Grammar
语法精解( 语法精解(一)

  1. 同位语 同位语the Appositive 同位语是句子成分的一种, 同位语是句子成分的一种 它位于名 词、代词后面, 说明它们的性质和情 代词后面 它可以由名词、代词、 况, 它可以由名词、代词、名词性短 语或从句充当。 语或从句充当。
同位语的表现形式有以下几种: 同位语的表现形式有以下几种: (
  1) 名词 Tom, our monitor, is a handsome boy. (
  2) 代词 I myself will do the experiment. (
  3) 数词 She is the oldest among them six.
(
  4) 从句 He told me the news that the plane had exploded. 他告诉我飞机爆炸的消息。 他告诉我飞机爆炸的消息。 (
  5) 由such as, that is引导 引导 Some subjects, such as maths and physics, are very difficult to learn. 某些学科,例如数学和物理,是很难学的。 某些学科,例如数学和物理,是很难学的。
(
  6) 由of引导 引导 The city of Beijing has been greatly changed since 20
  00. 自从2000年以来 北京市发生了很 年以来, 自从 年以来 大的变化。
(
  7) 由or引导 引导 The freezing temperature, or freezing point, is the temperature at which water freezes under ordinary pressure. 结冰温度即冰点, 结冰温度即冰点,是水在常压下结 冰时的温度。 冰时的温度。
配套练习(一 配套练习 一) 指出下例句子划线部分是什么句` 一. 指出下例句子划线部分是什么句 子成份。 子成份。
  1. There is going to be a Chinese film tonight.(表语)
  2. She is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow. ( 谓语)

  3. Her wish is to become a teacher. (表语)
  4. He, my brother, managed to finish the work in time. (同位语)
  5. Tom came to ask me for advice. (状语)

  6. We found it important to learn English. (形式宾语 )
  7. Do you have anything else to wash? ( 定语 )
  8. To be honest, your writing isn’t so good. (插入语)

  9. Would you please tell me your name? (间接宾语、直接宾语 ) 间接宾语、
  10. They noticed a man enter the room. (宾语补足语)
单项填空。 二. 单项填空。
  1. My performance in the driving test didn’t reach the required standard, , I failed. A. in the end B. after all C. C in other words D. at the same time

  2. Meeting my uncle after all these years was an unforgettable moment, I will always treasure. (NMET20
  02) A. that B. one B C. it D. what
三.单句改错 单句改错
  1. On my way home I met an old friend 第二个my改为 第二个 改为mine 改为
  2. They paid no attention to the doctor’s of my. advice they should stop smoking. 前加that 在they前加 前加
语法精解( 语法精解(二)

