Extensive reading
克隆技术大事记
1938年:德国科学家首次提出克隆想法。 年 德国科学家首次提出克隆想法。 1952年 科学家开始用青蛙进行克隆实验。 1952年:科学家开始用青蛙进行克隆实验。 1970年:克隆青蛙实验取得突破,青蛙卵发育 年 克隆青蛙实验取得突破, 成了蝌蚪, 但是在开始进食以后死亡。 成了蝌蚪, 但是在开始进食以后死亡。
1981年:科学家进行克隆鼠实验,据称用 年 科学家进行克隆鼠实验, 鼠胚胎细胞培育出了正常的鼠。 鼠胚胎细胞培育出了正常的鼠。 1984年:第一只胚胎克隆羊诞生。 年 第一只胚胎克隆羊诞生。 1997年2月24日 1997年2月24日:英国罗斯林研究所宣布 克隆羊培育成功。科学家用取自一只6 克隆羊培育成功。科学家用取自一只6岁 成年羊的乳腺细胞培育成功一只克隆羊。 成年羊的乳腺细胞培育成功一只克隆羊。
1998年2月23日:英国PPL医疗公司宣布 年 月 日 医疗公司宣布, 医疗公司宣布 该公司克隆出一头牛犊“杰弗逊先生” 该公司克隆出一头牛犊“杰弗逊先生”。 1998年7月5日:日本科学家宣布 他们利 年 月 日 本科学家宣布,他们利 用成年动物体细胞克隆的两头牛犊诞生。 用成年动物体细胞克隆的两头牛犊诞生。
1998年7月22日:科学家采用一种新克隆 年 月 日 技术, 技术,用成年鼠的体细胞成功地培育出 了第三代共50多只克隆鼠, 50多只克隆鼠 了第三代共50多只克隆鼠,这是人类第 一次用克隆动物克隆出克隆动物。 一次用克隆动物克隆出克隆动物。 1999年5月31日:美国夏威夷大学的科学 年 月 日 家,利用成年体细胞克隆出第一只雄性 老鼠。 老鼠。
1999年 17日 1999 年 6 月 17 日 : 以美藉华人科学家杨 向中为首的研究小组利用一头13 岁高 向中为首的研究小组利用一头 13岁高 13 龄的母牛耳朵上取出的细胞克隆出小 牛。 2000年 2000年1月3日:美国著名华人杨向中, 美国著名华人杨向中, 用体外长期培养后的公牛耳皮细胞成 功克隆出6头牛犊。 功克隆出6头牛犊。
2000年 2000年1月:美国科学家宣布克隆猴成功, 美国科学家宣布克隆猴成功, 这只恒河猴被命名“泰特拉” 这只恒河猴被命名“泰特拉”。 2000年3月14日:曾参与克隆小羊“多利” 2000年 14日 曾参与克隆小羊“多利” 的英国PPL公司宣布,他们成功培育出5 的英国PPL公司宣布,他们成功培育出5头 PPL公司宣布 克隆猪。 克隆猪。
Please enjoy some pictures about dinosaurs.
霸王龙tyrannosaurus 霸王龙
剑龙stegosaurs 剑龙
角龙 ceratopsids
雷龙 brontosaurus
翼龙pterodactyl 翼龙
Answer the following questions:

  1. Why shouldn’t you clone an extinct animal if there isn’t enough diversity in the group?
  2.Why is it wrong to clone an extinct animal if it would have to live in a zoo?
  3.Why can’t you clone the DNA of animals that have been extinct longer than 10,000 years?
Keys:

  1. Why shouldn’t you clone an extinct animal if there isn’t enough diversity in the group? There will not be enough genetic variation in the group to be able to resist new illnesses.

  2. Why is it wrong to clone an extinct animal if it would have to live in a zoo? It is not a good idea to clone an animal that would have to live in a zoo because it is not a suitable habitat to develop and increase its numbers. The zoo is not a natural environment for a wild animal.

  3. Why can’t you clone the DNA of animals that have been extinct longer than 10,000 years? The DNA of animals more than 10,000 years old is not suitable for cloning, for it can’t survive so long.
主旨大意

  1. The writer of the text A. is excited by the possibility of cloning fierce and extinct animals B. believes that extinct animals can be brought back to life by cloning C. thinks it impossible or unsuitable to clone extinct animals like dinosaurs D. dreams of dinosaurs returning to the earth
细枝末节

  2. The film Jurassic Park is popular because . A. people are interested in the subject A of cloning B. all the actors are dinosaurs C. it was directed by a scientist who clones dinosaurs D. it proves very interesting

  3. Which of the following is true? A. Mice were cloned in 19
  81. B. Dolly the sheep was the first cloned animal. C. The name of the cloned cow is “Bison” D. China was successful in cloning mammals.

