高中英语常用词汇辨析

  1. clothes, cloth, clothing
Clothes统指各种衣服,谓语动词永远是复数:cloth指布,为不可数动词:clothing为服装的总称,指一件衣服用a piece of clothing, an article of clothing

  2. incident, accident
Incident指小事件:accident指不幸的事故

  3. amount, number
Amount后接不可数名词:number后接可数名次:如:a number of students

  4. family, house, home
Hone家,包括住处和家人:house房子,住宅:family家庭成员,如:My family is a happy one.

  5. sound, voice, noise
sound自然界各种各样的声音:voice人的嗓音:noise噪音,如:I hate the loud noise outside.

  6. photo, picture, drawing
Photo用照相机拍摄的照片:picture可指相片,图片,电影片:drawing指画的画

  7. vocabulary, word
Vocabulary词汇,一个人拥有的单词量:word具体的单词

  8. population, people
Population人口,人数:people具体的人

  9. weather, climate
Weather一天内具体的天气状况:climate长期的气候状况

  10. road, street, path, way
road具体的公路,马路:street街道:path小路,小径:way道路,途径

  11. course, subject
Course课程(可包括多门科目):subject科目(具体的学科),如: a summer course

  12. course, habit
custom传统风俗,习俗,也可指生活习惯,后接to do: habit生活习惯,习惯成自然,后接of doing

  13. cause, reason
cause制造成某一事实或现象的直接原因,后接of sth./doing sth.: reason用来解释某种现象或结果的理由,后接for sth./doing sth. 如:the reason for being late

  14. exercise, exercises, practice
Exercise运动,锻炼(不可数):exercises练习(可数):practice(反复做的)练习,如:Practice makes perfect.

  15. class, lesson
作“课”解时,两者可以替换。指课文用lesson,指班级或全体学生用class,如:lesson 6; class 5

  16. speech, talk, lecture
Speech指在公共场所所作的经过准备的较正式的演说:talk日常生活中的一般的谈话,讲话:lecture学术性的演讲,讲课,如:a series of lecture on…

  17. officer, official
Officer部队的军官:official政府官员,如:an army officer

  18. work, job
二者均指工作。Work不可数;job可数,如:a good job

  19. couple, pair
Couple主要指人或动物:pair多指由两部分组成的东西,如:a pair of trousers

  20. country, nation, state, land
Country侧重指版图,疆域:nation指人民,国民,民族:state侧重指政府,政体;land国土,国家

  21. cook, cooker
cook厨师:cooker厨具,如:He is a good cook.

  22. damage, damages
Damage不可数名词,损害,损失;damages复数形式,赔偿金

  23. police policeman
police警察的总称,后接复数谓语动词:policeman指某个具体的警察

  24. problem, question
Problem常和困难练系,前面的动词常为think about, solve, raise: question常和疑问连系,多和ask, answer连用

  25. man, a man
Man人类:a man一个男人

  26. chick, chicken
二者均可指小鸡,chicken还可以当鸡肉。

  27. telegram, telegraph
当电报解时,telegram指具体的,telegraph指抽象的,如:a telegram , by telegraph

  28. trip, journey, travel, voyage
Travel是最常用的;trip指短期的旅途;journey指稍长的旅途;voyage指海上航行;如:a three-day trip

  29. sport, game
Sport多指户外的游戏或娱乐活动,如打球,游泳,打猎,赛马等;game指决定胜负的游戏,通常由一套规则

  30. price, prize
Price价格;prize奖,奖品,奖金

  31. a number of, the number of
A number of许多,谓语动词用复数;the number of指“……的数目”,谓语动词用单数。

  32. in front of, in the front of
In front of范围外的前面;in the front of范围内的前面,如:In the front of the room sits a boy.

  33. of the day, of a day
Of the day每一天的,当时的,当代的;of a day暂时的,不长久的

  34. three of us, the three of us
Three of us我们(不止三个)中的三个;the three of us我们三个(就三个人)

  35. by bus, on the bus
By bus表手段,方式,不用冠词;on the bus表范围

  36. for a moment, for the moment
For a moment片刻,一会儿;for the moment暂时,一时

  37. next year, the next year
Next year将来时间状语;the next year过去将来时间状语

  38. more than a year, more than one year
More than a year一年多;more than one year超过一年(两年或三年等)

  39. take advice, take the (one’s) advice
Take advice征求意见;take the advice接受忠告

  40. take air, take the air
Take air传播,走漏;take the air到户外去,散步

  41. in a word, in words
In a word总之,一句话;in words口头上,如:In a word, you are right

  42. in place of, in the place of
In place of代替;in the place of在……地方

  43. in secret, in the secret
In secret秘密地,暗自地,偷偷地,一般作状语;in the secret知道内情,知道秘密,一般用作表语

  44. a girl, one girl
A girl可泛指所有女孩;one girl一个女孩

  45. take a chair, take the chair
Take a chair相当于sit down坐下;take the chair开始开会

  46. go to sea, by sea, by the sea
Go to sea当海员,出航;by sea乘船,由海路;by the sea在海边;如:go by sea

  47. the doctor and teacher, the doctor and the teacher
the doctor and teacher指一个人,既是医生又是老师; the doctor and the teacher两个人,一个医生和一个老师

  48. in office, in the office
In office在职的;in the office在办公室里,如:He is in office, not out of office

