EarthquakesUnit4 Earthquakes-grammar 素材
定语从句全掌握 Ⅰ. 概念: (
  1) 定语从句: 在主从复合句中用作定语的从句叫定语从句。 定语从句一般紧接在先行词后面。 (
  2) 先行词:被定语从句修饰的成份。先行词可以为一个词,有时候是短语,或整个主句。 (
  3) 引导定语从句的词叫关系词,分为关系代词和关系副词。 关系词的作用:
  1) 引导定语从句,连接主句和从句,相当于一个连词;
  2) 必在从句中作某个句子成份(可以做主语,宾语,表语,定语,状语) 常用的关系代词: that(在从句中作主语,宾语,表语;可指人或物), which(在从句中作主语, 宾语,表语或定语;只可指物), who(主格,在从句中作主语,在口语或非正式用法中作宾 语;只可指人) ,whom(宾格,在从句中作宾语;只可指人) ,whose(属格,在从句中作定 语, 可指人或物) as (在从句中作主语, , 宾语, 表语; 可指人或物, 通常指代事); but (文语, 置 于否定词之后=that/who…not…, "没有……不……", 在从句中作主语,宾语) 常用的关系副词 (在从句中只作状语) when(时间状语), why : (原因状语) where , (地点状语) , how(方式状语) (
  4) 句子成分: 主语谓语动词前; 宾语-介宾或及物动词的宾语; 表语-be 动词后或系动词后; 状语-时间状语、地点状语、原因状语,etc. 例如:
  1.The student who answered the question was John. (Who 做关系代词引导定语从句,修饰先行词 student, who 在从句中用作主语.)
  2.I know the reason why he was so angry. (Why 做关系副词, 修饰先行词 reason, why 在从句中作 原因状语.)
  3.The boy (whom) you are talking to is my brother. (Whom 做关系代词,修饰先行词 boy, whom 在 从句中作宾语.)
  4. I'd like a room whose window looks out over the sea. (Whose 做关系代词, 修饰先行词 room,
用心
爱心
专心
whose 在从句中用作定语,可代之以 of which)
定语从句三步: 第一找出先行词; 第二看先行词在定语从句中的语法功能(做主语、宾语或状语) ; 第三选择合适的关系词。
Ⅱ. 几个关系代词的基本用法: 一、that: 可指人或物;在定语从句中作主语,宾语,表语。(指人时,相当于 who 或 whom; 指物时,相当于 which)(一般不用于非限制性定语从句; 不可置于介词后作宾语) 如:
  1. A letter that/which is written in pencil is difficult to read. (主语)
  2. Do you know the gentleman that/who spoke just now?
  3. You can take anything ( that) you like. (宾语)
  4. What is the question (that/which) they are talking about?
  5. Here is the man ( who/whom/that ) you want to see.
  6. She's no longer the girl ( that) she used to be before.(表语)
  7. Our hometown is no longer the one (that) it used to be.= Our hometown is not the same as it used to be.= Our hometown is different from what it used to be.= Our hometown is not what it used to be.
二、which: 指物;在定语从句中作主语,宾语,表语,定语。如:
  1. The book which/that was on the desk was bought by my father.(主语)
  2. The book (which/that) I bought yesterday is very interesting.(宾语)
  3. The factory in which his father works is far from here.
  4. He was proud, which his brother never was. (表语)
  5. Tom spent four years in college, during which time he learned French.(定语)
  6. He may be late, in which case we ought to wait for him.
三、who, whom, whose: who: 主格, 在从句中作主语,在口语或非正式用法中作宾语; 只可指人 whom: 宾格,在从句中作宾语; 只可指人
用心 爱心 专心
whose: 属格,在从句中作定语,可指人也可指物。
  1.I like the students who/that work hard. (主语)
  2.All who heard the story were amazed. (代词如 he, they, any, those, all, one 等后多用 who.)
  3.Chaplin, for whom life had once been very hard, was a success as an actor. (宾语)
  4.He's a man from whom we should learn. = He's a man (whom/who/that) we should learn from. 比较:He is the student whom you think to be worthy of your praise. He is the student who you think is worth praising.
