Reading
Warming up
In pairs, look at these pictures and discuss which ones are natural clones and which ones are man-made. Explain how they differ.
一株草莓依靠它沿地“爬走” 一株草莓依靠它沿地“爬走”的匍匐 茎,一年内就能长出数百株草莓苗 一年内就能长出数百株草莓苗
富贵竹插枝即活
仙人掌每块落地就生根
Dolly是世界上第 是世界上第 一例用体细胞─ 一例用体细胞 乳腺上皮细胞,通 乳腺上皮细胞 通 过细胞核移植技 术,在复杂的人工 在复杂的人工 操作下,得到的一 操作下 得到的一 只小绵羊 。
多利
2002年 2002年4 月十六日 美国第一 头克隆牛 “艾米” 艾米” 产下牛犊 喜作妈咪
我国成功繁殖克隆兔 体形要比普通兔大许多 2002年 2002年5月 中旬成功地 繁殖了一只 胚胎细胞克 隆兔。 隆兔。
克隆马及其“ 克隆马及其“母 亲兼姐姐” 亲兼姐姐” 第一只克隆宠物猫
克隆的荧光小猪(左 和正常小猪 和正常小猪(右 克隆的荧光小猪 左)和正常小猪 右)
克隆,是 的译音,意为生物体通 克隆 是Clone的译音 意为生物体通 的译音 过细胞进行的无性繁殖形成的基因型 完全相同的后代个体组成的种群,简称 完全相同的后代个体组成的种群 简称 无性繁殖” 克隆” 为“无性繁殖”。 “克隆”一词于 1903年被引入园艺学 以后逐渐应用于 年被引入园艺学,以后逐渐应用于 年被引入园艺学 植物学、动物学和医学等方面。 植物学、动物学和医学等方面。但克 隆与无性繁殖是不同的。 隆与无性繁殖是不同的。无性繁殖是 指不经过雌雄两性生殖细胞的结合、 指不经过雌雄两性生殖细胞的结合、 只由
一个生物体产生后代的生殖方式, 一个生物体产生后代的生殖方式,常见 的有孢子生殖、出芽生殖和分裂生殖。 的有孢子生殖、出芽生殖和分裂生殖。 由植物的根、 由植物的根、茎、叶等经过压条或嫁 接等方式产生新个体也叫无性繁殖。 接等方式产生新个体也叫无性繁殖。 绵羊、 绵羊、猴子和牛等动物没有人工操作 是不能进行无性繁殖的。 是不能进行无性繁殖的。科学家把人 工遗传操作动物繁殖的过程叫克隆, 工遗传操作动物繁殖的过程叫克隆,这 门生物技术叫克隆技术。 门生物技术叫克隆技术。
克隆的基本过程是先将含有遗传物质 的供体细胞的核移植到去除了细胞核的卵 细胞中, 细胞中,利用微电流刺激等使两者融合为一 体,然后促使这一新细胞分裂繁殖发育成胚 胎,当胚胎发育到一定程度后,再被植入动 当胚胎发育到一定程度后, 物子宫中使动物怀孕, 物子宫中使动物怀孕,便可产下与提供细胞 者基因相同的动物。 者基因相同的动物。这一过程中如果对供 体细胞进行基因改造, 体细胞进行基因改造,那么无性繁殖的动物 后代基因就会发生相同的变化。 后代基因就会发生相同的变化。
Pre-reading
In pairs discuss what you understand about cloning. Then list the questions you want to find out. Share your lists with one another.
Questions about cloning

  1. What is a clone? A clone is group of cells or organisms that are genetically identical and have been produced asexually from the same original cell. They include natural and man-made clones.

  2. How is a clone produced? The cloning of plants is simple and relatively easy. It can be done by taking cuttings (man-made cloning) or letting the plant produce its own runners (natural cloning). The cloning of animals is more complicated. It was not achieved until 1996 and is fully explained in the first reading.

  3. What benefits can humans gain from cloning?
  1) Medical cloning can help cure serious illnesses that ruin one’s quality of life (such as Parkinson’s disease帕金森症 or Alzheimer’s 帕金森症 disease老年痴呆症 老年痴呆症). 老年痴呆症
  2) It can help infertile people have babies.