  2. 同位语从句 同位语从句the Appositive clause (
  1) 同位语从句的定义 在复合句中用作同位语的从句称为 在复合句中用作同位语的从句称为 同位语 同位语从句。 同位语从句。同位语从句是名词性从句 的一种。它在句中起同位语的作用。 的一种。它在句中起同位语的作用。
它一般放在fact, news, idea, truth , 它一般放在 hope , problem, information, belief, thought, doubt, promise, question 等名 词的后面, 词的后面 对前面的名词作进一步的解 说明前面名词的具体含义。 释, 说明前面名词的具体含义。引导同 连接副词how, 位语从句的词有连词that, 连接副词 位语从句的词有连词 when, where, whether, what等。 等
e.g. The hope that he may recover is not gone yet. The problem whether we should continue to do the experiment has been solved. I have no idea when he will come back.
注意: 注意
同位语从句有时被别的词把它 和名词隔开: 和名词隔开:
The story goes that William Tell killed the king with an arrow. Word came that their team had won.
同位语从句的表现形式: ⑵ 同位语从句的表现形式 ① 由that引导 引导 The fact that you haven’t enough time to do the work is simply unbelievable. The hope that he may come here is not gone yet.
The news that he has been elected president of the United States is true. The truth that heavy objects and light objects fall at the same speed is known to all. The problem that she later developed a serious lung disease bothered scientists.
② 由whether引导 引导 The question whether we need more time to do the work has not been discussed. ③ 由when引导 引导 I have no idea when they will go.
⑶ 有时可用 namely (即), that is to 即 say (也就是说 in other words 也就是说), 也就是说 (换句话说 that is (那就是 for 换句话说), 那就是), 换句话说 那就是 example 等引出同位语 说明其 等引出同位语, 前面的名词或代词。 前面的名词或代词。有时同位语 直接跟在名词或代词的后面。 直接跟在名词或代词的后面。
He told us the good news, namely, the museum is open to all. There is only one way of improving your English , that is , to practice more. Altogether Dolly had lived for six years, half the length of the life of the original sheep.
同位语从句与定语从句的区别: ⑷ 同位语从句与定语从句的区别
同位语从句与定语从句在使用中常常混淆, 同位语从句与定语从句在使用中常常混淆 我们可以从以下几个方面区别它们: 我们可以从以下几个方面区别它们 ① 同位语从句说明的名词大都是抽象名词 同位语从句说明的名词大都是抽象名词 说明的名词大都是抽象名词; 定语从句所修饰、 定语从句所修饰、限定的名词或代词有抽 所修饰 象的也有不抽象的。 象的也有不抽象的。
We express the hope that they will come to visit China again. (同位语从句 同位语从句) 同位语从句 Those who want to go please sign their names here. (定语从句 定语从句) 定语从句
同位语从句所说明的名词与从句没有逻 ② 同位语从句所说明的名词与从句没有逻 辑关系; 辑关系; 定语从句所限定的名词是从句逻辑上的 定语从句所限定的名词是从句逻辑上的 主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语等。 主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语等。
The news that they won the match is true. (同位语从句 news和从句没有逻辑关系 同位语从句, 和从句没有逻辑关系) 同位语从句 和从句没有逻辑关系 The news that you told us yesterday is true. (定语从句 news是told的逻辑宾语 定语从句, 的逻辑宾语) 定语从句 是 的逻辑宾语
The order when we should go back hasn’t reached us. (同位语从句 order和从句没有逻辑关 同位语从句, 同位语从句 和从句没有逻辑关 系) The day when New China was founded will never be forgotten. (定语从句 day是founded 的逻辑状语 定语从句, 的逻辑状语) 定语从句 是
同位语从句主要由连接词 主要由连接词that引导 有时 引导,有时 ③ 同位语从句主要由连接词 引导 也可用when, where, who, whether等引 也可用 等引 导; 定语从句由关系代词或关系副词引导。 定语从句由关系代词或关系副词引导。 由关系代词或关系副词引导 Then he raised the question where they were to get the machine needed. Do you know the place where he was born?
引导同位语从句的连词不可省略; ④ 引导同位语从句的连词不可省略 引导定语从句的关系代词作宾语时常 可省略。 可省略。 The news that he has been elected monitor of our class is true. The news (that) he told me is exciting.
⑤ 同位语从句与先行词一般可变成一个完 整句子, 谓语动词用be的不同形式 的不同形式。 整句子 谓语动词用 的不同形式。 He heard the news that their team had won. 此句可以变为一个表语从句: 此句可以变为一个表语从句 The news was that their team had won.
练习 把下面两个句子连成一个含同位语从 句的复合句。 句的复合句。
  1. Two fifths of all girls in America are on a diet./The fact worries their parents and teachers a lot. The fact that two fifths of all girls in America are on a diet worries their parents and teachers a lot.

  2. The Queen of England was on a four-day visit in China./We heard the news last night. We heard the news last night that the Queen of England was on a four-day visit in china.

  3. Teenagers shouldn’t spend too much time online. /Many Chinese parents hold the view. Many Chinese parents hold the view that teenagers shouldn’t spend too much time online.

  4. Time travel is possible./We have no scientific proof for the idea. We have no scientific proof for the idea that time travel is possible.