  5. A child whose parents are dead is called an orphan.(指人) I'd like a room whose window faces south. (指物) like a room of which the window faces south. =I'd =I'd like a room the window of which faces south. There is a teapot shaped like a Chinese duck, out of whose mouth tea is supposed to come
关系代词作介词宾语: 关系代词在定语从句中用作介词宾语时, 介词可放于从句之首, 也可放于从句之末. 但以放于 句首较为正式.(介词前置,必须注意不影响动词词组的含义。关系代词 who 和 that 用作介 词宾语时, 介词必须放在句末.) 如:
  1. This is the book for which you asked. =This is the book (that) you asked for.
  2.Do you know the person with whom I shook hands?= Do you know the person (who/that) I shook hands with?
  3. The beginning of agriculture was a big step in human progress with which nothing could compare until our information age.
  4.In the dark street, there wasn't a single person to whom she could turn for help. Is this the factory to which you paid a visit last week? Is this factory the one to which you paid a visit last week?
  5.This is the girl whom they are looking after. (介词 after 与 look 构成固定词组, 不可前置。 再如: look at, look for, look after, take care of 等)
四、as 的用法:(as 引导定语从句, 在定语从句中作主语、宾语、表语) (
  1) 如为限制性的,多用于 the same …as ; the same as;such …as …; as many/much as;so …as
用心 爱心 专心
等结构中。如:
  1. I have the same book as you (have). 我有一本和你的一样的书。 Her attitude to him was quite the same as it had always been. (关系代词 as 和指示代词 same 连用, 在从句中用作表语, 先行词是 same.)
  2.Why didn't you mention that in face of the police just now? I thought it was such a minor detail as was hardly worth mentioning. We will only discuss such problems as have something to do with our own interests. Don't do such things as you are not sure about. There is no such place as you dream of in all this world. 比较:I live in the same house that he used to live in. I'm wearing the same shirt as you wore yesterday. 比较:Here is so big a stone as no one can lift. (定语从句) Here is so big a stone that no one can lift it.(结果状语从句)
(
  2) 如为非限制性的,多单独引导一个定语从句,这种定语从句可置于句首,句中或句尾,译 为"正如,这一点"。 (动词常为 know, see, expect, point out, etc.)
  1. As we all know, smoking is harmful to one's health . (as 作宾语) =As is known to all, smoking is harmful to one's health . (as 作主语) =It's known to all that smoking is harmful to one's health . 或:Smoking is harmful to one's health , as we all know .(as 作宾语) 或: Smoking, as we all know, is harmful to one' health.
  2.He was a foreigner, as I knew from his accent. (宾语, 先行词是前面整个句子)
五、but 的用法: but 用作关系代词, 其意思相当于 who/that…not…, "没有……不……", 如:
  1.There is not one of us but wishes to help you.
  2.There is no tree but bears some fruit.
  3.There are very few but admire his talents.
Ⅲ. 关系副词引导的定语从句:
用心 爱心 专心
When 指时间, 在定语从句中作时间状语。 其先行词是表时间的名词 (如: time, day, week, tear, month, etc.)
  1. He came last night when I was out.
  2. We will put off the picnic until next week, when the weather would be better. 注意:先行词为"时间名词",可用 when 引导定语从句,when 在定语从句中作状语;还可以用 which 或 that 引导,which 或 that 在从句中作主语或宾语。 比较:
  1.I still remember the day when /on which my brother joined the army.(作状语) Next month, when you will be in your hometown, is just around the corner.
  2. I still remember the days which/that we spent together. (作宾语) Next winter which/that you'll spend in Harbin, I'm sure, will be exciting.
  3. I shall never forget the day when Shen Zhou Ⅴ was launched, which has a great effect on my life. There are occasions when joking is not permissible.