  4. What problems may arise when humans are cloned?
  1) People may want to clone themselves so they can live forever.
  2) People may want to clone dead children.
  3) People may want to clone their favorite pets.
Scanning Write the letter "T" if the
Statement is true. Write "F" if it is false.
F
  1. Cloning means making a copy of an
animal or a plant.
T
  2. Gardeners can make a lot of money by
cloning plants.
F
  3. Cloning animals is as complicated as
cloning plants.
T
  4. Dolly the sheep was the first
successful clone of a mammal.
T
  5. Natural clones happen in animals as
well as in plants.
Skimming
Please read the passage and get the main idea, and then finish the following exercises in groups.
主旨大意

  1. The main idea of the text is A. animal cloning is very valuable and can benefit the world. B. animal cloning could be misused by bad people so it must be forbidden C. animal cloning is well developed because Dolly the sheep was born. D. animal cloning raised arguments and scientists are not sure about its future.
细枝末节

  2. Which of the following statements about cloning is NOT true according to text? __ A A. Cloning is something that has been developed quite recently. B. Twins that look exactly the same are originally from the same egg. C. Cloning is used by gardeners to make more money. D. Animal cloning is much more difficult than plant cloning.

  3. The cloning of Dolly the sheep succeeded because. B A. its easier to clone a sheep than other animals B. the scientists were determined and worked hard with patience C. the scientists were rewarded and got lots of money D. many other attempts to clone mammals failed

  4. The lamb is the clone of the cell from sheep because. A. it provides the egg cell B. it gives birth to the lamb C. it provides the nucleus D. it is a female sheep

  5. Dolly the sheep A. looked exactly like the sheep that provides the egg B. was the exact copy of the sheep that provides the nucleus C. looked like the sheep that gave birth to it D. had the characteristics of all three sheep

  6. It can be inferred from the passage that a cloned animal. A.usually lives as long as the original one B. usually lives longer than the original one C. usually dies earlier than the original one D. is usually as healthy as the original one

  7. What is people's fear about human cloning? Which of the following is wrong? A. Cloned Hitlers would do harm to the world. B. Cloned people may be killed at will for medical aid.
C. A woman would have difficulty recognizing her real husband. D. Men will die out because a woman can give birth to a baby without a husband.
推理判断

  8. The sheep that donated the somatic cell most probably lived years. A. 3 B. 6 C. 9 D. 12

  9. Which of the follow is NOT a problem or danger of cloning mentioned in the text? A. Evil leaders may want to clone themselves. B. Animal clones may develop the illness of older animals and may die younger than the donor animals. C. There are moral objections to cloning human beings. D. Too much cloning may lead to the destruction of the balance of nature.

  10. Which of the following is not an advantage of cloning? A. Cloning can be used for medical purposes. B. Large quantities of food can be produced by cloning. C. Famous persons who have passed away can be cloned. D. Cloning can help keep animals from becoming extinct.

  11. In the second paragraph, the word “straightforward” means . A. uncomplicated B. honest C. frank D. difficult

  12. We can infer from the last three paragraphs that . A. The normal development of Dolly had no effect on the cloning of other species. B. Dolly’s serious disease and final death disturbed the whole world. C. Dolly successfully cloned a new lamb with the help of cloning scientists. D. There were arguments about animals about animal cloning and concerns about the future of cloning.

  13. What about the writer’s attitude toward cloning in this passage? A. The writer is against cloning. B. The writer is in favor of cloning. C. The writer does not state any personal opinion about cloning. A. The writer is in agreement with cloning.
Detail reading
Fill in the chart using the information from the text. Problems or dangers Advantages of cloning of cloning Animals may Medical cloning could develop produce cures the illnesses of older for serious degenerative(变 变 animals. 质的) illnesses 质的) in humans.
Animal clones may than die younger the donor animals leader may Evil want to clone themselves. There are moral to objections cloning human beings.
Cloning plants can of produce plants quality similar for . sale Cloning plants can be useful for research on . new plant species Cloning can help save endangered animals .
Find the main idea of each paragraph. Para
  1. Cloning is a way of making an exact copy of another animal and plant. Para
  2. Cloning has two major uses. Para
  3. The problems of Dolly. Para
  4. The effect of Dolly. Para
  5. It is forbidden to clone human beings.
Discussion Look at these pictures, and discuss this question with your partner.
Is cloning people a good thing or a bad thing?
Discussion

