高中语法之??定语从句 高中语法之??定语从句 ??
一、定语从句的基本概念

  1、 何谓定语从句
  2、 限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别?
  3、 先行词是指什么?
  4、 关系词的分为哪两类?它们的作用是什么?
关系词的具体应用: 二.关系词的具体应用 关系词的具体应用 (一)如何选用合适关系代词
在选择合适关系词上,首先可根据先行词的意义选择合适的关系词,先行词指人,一般用关系 代词 who,whom whose that ;先行词指物,关系代词一般用 which 或 that 。从语法角度分 析,在定语从句中,指人的作主语的关系词一般用 who,that,作宾语的用 whom,who,that ,作定 语的一般用 whose;关系代词 which、that 可在定语从句中充当主语、宾语或表语。
  1、Who:指人,在从句中充当主语、宾语和表语 (
  1) The boy (who/whom /that) are playing football are from Class One . (
  2) Where is the man (who/whom /that) I saw yesterday..
  2、Whom:指人,一般在从句中充当宾语,常可省略, (
  1) The person (whom /who/that) you introduced to me is very kind.
  3、Whose:既可修饰人,也修饰指物。在定语从句中作定语。 (
  1)I have a friend whose father is a doctor. (
  2)The house whose windows face south is mine. == The house the windows of which face south is mine. == The house of which the windows face south is mine. 注意: whose +名词= the + n.+ of which/whom = of which/whom +the +n
  4. that 既可指人,也可指物,在定语从句中作主语、宾语, (作宾语时可省略)表语。在一定范 围内,that=who/whom/which (
  1) I received a letter that came from Australia,yesterday. (
  2) The woman (who/whom /that ) spoke to me in the bookstore used to live next door. Which 指事物,在定语从句中作主语、宾语(作宾语时可省略) 、或表语。 China is a country (where/which/that) has a long history.
  5. as 作关系代词即可指人,也可指物。在定语从句中可以作主语、宾语、表语。它常常用在 the same…..as, such…..as, as…..as 等句型中。 Such teachers as know Tom think him bright. I will buy the same dress as you have. 归纳:① 关系代词代替先行词在定语从句中充当主语、宾语、定语,因此定语从句中不能再出 归纳 现关系代词所代替的名词或代词。 The film which I saw it yesterday is interesting. ②关系代词作主语时不能省略。③关系代词作宾语时可以省略。 (二)为下列句子选择合适的关系代词。 (that 与 which 与 who 的区别应用) (
  1)This is the best film (which/that ) has been shown in the city. (
  2) We will never forget the first lesson (which/that) our English teacher gave us. (which/that )is worth doing should be done well. (
  3) All (
  4) Are there any questions (which/ that ) trouble you much ?
(
  5) Mr Smith is the only foreigner (which/ that) he knows. (
  6) They talked about the schools and teachers (which/ that) they had visited. (which/ that) is reading the newspaper over there? (
  7) Who is the man (
  8) Tom is not the boy (which/that ) he used to be . (
  9) Football, (which/that )is a very interesting game ,is played all over the world. (
  10) That (which/ that ) you told me about is what we want to know. (
  11) This is the house in which he once lived. (who/ that ) have studied this question have come to the same conclusion. (
  12) All (
  13) Those (who/ that ) want to go to the cinema will have to pay for ten yuan. (
  14) The student you should learn from is the one (who/that ) works hard and studies well. (
  15) There is a young lady (who/that ) asks for you . 总结: 的情况: 总结:只用 that 不用 which 的情况: ① 先行词前有序述词或被形容词最高级修饰时 ② 先行词是不定代词时如:all, none ,some, little ,few , much, everything ,anything , nothing ③ 先行词被 all ,every, no, one of , the only , the very, the right, just, last 等修饰时。 ④ 先行词既指人又指物时。 ⑤ 关系代词在定语从句中做 to be 的表语。 的情况: 只能用 which 不能用 that 的情况: ① 引导非限制性定语从句时,只能用 which ② 当先行词是 that 时,只能用 which ③ 当关系代词前有介词时,只能用 which ④句子中包含两个从句,先行词指物时,为避免重复第一个从句已经使用 that,那么第二个从句 要用关系代词 which 只能用 who 不能用 that 的情况 ① all , one, no, none, anyone, nobody 等不定代词做先行词,且指人时,只能用 who。 ② 先行词是 those,且指人时,只能用 who。 ③ 在 there be 结构中,且先行词指人时,必须用 who. ④ 句子中包含两个从句,先行词指人时,为避免重复第一个从句已经使用 that,那么第二个从句 要用关系代词 who
(二) 关系副词的具体应用: 二 关系副词的具体应用:
关系副词 when where why 在引导定语从句时,不但连接了两个句子,同时还代替了先行词,在从 句中充当了状语。 1 when 指时间, 在定语从句中作时间状语。 still remember the day when I first to came to the school. I 2 where 指地点,在定语从句中地点作状语。Shijiazhuang is the city where I was born. 易混从句: (
  1)Is this the museum you visited a few days ago? A where B that C on which D the one (
  2) Is this the museum the exhibition was held. A where B that C in which D the one (
  3) Do you remember the days we spent together on the farm ? A when B that D where D what 3 why 表原因,在定语从句中做原因状语,其先行词一般是 reason。 Ex:That is the reason why I did it. The reason why he was punished is unknown to us .
4 when where why 引导定语从句,可用“介词+关系代词”来代替。
Ex: Great changes are taking place in the city where /in which we live. This is the book from which I learnt a lot. I remember the month in which I stayed there.
需注意的是: ① 介词之后的关系代词通常只有两个:which 和 whom, 先行词指物时用“介词+which” ,指人 时用“介词+whom”,且此时两个关系代词均不能省略。 ② 介词的选择根据:一是根据从句中谓语动词或从句形容词的搭配习惯;二是根据先行词的搭 配习惯。 ③ 介词可以后移,此时的关系代词可以省略。 This is the book (which/that) I learnt from a lot. The house I grew up has been taken down and replaced by an office building.(09 江西) A in it B in C in that D in which ④ This is the book (which /that ) I am looking for . ⑤ “介词短语+which”引导的定语从句,若介词短语表示位置,则定语从句往往用倒装语序。 He lived in a big house, in front of which stood a big tree. ⑥“介词+whose”作定语修饰其后面的名词。 The boss, in whose company I work, is very warm-heart and helpful.
三、非限制性定语从句
限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别 分类 区别 功能不同 限制和修饰修饰先行词,与先行词联系紧 密 从句和主句之间不用逗号隔开 通常放在修饰词之前,翻译成先行词的定 语 In the class there are ten students who speak English very well. 对先行词进行补充说明, 联系不紧密 限制性定语从句 非限制性定语从句
形式不同 翻译不同
从句和主句之间要用逗号隔开 独立翻译
含义不同
In the class there are ten students ,which speak English very well. 名词或名词性词组; 主句的全部内容 或部分抽象内容 常 见 as( 可 放 句 首 ) whom where when 不能用 that why which who
先行词不同 关系代词不同
名词或名词性词组 Who whom which that whose Where when why
 

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