Where 指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。其先行词是表示地点的名词,如:place, school, factory, room, etc. 如:
  1. This is the place where I was born.
  2. I live in the room where /in which he used to live. 注意:先行词是"地点名词",定语从句可用 where 引导,还可用 which 或 that 引导,which/that 在从句中作主语或宾语。 比较:
  1. This is the factory where /in which he worked last year. (作状语) The treatment will continue until the patient reaches the point where he can walk correctly and safely. I think you have got to the point where a change is needed, or you would fail. Government reports, legal papers and most business letters are the main situations where English is used. He's got himself into a dangerous situation where he's likely to lose control of the plane. The small mountain village where we spent our holiday last month lies in what /the place which is now part of Hubei.
  2. This is the park which/that they visited last year. (作宾语) Not having been there before, he simply had no idea about the place, which everyone says is worth
用心 爱心 专心
visiting. Why 指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。先行词为 reason 时,可用 for which 指代;当关系 词在从句中作主语或宾语时,则用 which 或 that 引导。如:
  1. The reason why / for which / (that) he didn't attend the meeting was that he was ill.(作状语)

  2. I don't believe the reason (that/which) he gave me. (作宾语) Have you asked him the reason that may explain his success? (作主语) Ex.) He was late .That's because he got up late. .He got up late. That's why he was late.(表语从句) (the reason) why/for which he was late. (定语从句) 当先行词为 way 时,定语从句常用 that, in which,或 how 引导,that 常可以省略。 way 后的定语从句 的引导词不用时较多。但如果关系词在句中作主语或宾语 时,则用 which 或 that 引导。如:
  1. This is the way (that) /in which I do such things.
比较: Please do the experiment in the way (that/which)I have shown you. Ⅳ. 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别:
  1. 形式上,非限制性定语从句往往用逗号隔开。
  2. 语法上,非限制性定语从句一般不用 that.
  3. 语义上,限制性定语从句与先行词关系紧密,起限定作用,如果去掉了这个定语从句,整 个句子就不完整或者会改变意思;而非限制性定语从句与先行词关系不是很紧密,对先行词 起补充说明或描述的作用。
  1).This is the book I like best. 这就是我最喜欢的那本书。

  2).Beijing, which has been China's capital for more than 800 years , is rich in cultural and historic relics. 北京是中国八百年之久的古都,它有着丰富的文化和历史遗产。
  4. 翻译时,限制性定语从句可译为一句(较短的一般译为"的"字结构) ;而非限制性定语从句 可译为两句。 (见上句翻译) 比较: He has a sister, who is a musician. He has a sister who is a musician.
引导非限制性定语从句的关系代词, 指人时用 who, whom, whose , 指物时用 which , whose; 关 系副词 when,where, why, etc.
用心 爱心 专心

  1. He studied hard at school when he was young, which leads to his success in his later life.
  2. Tom's father, who arrived just now, is a famous scientist.
  3. They set up a separate state of their own, where they would be free to keep Negroes as slaves.
  4. He was proud, which his brother never was. Ⅴ. 几个易混淆的关系代词的比较: (A) that & which: 在定语从句中,which 和 that 在指代事物时,一般可以互换使用,但并非在任何情况下都是 这样,这里介绍宜用 that, 而不宜用 which 的情况. (
  1) 先行词为不定代词,如 all, much, something, everything, anything, nothing, none, the one 等。 如:
  1.We should do all that is useful to the people .
  2.There's nothing that can be said about it .
  3.Do you mean the one that was bought yesterday? (
  2) 先行词被 only, any, few, little, no, just, very, one of 等词修饰时。如: Eg.
  1.The only thing that we could do was to wait.
  2.That's the very word that is wrongly used.
  3.The last place (that) we visited was the chemical works.
  4. You can take any (=whichever) seat that is free.
  5. I hope the little that I can will be of some help to them.
  6.比较 *This is one of the best novels that were published last year. *This is the only one of the best novels that was published last year. (
  3) 先行词是序数词时或被序数词修饰时。如:
  1.When we talk about Wuxi, the first that comes into mind is Tai Lake.
  2.This is the third film that has been shown in our school this term. (
  4) 先行词是最高级或被最高级修饰时。如:
  1.This is the best that can be done now.
  2.The most important thing that shoul
 

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