主谓一致
㈠就近一致原则(2点) 就近一致原则( 点 ㈡语法一致原则(6点) 语法一致原则( 点 ㈢ 个体一致原则(8点) 个体一致原则( 点 意义一致原则( 点 ㈣ 意义一致原则(8点)
㈠就近一致
就近 一致
㈡语法一致

  1.主语 主语+with (together with, along with,), 主语 as well as, including, rather than, besides, except, but, in addition to, other than ,like ,not ect.结构中,谓语与主语一致 结构中, 结构中

  2.不定式,动名词或从句作主语时,谓语动词 不定式,动名词或从句作主语时, 不定式 用单数 Eg:
  1.) Serving the people is my great happiness.
  2.)When we deliver the goods hasn‘t been decided.
  3.)When and where we will go hasn’t been decided. *但当 但当what引导的句子做主语,若后面是 引导的句子做主语, 但当 引导的句子做主语 名词” “be +名词”的结构时,谓语随名词变化 名词 的结构时,谓语随名词变化。 Eg:
  1.)What you did was right.
  2.)What you need are these dictionaries.

  3.定语从句中 定语从句中,“one of +复数名词 定语从句”从 复数名词+定语从句 定语从句中 复数名词 定语从句” 句的谓语动词复数。 句的谓语动词复数 若在one of 前有 前有the, the only, the very修饰时, 修饰时, 在 修饰时 从句的谓语动词则用单数。 从句的谓语动词则用单数。 Eg:
  1.)She is one of these women who the play violin well. plays
  2.)She is the one of these women who the violin well.

  4.定语从句中主语是关系代词 定语从句中主语是关系代词who, that, which 定语从句中主语是关系代词 时,从句谓语动词应与先行词保持一致。 从句谓语动词应与先行词保持一致 am Eg: I, who your teacher, will teach you everything I know.
  5.在强调句中,如被强调的是句子的主语时, 在强调句中,如被强调的是句子的主语时, 在强调句中 则that/who后面的谓语动词应与被强调的主语 后面的谓语动词应与被强调的主语 一致 eg:
  1.)It is Mike who always me to study helps maths after class. was
  2.)It was I rather than they that punished by the boss.

  6.half of…./the rest of…../part of…/ plenty of…/分数(%)+of…..等作主语, 分数( ) 等作主语, 分数 等作主语 谓语动词随of后的名词而变化 后的名词而变化。 谓语动词随 后的名词而变化
㈢ 个体一致

  1.由and连接的并列主语如果指的是同一人、 并列主语如果指的是同一人、 并列主语如果指的是同一人 同一物或同一概念,谓语动词用单数, 同一物或同一概念,谓语动词用单数,这时 and 后面的名词前没有冠词。 后面的名词前没有冠词。 Eg.
  1.) The writer and teacher is her uncle .
  2.) A poet and artist is coming to deliver a speech.
  3.) My classmate and friend going to pay a is visit to me.
  4.) A fork and knife is on the table.
  5.)War and peace is often people’s topic.
a knife and fork一副刀叉 一副刀叉; 一副刀叉 bread and butter加黄油的面包 加黄油的面包; 加黄油的面包 coffee and milk加牛奶的咖啡 加牛奶的咖啡; 加牛奶的咖啡 whisky and soda 汽水 salt and water 盐水 a needle and thread针线 针线; 针线 a horse and cart四轮马车 四轮马车; 四轮马车 a watch and chain表链 表链; 表链 a coat and tie; war and peace战争与和平 战争与和平; 战争与和平 truth and honesty; medical help and cure aim and end目的 目的

  2. and连接的两个或多个主语前如有 连接的两个或多个主语前如有each, 连接的两个或多个主语前如有 every, no, many a(许多)等修饰时,谓语用 许多) 许多 等修饰时, 单数。 单数。 Eg.
  1.)Every tree and (every) flower is to be cut down.
  2.)No sound and no voice is heard.
  3.) Many a boy and girl has made the same mistake.
  4.) In our country each boy and (each) girl has right to receive education.

  3.表示时间,金钱,距离,重量等复数名词 表示时间,金钱,距离, 表示时间 表示单位数量作主语时, 表示单位数量作主语时,被看作整体时谓语 用单数。 用单数 eg: Sixty years is a long time. Ten dollars is enough for him. Three thousand miles is a long distance. Fifty kilograms is not too long to be carried. *如强调具体数目,则用复数。 如强调具体数目, 如强调具体数目 则用复数。 One hundred cents make a dollar. More than fifty years have passed since they got married.

  4. “many a +单数名词 单数名词 /more than one+单数名词 单数名词 /one and a half +单数名词”作主语, 单数名词” 单数名词 作主语, 谓语动词用单数 eg:
  1.) many a foreigner has been to the Great Wall.
  2.)More than one student has turned up at the meeting.
  3.) One and a half banana was eaten by the boy.
  5.由some, any, every, no构成的不定代词 谓语 由 构成的不定代词,谓语 构成的不定代词 动词用单数

  6. each of…/either of…./one of…谓语动词 谓语动词 用单数. 用单数 none of…/neither of…可单可复,根据说话 可单可复, 可单可复 人的意思决定;*但代表不可数名词时,用 人的意思决定; 但代表不可数名词时, 但代表不可数名词时 单数 eg:
  1.)None of us are/is perfect.
  2.) Neither of them know/knows the answer.
  3.) None of this worries me. /None of this money is mine. *neither作形容词时与单数名词连用, 作形容词时与单数名词连用, 作形容词时与单数名词连用 谓语动词用单数。 谓语动词用单数。 Neither statement was true.

