fortunately 幸运地, 侥幸地 e.g. Fortunately, the fire was discovered soon after it had started.幸好火势刚起就立即被发现了。 bad news sadly hopefully unfortunately good news luckily fortunately thankfully
Reading and vocabulary
I. Read the three passages quickly and fill in the blanks. A tornado
  1. A tornado is a rotating column of air from a thunderstorm to the ground. The most violent have winds of morethan 400kilometres per hour.
  2. They occur in the area of from Texas in the southeast to South Dakota in the north.
  3. They can pick up cars, trains and houses. They can destroy houses, but leave the furniture inside exactly where it was.
  4. The worst one occurred in 1925, affecting three US states. More than700 people had been killed and 2,700had been injured.
A hurricane
  1. Hurricanes are Gulf of Mexico .
  2. They occur in the southern Atlantic Ocean, the Caribbean Sea and the strong tropical storms .
  3. The worst one occurred on the 8th September 1900 in Galveston, Texas. It killed 6,000 people and destroyed 3,600 buildings An extraordinary event Coghlan went to live in Canada. →He then moved to New York →Galveston→(his coffin) → Prince Edward Island in Canada. II. Read the text carefully again and fill in the blanks.
  1. The most violent tornado have winds of 400 kilometresper hour.
  2. On average, there are800 tornadoes in the US each year which cause about 80 deaths and 1500 injuries.
  3. The hurricane occurred in 1900 in Galveston, Texas had winds of 200 kilometres per hour and five-metre high waves, killed 6000 people and destroyed 3600 buildings. Match the words with their definitions.
  1. a rotating column of air 一股旋转的气柱 rotate vi.&vt. 旋转;自转 The earth rotates from west to east.地球从西向东旋转。 Farmers rotate crops in their fields.农民在耕地上轮栽农作物。 Language study
  2. Almost all of them occur in the US,…几乎所有的龙卷风都发生在美国。 Earthquakes occur frequently in this area. 这一地区经常发生地震。 A brilliant idea occurred to me. 我想到一个极好的主意。 occur vi. ①发生 ②被想起, 浮现(+to)
  3. 翻译下列句子, 体会 pick up 的用法.
  1) Tornados can pick up cars, trains and even houses. (卷起)
  2) The boy picked up the hat for the old man. (拾起)
  3) He picked up French while he stayed in Paris. (学习, 获得)
  4) Can you do me a favor to pick up my daughter from school?
  5) He picked up some used stamps.开车接(某人)
  4. They can destroy houses, but leave the furniture inside exactly where it was. (便宜地买到) leave vt. “让…处于某中状态”, 常接形容词、副词、分词和介词短语等作宾补。 完成句子
  1. I’m sorry I’ve left the door unlocked(没锁门)
  2. Don’t leave her waiting in the rain(在雨中等)
  3. His illness has left him very weak(使他很虚弱)
  4. You’d better leave the drawing room door open. (把画室的门开着)
  5. You mustn’t leave him in the dark (瞒着他)
  5. By the time it ended, more than 700 people had been killed and been injured. by 表示 “在(某时)前, 到某时”, 谓语动词常用完成时态。 翻译句子: 到上学期末为止, 我们已经学完了第二册。 By the end of last term, we had finished learning Book
  2. By the time he was 14, he had taught himself advanced math.

