Revision 1
Who defeats “King Cholera“? What happened in 1854? How many people died in 10 days in London in 1854? Why was there no death at No. 20 and 21 Broad Street as well as at No. 8 and 9 Cambridge Street?

  1. Who defeats “King Cholera“? John Snow.
  2. What happened in 1854? Cholera outbreak hit London.
  3. How many people died in 10 days in London in 1854? 5
  00.

  4. Why was there no death at No. 20 and 21 Broad Street as well as at No. 8 and 9 Cambridge Street at that time? These families had not drunk the water from the Broad Street pump.
Revision 2
Number these events in the order they happened.
John Snow began to test two theories. 2 An outbreak of cholera hit London n 18
  54. 1 John Snow marked the deaths on a map. 4 He announced that the water carried the disease. 7 John Snow investigated two streets where the 3 outbreak was very severe. King Cholera was defeated. 8 He found that most of the deaths were near a 5 water pump. He had the handle removed from the water pump. 6
Read the text paragraph by paragraph to get details.

  1. What was the most deadly disease in 19th century? Why? The cholera, because neither its cause, nor its cure was understood.
  2. When could the cholera be controlled? John Snow knew it would never be controlled until its cause was found.
Details
What is the problem? The cholera was the most deadly disease of its day. Neither its cause, nor its cure was understood.
What caused cholera?
Make a question: Which theory to believe in? Cholera multiplied in the air, floated around until it found its victims. People absorbed it with their meals.
Idea 1
Idea 2
What method did he use?
Many A map of Broad deaths happened here. No death happened here.
Street
Public house
The water from the pump was to blame.
Analyze the results: What happened to the pump water? The water was from the river which had been polluted by the dirty water from London.
Find supporting evidence: What extra evidence did he find? A woman and her daughter who lived far away but drank the water also died. Draw a conclusion with certainty The polluted water carried the disease.
Expressions & phrases (
  1)

  1. know about… 了解 了解……的情况 的情况
  2. lift up
  3. steam engine 举起;抬起 提升 举起 抬起;提升 抬起 蒸汽机

  4. physical characteristic 人体特征
  5. put forward a theory about black holes 提出一个有关黑洞的理论
  6. infectious disease 传染病
  7. in scientific research 在科学研究上
  8. examine a new scientific idea
验证一个新的科学思想

  9. draw a conclusion
得出结论

  10. analyse the results 分析结果
  11. a well-known doctor 一位著名的医生
  12. ordinary people
  13. expose (…) to sth.
  15. terrified people
  17. absorb sth. into…
  19. determine to do sth. 百姓;普通人 百姓 普通人 暴露(…..)在……中 在 暴露 中 被吓坏的人们 吸入…. 把….吸入 吸入 决心干某事

  14. the most deadly disease 最致命的疾病
  16. get interested in sth./doing sth. 对做 产生兴趣 对做…产生兴趣
  18. gather the information 收集信息

  20. a valuable clue
  21. the water pump
  23. link … to …
一条珍贵的线索 水泵 (be linked to…)

  22. in addition (to…) 除..…之外还 之外还… 之外还 将….和….联系起来 和 联系起来
  24. have sth. delivered (have sth. done) 分发 / 送…
  25. die of… 死于… 死于
  26. announce with certainty 肯定地宣布
  27. polluted water 被污染的水
  28. prevent sb. from doing sth. 阻止某人干某事
  29. deal with… 处理…… 处理
  30. solve the problem 解决难问题
Language Points
  1. discover & invent discover “发现”,被探索或被揭示物老 发现” 发现 早就客观存在着。 早就客观存在着。 Columbus discovered America in 14
  92. Who discovered radium? invent “发明”, 指的是发明原先不存在 发明” 发明 的东西。 的东西。 Who invented the steam engine?

  2. Who invented the way of giving electricity to everybody in large cities? the way of doing sth.= the way to do … “做…..的 做 的 方法” 方法” She showed us the way of cleaning it. = She showed us the way to clean it. the way引导的定语从句的引导词有三种 可以用 引导的定语从句的引导词有三种, 引导的定语从句的引导词有三种 that,可以用 which,也可以省略。 ,可以用in ,也可以省略。 I don’t like the way (that/ in which) you speak to your father.
相关的短语: 与way相关的短语 相关的短语 by the way 顺便说 by way of … 通过 通过……的方法 的方法 lose one’s way 迷路 no way (俚语 没门 别想 俚语) 没门,别想 俚语
feel one’s way 摸黑走;谨慎从事 摸黑走; on one’s way to…在去 的路上 在去…的路上 在去 in this way=by this means =with this method用这种方法 用这种方法

  3. Who put forward a theory about black holes? put forward (
  1) to offer (an idea, suggestion etc.) for consideration 提出 建议等 提出(建议等 建议等) (
  2)推荐某人或自己任职位 提名 推荐某人或自己任职位;提名 推荐某人或自己任职位 May I put your name forward as our monitor? 我能否提名你当我们的班长? 我能否提名你当我们的班长
put的短语还有: 的短语还有: 的短语还有 put away 抛弃 舍弃 抛弃;舍弃 put down 写下来 记入名单 写下来;记入名单 记入名单; put on 穿上 戴上;增加 穿上;戴上 增加 戴上 put off 耽误 延期 耽误;延期 put out 熄灭 灯);扑灭 (火) 熄灭(灯 扑灭 火 put up 建立 建造 建立;建造 put up with… 忍受 忍受……

  4. This was the most deadly disease of its day. die (v.) dead (adj.) death (n.) deadly adj.
  1.dangerous; likely to cause death 危险的 致命的 危险的;致命的 This is a deadly disease.
  2. highly effective against sth. or sb. 强有力的 致 强有力的;致 命的 a deadly remark 击中要害的评论
  3. aiming to kill or destroy不共戴天的 不共戴天的: 不共戴天的 He is my deadly enemy .
adv.
  1. very 极度 非常 十分 极度;非常 非常;十分 The conference was deadly dull.
  2. like death 死一般地 The conference was deadly dull.

