Check your homework

  1. Find the word and expressions from the text for each of the following meanings. (P.
  4)
  1. victim
  2. physician
  3. analyse

  4. defeat
  6. enquiry
  9. absorb
  5. challenge
  7. pump
  10. link… to
  8. blame

  2. Choose the words in their correct forms to complete this passage. severe cure suspected foresaw exposed concluded experts
announced
attended
Unit 1
Discovering Useful Structures
Where the past participle is used?

  1. So many thousands of terrified people died. attribute
  2. He found that it came from the river polluted by the dirty water from London. attribute
  3. But he became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people. predicative
Translate the following phrases, and try to find out what the items relate to. ? ? ? ? ? ? 一片碎玻璃 a broken piece of glass 开水 boiled water a used stamp 一枚用过的邮票 一箱埋起来的硬币 a buried box of coins worn-out shoes 穿破的鞋子 一台损坏了的计算机 a damaged computer
结论:以上的短语都带有过去分词,这些过 去分词都是充当定语,而且我们都可以用过 去分词作表语的形式来改写以上短语。
Complete the table with phrases that have the same meaning. terrified people people terrified of (cholera) reserved seats polluted water a crowded room a pleased winner seats reserved for … water polluted by … a room crowded of a winner pleased at …
astonished children a broken vase a closed door the tired audience a trapped animal
children astonished at/by … a vase broken by… a door closed by… the audience tired by… an animal trapped in/by…
Discovery
Try to find some rules about the Past Participle as the Attribute and Predicative.
Grammar
一、过去分词作定语
  1、单个的过去分词作定语时一般兼有被动和完成的 、 意义,常作前置定语。 意义,常作前置定语。 e.g.:a lost animal : 一只迷路的动物 a used stamp 一枚用过的邮票 an injured finger 一个受伤的手指 a broken coin 一枚破损的硬币 a lighted candle 一支点燃的蜡烛 注意:过去分词作定语时,有时只有被动意义。 注意:过去分词作定语时,有时只有被动意义。 e.g.:spoken English 英语口语 : written exercises 书面练习
少数表示位移或状态改变的不及物动词的 过去分词只有完成的意义 fallen leaves 落叶 the risen sun 升起来的太阳 the advanced countries 发达国家 a drunken man 一个醉鬼 a returned student 一名留学生 a retired teacher 一名退休教师 an escaped prisoner 一名逃跑的囚犯 by-gone days 过去的岁月

  2、过去分词作后置定语,表示被动和/或完 、过去分词作后置定语,表示被动和/ 成意义。 成意义。
e.g. How I regretted the hours wasted in the woods! 我多懊悔在树林浪费的时光啊 I like wearing clothes made of this kind of cloth. . 我喜欢穿这种布料做的衣服。 我喜欢穿这种布料做的衣服。 e.g. The books written by Lu Xun are popular. . 鲁迅写的书很受欢迎 We’ll go to visit the bridge built hundreds of years ago. . 我们要去看那座建于几百年前的桥。 我们要去看那座建于几百年前的桥。
Change the following Past Participle into clauses.
  1) He told us of the great wrong done to him. = He told us of the great wrong which had been done to him.
本句中的过去分词作定语,既表被动又表完成。 注: 本句中的过去分词作定语,既表被动又表完成。

  2)The United States is a developed country. ) = The United Stated is a country which has developed . 本句中的过去分词作定语,只表示完成。 注: 本句中的过去分词作定语,只表示完成。

  3)Have you noticed the bridge being built there? ) = Have you noticed the bridge which is being built there?
本句中的过去分词作定语, 注 : 本句中的过去分词作定语 , 表示被动的动作正在 进行。 进行。
二、过去分词作表语
  1、过去分词作表语,表示主语的特点或所处的状态,其 、过去分词作表语,表示主语的特点或所处的状态, 前的系动词有包括be在内的多种形式 在内的多种形式。 前的系动词有包括 在内的多种形式。
e.g. Everyone present is very inspired at his speech. . 听了他的发言,在场的所有人都很振奋。 听了他的发言,在场的所有人都很振奋。 You seem frightened. 你似乎受了惊吓。 你似乎受了惊吓。

  2、过去分词作表语,构成的系表结构与被动 、过去分词作表语, 语态的区别: 语态的区别: 过去分词作表语, 过去分词作表语,强调主语的特点或所处的 状态;而被动语态中, 状态;而被动语态中,主语是动词所表示动 作的承受者。 作的承受者。 e.g. This shop is now closed. . 这家商店现在已经关门了。 状态 状态) 这家商店现在已经关门了。(状态 This shop is closed at 6 pm everyday. . 这家商店每天6点关门。 动作 这家商店每天 点关门。(动作) 点关门 动作)
Complete the sentences using the past participle as the predicative.

  1. 丢了钱他自责不已。 丢了钱他自责不已。 got blamed He about losing the money.
  2、你为什么总是看上很疲劳?这些日子睡得好吗? 、你为什么总是看上很疲劳?这些日子睡得好吗? look so tired Why do you always ? Do you sleep well these days?
  3.我对昨晚看的电影很失望。我原以为它能好些。 我对昨晚看的电影很失望。我原以为它能好些。 我对昨晚看的电影很失望 I the film I saw last night, I was disappointed with had expected it to be better.

  4.听说那位明星死了,人人都很惊讶。 听说那位明星死了,人人都很惊讶。 听说那位明星死了 Everybody was shocked to hear the death of the famous film star. .
  5.要去动物园了,孩子们非常兴奋。 要去动物园了, 要去动物园了 孩子们非常兴奋。 The children are really excited about going to the zoo. .
  6.他的伤口感染了一种新病毒 他的伤口感染了一种新病毒. 他的伤口感染了一种新病毒 His wound became infected with a new virus. .
高考链接

  1. Linda worked for the Minnesota Manufacturing and Mining Company, B as 3M. A. knowing B. known C. being known D. to be known 解析:答案B。此处考查过去分词作后置 定语,3M与know之间是被动关系,故用 过去分词表示被动。

  2. The disc, digitally in the studio, A sounded fantastic at the party that night. A. recorded B. recording C. to be recorded D. having recorded 解析:答案A。 解析:答案 。此处考查过去分词作后置 定语, 之间是被动关系, 定语,disc与record之间是被动关系,故 与 之间是被动关系 用过去分词表示。 用过去分词表示。

  3. Don’t use words, expressions, or phrases D only to people with specific knowledge. A. being known B. having been known C. to be known D. known 解析:答案D know与words,expressions, 解析:答案D。know与words,expressions, phrases构成动宾关系 构成动宾关系, phrases构成动宾关系,故用过去分词表示被 动。
B
  4. The flowers sweet in the botanic garden attract the visitors to the beauty of nature. A. to smell B. smelling C. smelt D. to be smelt 解析:答案 。此处为现在分词作定语, 解析:答案B。此处为现在分词作定语,修 为系动词, 饰flowers。smell为系动词,不能用于被动 。 为系动词 语态,相当于which/that smells sweet。 语态,相当于 。
Complete the sentences using the past participle as the predicative. worried
  1. He got about losing the money. tired
  2. Why do you always look so after working for a whole day?
  3. I was with the film I saw last night. I disappointed had expected it to be better. shocked/ depressed
  4. Everybody was to hear of the death of the famous film star. excited
  5. Everybody is really about the new Olympic stadiums. infected
  6. His wound became with a new virus.
Review the grammar focus and finish exercises on P42
  43.
 

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