  1. What do you think is the writer’s view in this reading passage? I think the writer is impartial because he /she does not state any personal opinion about cloning.
  2. What’s your opinion of cloning? Give reasons.
Do you know about: the procedure works of a sheep?
克 隆 羊 诞 生 图 示
“多利”的诞生有什么重大的意义和影响? 多利”的诞生有什么重大的意义和影响? 多利 “多利”的诞生标志着克隆研究 多利” 取得新的进展和重大突破, 取得新的进展和重大突破,而且这个结 果证明:动物体中执行特殊功能, 果证明:动物体中执行特殊功能,具有 特定形态的所谓高度分化的细胞与受 精卵一样具有发育成完整个体的潜在 能力。也就是说, 能力。也就是说,动物细胞与植物细胞 一样,也具有全能性. 一样,也具有全能性.
长句难句: 长句难句

  1. It suddenly opened everybody’s eyes to the possibility of using cloning to cure serious illnesses, and even producing human beings. 突然每个人都看到了利用克隆技术治 愈重病, 甚至制造人的可能性。 愈重病 甚至制造人的可能性。
of using cloning to cure serious illnesses , and even producing human beings作定语 其中 作定语, 其中using和producing 作定语 和 是并列关系。 是并列关系。

  2. Newspapers told stories of evil leaders hoping to clone themselves and religious leaders raises moral questions. 报纸报道了不良领导人希望克隆自己 的消息, 的消息 宗教领袖提出了道德方面的 质疑。 质疑。
连接了两个并列分句, 由and 连接了两个并列分句 前句中 hoping to clone themselves作宾补。 作宾补。 作宾补 句中stories意为“消息”。 意为“消息” 句中 意为
语法专攻: 语法专攻
例句观察(课文原句 例句观察 课文原句) 课文原句 The fact is that they are natural clones of each other.(作表语) (作表语) The fact that she seemed to develop normally was very encouraging.(作 ( 同位语) 同位语)
Then came the disturbing news that Dolly had become seriously ill.(作同 ( 位语) 位语) However, scientists still wonder whether cloning will help or harm us and where it is leading us.(作宾语) (作宾语)
Thinking
Cloning people is a good thing, or a bad thing? 克隆人是福音, 还是恶兆? 克隆人是福音 还是恶兆?
意大利狂人医生: 意大利狂人医生 安蒂诺里
冒死也要克隆人的 科学家:布瓦瑟利耶 科学家 布瓦瑟利耶
反对克隆人
  1.克隆技术现在还不成熟 克 克隆技术现在还不成熟,克 克隆技术现在还不成熟 隆人可能有很多先天性生理 缺陷。 缺陷。
  2.克隆人的身份难以认定 他 克隆人的身份难以认定,他 克隆人的身份难以认定 们与被克隆者之间的关系无 法纳入现有的伦理体系。 法纳入现有的伦理体系。

  3. 克隆技术有可能被滥用,成为恐 克隆技术有可能被滥用, 怖分子的工具。 怖分子的工具。
  4. 从生物多样性上来说,大量基因 从生物多样性上来说, 结构完全相同的克隆人,可能诱 结构完全相同的克隆人, 发新型疾病的广泛传播, 发新型疾病的广泛传播,对人类 的生存不利。 的生存不利。
支持克隆 人

  1. “不让我们克隆人 就是不让 不让我们克隆人,就是不让 不让我们克隆人 我们修正我们的错误,人类 我们修正我们的错误 人类 历史难道能够这样构造 吗?”?《纽约时报书评》 《纽约时报书评》
  2. “当然应该 ‘ 克隆 ’ 人 ,如果 当然应该‘ 当然应该 克隆’ 如果 谁第一个掌握了这个技术, 谁第一个掌握了这个技术 他就是我真正的、 他就是我真正的、也是唯一 比尔?盖 的竞争对手 。 ” ?比尔 盖 比尔 茨

  3. “克隆人绝对是科学上了不起的进步 克隆人绝对是科学上了不起的
 

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