  5. But he became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera. exposed在句中是过去分词作后置定语, 在句中是过去分词作后置定语, 在句中是过去分词作后置定语 意为“患霍乱的” 意为“患霍乱的”。如: The book written by Yu Dan is very popular.
The disc, in the studio, sounded fantastic at the party that night. A. recorded B. recording C. to be recorded D. having recorded
expose v. to make visible 暴露 He exposes his skin to the sun. 他把皮肤暴露在阳光下. 他把皮肤暴露在阳光下 to reveal the guilt or wrong doing of …揭露 揭露; 揭露 揭发 He exposed their plot. 他揭穿了他们的阴谋. 他揭穿了他们的阴谋 I threatened to expose him ( to the police) 我威胁要(向警察 揭发他. 向警察)揭发他 我威胁要 向警察 揭发他

  6. So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak. every time是连词,引导时间状语从句,意为 是连词,引导时间状语从句, 是连词 每次,每当 每当” “每次 每当”。如: Every time I meet him, I always think of the things happened between us. immediately, the moment, directly, instantly 等 都可以作连词,引导时间状语从句 引导时间状语从句, 都可以作连词 引导时间状语从句,意为 “一……就……”。如: 就 。
I will give the letter to him immediately I see him. I came directly I got your call. I found myself in an entirely new world the moment I arrived in Beijing. Please tell me instantly he arrives.

  7. absorb v. 吸收 液体 ;承受;承担 ( 吸收(液体 承受; 液体); 费用等);理解(知识等 知识等) 费用等 ;理解 知识等
Use the cloth to absorb the spilled ink. 吸干撒的墨水 We will not absorb these charges. 我们不能承担这些费用. 我们不能承担这些费用 So many good ideas! It's too much for me to absorb all at once. 这么多好主意!太多了 很难一下完全吸收。 太多了,很难一下完全吸收 这么多好主意 太多了 很难一下完全吸收。
absorb…in / by.. 吸引注意 I was absorbed in a book and didn’t hear you call me . 我在全神贯注地读本书,没听到你叫我。 我在全神贯注地读本书,没听到你叫我。 absorb sb.‘s attention 吸引某人注意 A poster on the wall absorbed my attention. 墙上的一幅海报引起我的注意。 墙上的一幅海报引起我的注意。

  8. valuable adj. worth a lot of money值钱的 贵重的 值钱的;贵重的 值钱的 贵重的; 有价值的 a valuable diamond 贵重的宝石 valuable information 有价值的消息 n. (pl.) sth. that worth lots of money贵重物 贵重物 品 Mary kept her valuables in a safe. 玛丽把她的贵重的东西藏在保险箱里。 玛丽把她的贵重的东西藏在保险箱里。

  9. in addition:adv. 另外 此外 另外, : In addition, the course also produces practical experience. in addition to 是个介词短语,后跟名词或 是个介词短语, 动名词。 动名词。 A number of people came to the zoo in addition to Peter and Paul. In addition to lending me his camera, he taught me how to use it.
besides, in addition to, except, except for, apart from
  1) besides 表示“除 … 以外还,也”, 表示“ 以外还, 相当于 in addition to。 例如 。 例如: Besides English, they also study math, physics and chemistry. What has he done, besides reading the paper?

  2) except 表示“除…外(其余都)…” 表示“ 外 其余都) 其后可跟名( 介词短语、 ,其后可跟名(代)词、介词短语、 例如: 动词不定式短语或 从句 。例如 He answered all the questions except the last one. I went nowhere except to the library. Every day Mary does nothing except watch TV. My father usually goes to work by bike except when it rains.
except for 也表示“除 … 以外”, 也表示“ 以外” 但是和 except 所跟的词常常是同类 是指整体除去一部份; 的,是指整体除去一部份 而与 except for 连用的词往往不是同类的 一个细节。例如: ,是指整体中除去 一个细节。例如 Your composition is good except for a few spelling mistakes. Except for an old lady, the bus was empty.

  3) apart from 表示“除 …之外”。根 表示“ 之外” 之外 据上、下文, 据上、下文,既可用作 besides, 也可 用作 except 和 except for。例如: 。例如 Apart from them, I had no one to talk to. (= except) Apart from other considerations, time is also a factor. (=besides) ) It is good work apart from a few faults. (= except for)
Discovering useful words and expressions

  1. Find the word and expression from the text for each of the following meanings. Suggested answers:
  1. victim
  2. physician
  3. analyse
  4. defeat
  5. challenge
  6. enquiry
  7. pump
  8. blame
  9. absorb
  10. link … to …

  2. Choose the words in their correct forms to complete this passage. Suggested answers:
  1. severe
  2. suspected
  3. exposed
  4. experts
  5. cure
  6. foresaw
  7. concluded
  8. announced
  9. attended

  1. Surf the Internet to find out more about cholera.
  2. Write down the important words and phrases in your exercise books and finish exercises 1-4 on page
  4.
  3. Underline the difficult sentences that you cannot understand.
 

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