  5. Students should be given more free time./The suggestion is welcomed by many people. The suggestion that students should be given more free time is welcomed by many people.
翻译句子,并说明这个名词性从句的作用。 翻译句子,并说明这个名词性从句的作用。
  6. We don’t think you two have met before. 我们想你们两位以前没有见过面。 我们想你们两位以前没有见过面。 (宾语从句 宾语从句) 宾语从句

  7. It is certain that John will do well in his exam. 约翰肯定会考好。 约翰肯定会考好。 (主语从句 主语从句) 主语从句
  8. Whether they are coming or not don’t matter too much. 他们来不来无关紧要。 他们来不来无关紧要。 (主语从句 主语从句) 主语从句

  9. Now is when we need him most. 现在是我们最需要他的时候。 现在是我们最需要他的时候。 (表语从句 表语从句) 表语从句
  10. I have no idea how she got through the forest. 我不知道她是如何穿过那个森林的。 我不知道她是如何穿过那个森林的。 (同位语从句 同位语从句) 同位语从句

  11. The fact that they won the prize made us happy. 他们获奖的事实令我们高兴。 他们获奖的事实令我们高兴。 (同位语从句 同位语从句) 同位语从句
用适当的连接代词或连接副词填空。 用适当的连接代词或连接副词填空。
  12. I can’t decide which book I should buy.
  13. China is no longer what it used to be.
  14. I am very interested in he how improved his English in such a short time.
  15.What we need is more money.

  16. The truth that the earth turns around the sun is known to us.
  17. When and we will meet has where not been decided yet.
用名词性从句完成下列句子。 用名词性从句完成下列句子。
  18. The news that she has passed the national college entrance examination (她通过了高考 (她通过了高考) is exciting. 她通过了高考)
  19. Mike made a promise that he would help me with my English. (他将帮助我学习英语 他将帮助我学习英语) 他将帮助我学习英语
指出划线部分是什么从句。 指出划线部分是什么从句。
  20. The fact that Great Britain is made up three countries is known to us. (同位语从句 (同位语从句) 同位语从句)
  21. The continent that consists of two countries is developing very fast. (定语从句 定语从句) 定语从句

  22. The news that the plane will take off on time makes everybody happy. (同位语从句 同位语从句) 同位语从句
  23. The news that is spreading around the country is that a heavy storm is coming. (定语从句 表语从句) 定语从句, 表语从句 定语从句

  24. The suggestion that we should learn something practical is worth considering. (同位语从句 同位语从句) 同位语从句
单项选择
  25. One of them held the view __ the book said was right. A. what that C. that B. that what D. whether

  26. The reason he has to go is his mother is ill in bed. A, why ; why C. why ; that B. why; because D. that ; because

  27. They received orders the work be done right away. A. which B. that C. / D. when

  28. I have no idea . A. how to do B. when shall we start out for the trip C. what has happened to my wife D. how much have they earned

  29. I think certain that she will do well in her exam. A. that B. this is C. it D. what’s
  30. The film brought the hours back to me I was taken good care of in that far-away village. A. until B. that C. when D .where

  31. He’s got himself into a dangerous situation __ he was likely to lose control over the plane. A. where B. which C. what D. why
  32. That’s the only thing he can do now A. which B. all C. that D. what

  33. Information has been put forward more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities. A. while B. that C. when D. as
  34. Along with the letter was his promise he would visit me this coming Christmas. A. which B. that C. what D. whether

  35. There is a new problem involved in the popularity of private cars road conditions need . A. that; to be improved B. which; to be improved C. where; improving D. when; improving
高考题

  36. Along with the letter was his promise he would visit me this coming Christmas. ( 2004春季上海 ) 春季上海 A. which B. that C. what D. whether 答案B。这是一个同位语从句 答案 。这是一个同位语从句, 解释 promise的具体内容 要用 的具体内容, 引导。 的具体内容 要用that引导。 引导

  37. Some researchers believe that there is no doubt a cure for AIDS will be
 

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