  49. in bed, on the bed
In bed卧在床上;on the bed在床上

  50. in charge of, in the charge of
In charge of管理,负责照料;in the charge of由……照料

  51. in class, in the class
In class在上课;in the class在班级里

  52. on fire, on the fire
On fire着火;on the fire在火上

  53. out of question, out of the question
Out of question毫无疑问的;out of the question不可能的

  54. a second, the second
A second又一,再一;the second第二

  55. by day, by the day
By day白天;by the day按天计算

  56. the people, a people
The people指人;a people指民族

  57. it, one
It同一物体;one同类不同一

  58. that, this
That指代上文所提到的;this导出下文所要说的

  59. none, nothing, no one
None强调有多少;nothing,no one强调有没有,nothing指物,no one指人;如:A : how many…/how much…? B : none

  60. anyone, any one
Anyone指人,不能接of ;any one指人物均可,可接of,如:any one of you

  61. who, which
Who指姓名或关系;what指职业或地位,如:What is your dad? He is a teacher.

  62. what, which
what的选择基础是无限的;which在一定范围进行选择

  63. other, another
Other后接名词复数;another后接名词单数;如:other student, another student

  64. not a little, not a bit
Not a little非常not a bit一点也不

  65. many, much, a lot of
Many和可数名词连用;much和不可数名词连用;a lot of可数、不可数均可,但不用于否定句

  66. much more…than, many more…than
Much more…than后接形容词或不可数名词;many more…than后接可数名词;如:many more people, much more water, much more beautiful

  67. no, not
No=not a/any; 如:no friend=not a/any friend; no water =not any water

  68. no more than, not more than
No more than相当于only,仅仅,只有;not more than至多,不超过

  69. majority, most
Majority只能修饰可数名词;most可数不可数均可;如:the majority of people

  70. by oneself, for oneself, to oneself, of oneself
By oneself单独的,独自的;for oneself为自己;to oneself供自己用的

  71. at all, after all
At all根本,全然;after all 到底,毕竟

  72. tall, high
Tall常指人或动物;high常指物体

  73. fast, quickly
Fast侧重于指人或物体具有运动速度快的特点;quickly侧重于指某事完成或发生得快;如:run fast, answer the question quickly

  74. high, highly
High具体的高;highly抽象的高,高度的;如:think highly of

  75. healthy, healthful
healthy健康的,健壮的;healthful有益于健康的,如:healthful exercise

  76. sleeping, asleep, sleepy
Sleeping正在睡觉;asleep睡着,熟睡,只能做表语;sleepy困的,有睡意的;如:a sleeping baby, the baby is asleep, I’m sleepy

  77. gold, golden
Gold指真金制品,如:a gold ring : golden只金色的,但金鱼用gold fish

  78. most, mostly
Most用于表感受的肯定句中,相当于very,当“大部分,大多数”解时是形容词或名词;mostly大部分,是副词;如:most people, the people are mostly…

  79. just, very
just表强调时是副词,作状语;very表强调时是形容词,用作定语;如:the very man, just the man

  80. wide, broad
Wide侧重于一边到另一边的距离;broad侧重于幅面的宽广;如:broad shoulders

  81. real, true
real真的,真实的,指的是事实上存在而不是想象的;true真的,真正的,指的是事实和实际情况相符合;如:real gold, a true story

  82. respectful, respectable
respectful尊敬,有礼貌;respectable可敬的,值得尊敬的;如:be respectful to the aged

  83. outwards, outward
二者均可用作副词,表示向外,外面,outward还可用作形容词,如:an outward voyage

  84. pleasant, pleased, pleasing
pleasant常用作定语;pleased, pleasing常用作表语,pleased主语常为人,pleasing主语常为物;如:an pleasant trip, The trip is pleasing

  85. understanding, understandable
understanding明白事理的,能体谅的:understandable可理解的,能够懂的;如:an understanding girl, an understandable mistake

  86. close, closely
close接近,靠近;closely紧紧地,紧密的;如:closely connected, stand close

  87. ill, sick
Ill作表语;sick定语、表语均可,如:a sick boy

  88. good, well
Good形容词;well副词,但指身体状况是形容词,如:He is well again

  89. quiet, silent, still
quiet安静的,可以发出小的声音;silent不发出声,但可以动;still完全不动,完全无声响

  90. hard, hardly
Hard努力;hardly几乎不

  91. able, capable
Able与不定式to do连用;capable与of连用

  92. almost, nearly
而致君为“几乎,差不多”,和否定词连用时用almost,如:almost nobody

  93. late, lately
late迟,晚;lately最近,近来,如:I haven’t seen him lately

  94. living, alive, live, lively
living, alive, live均为活着的;living定表均可;alive定表均可,定语后置;live只能做定语;lively意为活泼的;如:all the living people=all the people alive

  95. excited, exciting
Excited使人兴奋的;exciting令人兴奋的;如:I’m excited. The news is exciting.

  96. deep, deeply
Deep具体的深;deeply抽象的深,深深地;如:deeply moved, dig deep

  97. aloud, loud
Aloud出声地;loud大声地;如:read loud

  98. worth, worthy
二者均为值得,worth后接doing; worthy后接to be done, of be done;如:It is worth visiting=It’s worthy to be visited=It’s worthy of being visited

  99. bad, badly
Bad形容词,如:go bad; badly副词,不好,但与need, want, require连用为“很,非常”,如: I need the book badly.
1
  00. before long, long before
Before long 不久以后;long before很久以前;如:not long before=before long
 

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