  7.主语是书名,剧名,报纸名,国名等复数 主语是书名,剧名,报纸名, 主语是书名 形式的名词,仍为个体, 形式的名词,仍为个体,谓语用单数 The United States is a developed country.
  8.带引号的词语作主语,谓语单数 带引号的词语作主语, 带引号的词语作主语 “I” is the ninth letter of the English alphabet.
㈣意义一致

  1.集合名词 集合名词family, class, team, group, crowd, 集合名词 audience, company, army, enemy, government, population…作主语, 作主语, 作主语 若强调整体,谓语动词用单数 若强调个体,谓语动词则用复数 eg:书p5
  2.集合名词 集合名词cattle, clothes, people, the police表 集合名词 表 示复数意义谓语动词永远复数. 示复数意义谓语动词永远复数 people 民族(可数名词,peoples)

  3.主语是单复数同形的名词 主语是单复数同形的名词deer, sheep, fish鱼, 主语是单复数同形的名词 鱼 series系列 species物种 means手段 works工厂 系列, 物种, 手段, 工厂, 系列 物种 手段 工厂 aircraft飞行器 ect.时, 飞行器, 飞行器 时 视其表达的意义而判断谓语动词的单复数。 Eg:
  1.) A new means has been used .
  2.) Many means have not come into effect.
  4.以-s结尾的一些词 以 结尾的一些词 结尾的一些词the Olympic Games, manners, remains, earnings, belongings, goods, surroundings, winnings, leavings, ect.表示复数 表示复数 意义,谓语动词用复数 意义,

  5.physics, politics, mathematics等一些以“-ics” 等一些以“ 等一些以 结尾的词,指学科时属单数, 结尾的词,指学科时属单数,谓语动词用单数 eg.
  1.) Physics is not difficult to learn.
  2.)Mathematics is a subject studied in nearly every school. 注:若指某学科能力,成绩,应用等或 若指某学科能力,成绩, 非学科含义时被看作复数,谓语常用复数。 非学科含义时被看作复数,谓语常用复数。 My mathematics are week. week. What are your politics政治信仰/见解?

  6.成双成对出现的复数名词如 成双成对出现的复数名词如glasses, shoes, 成双成对出现的复数名词如 trousers, pants, gloves, socks, slippers, scissors等作主语时,谓语通常用复数, 等作主语时, 等作主语时 谓语通常用复数, *但如果前有 但如果前有a/the pair of, a/the suit of等词语 等词语 但如果前有 修饰时,谓语动词与pair, suit等一致,用单 等一致, 修饰时,谓语动词与 等一致 数。 Eg.
  1) My trousers are very nice.
  2)A pair of shoes is under the bed.

  7.主语是疑问代词 主语是疑问代词who, what, which,不定代词 主语是疑问代词 不定代词 all, more, most, any, none等以及名词 等以及名词half, 等以及名词 part, the rest等既可表示复数意义又可表示 等既可表示复数意义又可表示 单数意义,其谓语视它们所代指的名词而定。 单数意义,其谓语视它们所代指的名词而定。 Eg:
  1.)Which is more valuable, health or wealth?
  2.)Which are prettier, these or those?
  3.) we had some paper, but the rest was put back.

  8. “the+形容词”做主语时,表示一类人或物时 形容词” 形容词 做主语时, 谓语动词为复数; 谓语动词为复数; 表示具体一个个体时,谓语动词为单数。 表示具体一个个体时,谓语动词为单数。 Eg.
  1) The young are better at learning new things.
  2) The young is my uncle. *the +adj.表示一类抽象概念时,谓语也单数 表示一类抽象概念时, 表示一类抽象概念时 The new is sure to replace the old. The complicate is difficult to understand.

  1. 90题21 A library with five thousand books to the nation as a gift. A. is offered B. has offered C. are offered D. have offered

  2. 89题27 Not only I but also Jane and Mary tired of having one examination after another. A. is B. are C. am D. be

  3. 87题15 All but one here just now. A. is B.was C. has been D. were
答案
Multiple choice:

  1. On the wall two large portraits. A. hangs B. hang C. hanged D. hanging (C
  85)
  2. “News of victories pouring in as our army advances,” the company commander said. A. keep B. keeps C. kept D. have kept (C
  85)
  3. There a lot of milk in the bottle. A. are B. is C. were D. has (C
  86)
  4. Zhang’s family rather big, with twelve people in all. A. is B. are C. being D. was (C
  85)
  5. Nobody but Jane the secret. A. know B. knows C. have known D. is known (C86 )
Multiple choice:

  6. All but one here just now. A. is B. was C. has been D. were (C87 NO.
  45)
  7. A library with five thousand books to the nation as a gift. A. is offered B. has offered C. are offered D. have offered (C90 NO.
  20)
  8. Not only I but also Jane and Mary __ tired of having one exam after another. A. is B. are C. am D. be (C89 NO.
  27)
  9. The number of people invited fifty, but a number of them absent for different reasons. A. were; was B. was; was C. was; were D. were; were (C 96 NO.
  14)
  10. When and where to build the new factory yet. A. is not decided B. are not decided C. has not decided D. have not decided
Have a rest
 

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