  4. The reasons why a group of cloned animals all die of the same illness do NOT include. A. they have the same arrangement of genes B. there isn’t enough diversity in the group for it to overcome illnesses C. the illness is a new one D. their arrangement of genes can not resist that new disease
推理判断

  5. We can infer from the text that A. scientists are experimenting to clone dinosaurs B. dinosaurs will never return to the earth C. cloned animals will only live in the zoo D. the DNA of dinosaurs can only survive 10 000 year
True or false.

  1. Scientists are still experimenting with cloning mammals because they think it can make money. F
  2. The animals that have disappeared from the earth, like dinosaurs, can be brought back to life through cloning.
  3. If we can clone any extinct animals, we should let them live in a zoo. F
F
长句难句

  1. The popularity of the film Jurassic Park, in which a scientist clones several different kinds of extinct dinosaurs, proves how interested ordinary people are in the subject.
电影《侏罗纪公园》 电影《侏罗纪公园》的欢迎证实 了普通人对这一话题是多么感兴趣, 了普通人对这一话题是多么感兴趣 在该电影中一位科学家克隆了几种不 同的恐龙。 同的恐龙。 in which引导定语从句 how引导 引导定语从句, 引导定语从句 引导 宾语从句。 宾语从句。

  2. From time to time people suggest that the animals that have disappeared from the earth, like dinosaurs, can possibly be brought back to life through cloning. 人们时常设想从地球上消失的动物, 人们时常设想从地球上消失的动物 例如恐龙,有可能通过克隆技术使它 例如恐龙 有可能通过克隆技术使它 们复活。 们复活。 from time to time有时 间或 偶尔 有时, 有时 间或, 偶尔, = occasionally, now and then。 。

  3. It is useless to clone an animal if there is not enough diversity in the group for it to overcome illnesses. 该群中如果没有足够的多样性使它 克服疾病,克隆动物就没有用。 克服疾病,克隆动物就没有用。 当动词不定式、 当动词不定式、动名词或从句作主语 通常把它们放在谓语之后, 而用it 时, 通常把它们放在谓语之后 而用 作句子的形式主语。 作句子的形式主语。

  4. Diversity in a group means having animals with their genes arranged in different ways. 群中的多样性指的是拥有基因排列 方式不同的动物。 方式不同的动物。 with their genes arranged in different ways作定语 in different ways 以不 作定语, 同的方式。 同的方式。

  5. ...but others will survive and pass on the ability to resist that disease to their children. ......其他的将存活下来并传递给其后 其他的将存活下来并传递给其后 代抵抗这种病的能力。 代抵抗这种病的能力。 resist 作及物动词主要有三个义项 作及物动词主要有三个义项: 抵抗, 对抗; 抵挡, 防止; 抵抗 对抗 抵挡 防止 (与cannot, could not连用 连用) 与 连用 无法抗拒, 无法抵挡。 无法抗拒 无法抵挡。

  6. Based on what we know now, you can not clone animals that have been extinct longer than 10000 years. 据我们现在所知, 据我们现在所知 绝种一万年以上的 动物不能克隆。 动物不能克隆。 base on/upon 以……为基础 依据 为基础, 为基础 其结构为: 其结构为 base sth. on/upon sth. is based on/upon
May the best animal win!
Which extinct animals are worth restoring by means of cloning? Choose one and use the information to help you argue why this animal should be restored to the earth.
Great Auk (18
  44)
Dodo bird (17
  55)
Auroch (16
  27)
Quagga (18
  83)
A sample dialogue (P
  16)
S1: I think the dodo bird should be returned to the earth. It hasn't been extinct very long. So its DNA will still be good enough for cloning. S2: Yes and sailors in the past always described the dodo as being a very friendly animal. So it would make a good pet. It wasn't too large either.
I can't see any other extinct animals becoming a pet, can you? S1: No, indeed. 1 know it's a bird like the Great Auk but neither of them could fly. So if you kept either, it wouldn't escape from a park, a family or its home in the wild. You could also farm a dodo, unlike all the others, and produce many of them as exotic pets.
S2: And what about its large nutritious eggs? Just one would feed a large family. So there's more than one reason for producing it in commercial numbers. S1: Did you know that its meat is very tasty too! Perhaps it could be farmed like ostriches and provide a good source of protein.
S2: The only problem is that it needs hot climate to survive. But that's easy to provide with all its other advantages. I don't think any of the other animals stands a chance against the dodo. S1: So we both agree that the best extinct animal to be cloned is the dodo bird. S2: Yes.

  3. A sample report(p.
  17)
The dodo is the most suitable animal to be cloned for several reasons. First, it became extinct fairly recently so its DNA is still in good condition. Second, it was always described as being a very friendly animal and it would make a good pet. Third, it cannot fly.
So it wouldn't escape from a park, a family or its home in the wild. You could farm a dodo and sell it as an exotic pet. Fourth, it produces large nutritious eggs which could feed a large family. Fifth, its meat is very tasty too!
Perhaps it could be farmed like ostriches and provide a good source of protein. Although it needs hot climate to survive, we feel that this can be easily provided. In return the dodo would provide a most useful source of pleasure and food.
Homework
Finish Ex. 2, Page16; Ex. 3-4, Page
  17.
 

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