  2. 在他 14 岁时, 就已经自学了高等数学。
  6. ... they usually affect the east coast of the US from Texas to Maine. affect vt. ① 影响; 对...发生作用 ② (使)感动, (使)震动 The amount of rain affects the growth of crops. 雨量影响作物的生长。 She was deeply affected by the film. 她深深被那部电影感动了。 辨析: affect, effect 两个词都是 “影响” 的意思, 词性不同。 affect 是及物动词(=have an effect on); effect 是名词, 指的是 affect 的结果。 句型转换 Smoking too much will affect your health greatly. Smoking too much will have a greateffect onyour health.
  7. 翻译下列句子, 体会 strike 的用法
  1) Charles Coghlan died in 1899, a year before the hurricane struck. (袭击)
  2) A stone struck me on the head. (打,击)
  3) The boat struck (on) a rock. [撞, 触(礁)]
  4) The visitors are struck by the beauty of the Country. (打动; 给…以印象; 感动)。
  6) I was about to go out when the clock struck
  12.(钟)敲响
  5) A good idea struck the manager.(突然想到) 比较:
  1) You will end up in debt if you keep on spending money like that. 你要是老这样花钱, 总有一天要负债。(表结果)
  8. Coghlan’s coffin ended up in the sea. end up 结束, 终归….
  2) The party ended up with a folk song.晚会以一首民歌结束。(表方式)
  3) He had nowhere to stay and ended up sleeping in the railway station. 他们无处可去, 最终睡在了车站。(表结果) Language Date Bank (高考题) She D__ Japanese when she was in Japan. Now she can speak it freely. (福建 20
  06) A. picked out B. made out C. made up D. picked up
  2. It was so dark in the cinema that I could hardly D__ my friend. (四川 20
  07) A. turn out B. bring out C. call out D. pick out
  3. I grew up in Africa, __B at least I should say that I spent much of the first ten years of my life there. (辽宁 20
  06) A. And B. or C. so D. but
  4. You have failed two tests. You’d better start working harder, __D you won’t pass the course. (北京 20
  07)
A. and B. so C. but D. or
  5. How long __B__ at this job? Since 19
  90. A. were you employed B. have you been employed C. had you been employed D. will you employed
Grammar & Cultural Corner
Grammar I The past perfect passive 过去完成时被动语态 What can you see from the following sentences?
  1. By the time the tornado ended, more than 700people had been killed.
  2. Coghlan travelled back to Canada after he had been buried in Texas.
  3. My computer had been all right till last week. 总结: 动作在过去某一时刻之前已经完成, 且谓语动词与发出这一动作的主语存在被动关系。 句中常用 by, before, until, when 等词引导时间状语。 过去完成时
  1) 概念:表示过去的过去
|||> 那时以前 那时 现在
其构成是 had+过去分词构成。
  2) 用法 a. 在 told, said, knew, heard, thought 等 动词后的宾语从句。 She said (that) she had never been to Paris. b. 状语从句 在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。 When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. c. 表示意向的动词,如 hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose 等,用过去完成时表 示 “原本…,未能…” We had hoped that you would come, but you didn’t.
  3) 过去完成时的时间状语 before, by, until, when, after, once, as soon as。 e.g.:
  1. He said that he had learned some English before.
  2. By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself.
  3. Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party. 被动语态 被动语态表示主语为动作的承受者。 只有及物动词才有被动语态, 被动语态的具体用法如下 所表示: 用法 例句
不清楚动作的执行者时候
(
  1) The Parthenon was built during this period. (
  2) His bike was stolen. (
  1) Paper was first made in China. (
  2) Do you know when the building was built?
没有必要或不想指出谁是动作的执行者
强调或突出动作的承受者
(
  1) Paris is visited by more than eight million tourists every year. (
  2) This painting was painted.
Direct speech and Indirect Speech 直接引语: Grammar II 直接引用原话, 放在引号内。用自己的话转述别人的话。 间接引语: 直接引语变间接引语的方法 直接引语为陈述句时, 变为间接引语, 要用 that 引导的宾语从句。 如: “The storm was extremely violent,” said a local man. A local man said that the storm had been extremely violent.
  2. 直接引语为一般疑问句变为间接引语, 要用 if/whether 引导宾语从句, 并将原来的疑问 语序变为陈述语序。 如: The teacher asked, “is every body here today?” The teacher asked if every body was here that day.
  3. 直接引语为特殊疑问句, 变为间接引语, 用原来的疑问词引导从句, 并将疑句语序变为 陈述语序。 如: “What shall I do next?” the girl wondered. The girl wondered what she should do next.
  4. 直接引语为祈使句, 变为间接引语, 一般 用以下结构:order/tell/ask sb. (not) to do 如: The headmaster said, “don’t litter the floor with scraps of paper.” The headmaster told us not to litter the floor with scraps of paper.
  5. 直接引语变为间接引语时, 宾语从句中的人称、时态、代词、时间状语和地点状语等都要 作相应变化。 ① 人称的变化:
遵循一主、二宾、三不变的原则。即:直接引语中的第一人称在变成间接引语时,要和原句 中的主语保持一致; 直接引语中的第二人称在变成间接引语时, 要和原句中的宾语保持一致; 直接引语中的第三 人在变成间接引语时, 保持不变。
变化项目
直接引语 一般现在时 现在进行时
间接引语
过去进行时
一般过去时 过去完成时 过去完成时 过去将来时 过去完成时
时态变化
现在完成时 一般过去时 过去完成时 一般将来时
② 时态的变化
变化项 目 指示代 词
直接引语 this these now today, tonight
that those then
间接引语
that day, that night that week/month…
时间状 语
this week/month… yesterday
③ 指示代词/时间状语/地点状语等的变化
the day before
ten days/weeks…ago tomorrow/next year.. 地点状 语 方向性 动词 come bring here
ten days…before
the next day/year..
there
go take

  1.Volcanic eruption don’t happen very often on the island. A scientist said that Volcanic eruption didn’t happen very often on the island.
  2. No one was on the island during the volcanic eruption. A local journalist said that no one was /had been on the island during the volcanic eruption. Exercise: Rewrite the sentences using the reporting expressions.
  3. The thunderstorm will put out the fires. Local people said that the thunderstorm would put out the fires.
  4.There sidents can go back to their homes. The governor said that the residents could go back to their homes.
  5. Several eruption have taken place in the last twenty years. A local radio station said that several eruptions had taken place in the previous twenty years. Cultural corner Earthquakes Around the Pacific Read the passage and answer the questions.
  1. Where was the worst Chinese earthquake? It was in Hua County in Shaanxi Province.
  2. What was the most dangerous thing about the California Earthquake? The fires caused by the earthquake. Find the useful words and phrases used to describe the earthquakes.
Hua County
California
terrible earthquakes occur affect cover be killed in all lose one’s life
the worst earthquake the fires burn destroy be killed be made homeless cause…deaths
UNIT 2
across: [?'kr?s]
㈠ prep. 横过 穿过, 横过 在……对面
  1) The two lines cut across each other.
  2) Can you swim across the river?
  3) a bookstore across the river ㈡ adv. 横过, 从一边到另一边 The river is ten meters across. ㈢ across 用作介词或副词, 而 cross 用作动词, 必须接地点名词作宾语。 They crossed the Changjiang River. ㈣ across from 在……正对面 The store is just across from the post office. 这家铺子就在邮局的对面。 across 指从一边到另一边, 强调动作是在某一物体表面进行, “横过, 跨过” 。 含义与 on 有关。 辨析 across, past, 与 through through 表示从一头到另一头, 指在某一物体的空间里进行的, “穿过, 透过” 含义与 in 。 有关。 例如: One day two young men were going through the forest. 用 across, through, 和 over 填空。 The Great Wall winds its way from west to east across the deserts over the mountain and through the valley until it reaches seas.
  2. boot / bu
 

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